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The assistance of this women may have changed from the early to late nineteenth century, as feminists such as Elizabeth Caddy Stanton began to advocate for social reform, and others such as Jane Adams became concerned with the social well being of women. From the beginning to late uses some social reform took place and the federal government began to implement various programs and institutions to assist in the financial well being of the poor.

Early sass’s During the early 1 ass’s, there weren’t any significant federal programs aimed at assisting the poor.Financial aid was allocated as the responsibility of the local community, local government, or religious charity. People were expected to work and take care of their families unless they were elderly, sick or widowed; these were labeled the ‘X;forth’ poor in need of assistance. Women were the “property” if their husbands and typically performed work inside of the home to contribute to the financial well being of the family. They were responsible for the production of cloth, clothing and shoes. Additionally, there weren’t any limitations on the working hours, wages or notations for women and children.During this time, a mother of three abandoned by her husband would have received little or no assistance.

She would not fall under the classification of the “worthy” poor, as she was not a widow, elderly or sick. It is possible that her or her children would work in mills under dangerous conditions and long hours, if her children were over the age of three; child labor was prevalent during this time period. If a white woman was unable to financially support her children, they may become apprentices to families who can support them. This served as an educational opportunity for children to learn a trade.Collectively, an able bodied poor person, such as an abandoned woman was deemed “lazy and sinful” and may have been sent to a workhouse through enforced labor. As the nineteenth century progressed, industrialization spurred the continued migration to urban cities in search of training and work; this led to overcrowding and poverty. Poverty was primarily blamed on the individual.

If a woman with three children needed assistance, any community organizations of the time would assume that the problem was intra-psychic ND there was a moral deficiency.TO address this concern, middle class reformers felt that the betterment of cities could be achieved through moral reconstitution of individuals and families. Several “moral building” organizations were created; the New York Association for Improving the conditions of the Poor was established in 1843. Male volunteers would offer religious teachings, work to get the poor to abstain from alcohol, become more self-disciplined and acquire the Protestant Work Ethic. As a result, a woman abandoned by her husband would receive moral teachings in her mom rather than any financial assistance.Mid 1 Boob’s Towards the 1 ass’s, advocates of social reform began to voice their concerns regarding poverty. Throated Dig spoke of the need for separate facilities for adult offenders, juveniles and the mentally ill.

She also suggested that the Federal government be responsible for the mentally ill and provide them with treatment through hospitalizing. In 1845, the first state asylum for the mentally ill was established in Trenton New Jersey. In 1848 she proposed that the federal government give financial assistance to states to lid hospitals for the mentally ill and the legislation was passed.However, in 1854 the legislation was vetoed and welfare responsibility was returned to the states. Also in 1848, feminists such as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Caddy Stanton convened at the Seneca Falls Convention to declare a goal of equal rights and opportunity in education, employment and legal rights. This would challenge the limited opportunities that existed for an abandoned mother of three.

She would have been limited in her education, employment opportunities and political standing. Towards the middle of the century, education increased and the views regarding children’s needs began to change.In an effort to provide education and shelter to needy children, Charles Lording Brace founded the Children’s Aid Society in 1853 New York. He felt that the urban environment was dangerous to children due to crime and delinquency. This organization could have given devastating consequences to an abandoned woman with three children because it was the elementary form of modern foster care. The Children’s Aid Society would remove children from families who could not provide “proper care” for their children.They would then transport these children to families in rural areas in an effort to provide opportunities in a new, “safer’ environment.

A woman deserted by her husband could have very easily been considered and unfit parent, as she requested financial assistance from her counterparts. During this time period, she would be in danger of having her children taken from her care and given to an unfamiliar family where she would no longer be able to contact them. The Children’s Aid Society transported over 50,000 children in a period of 25 years; these children typically became runaways.In 1864, Frederic Lee Play completed the first scientific study of poverty; he investigated its causes, consequences and possible solutions. This study may have provided evidence that poverty is not the sole blame Of the individual. After the time of the Civil War, 1861-65, the political climate called for a need of health services for the wounded soldiers, as well as the families of the deceased. Many slaves were freed but lacked any education, health care or employment opportunities.

Due to this deficiency, the federal government began to take responsibility for the people.In 1865, the Freedman’s Bureau as established; it was the first federal welfare agency and provided health care, education, housing for the freed slaves. Nil 872, the Bureau ended because the Federal government did not want to facilitate welfare. Late 1 ass’s Towards the late nineteenth century, ideas of Social Darwinism began to influence society. It was believed those able to work would thrive and live successfully whereas those who weren’t would fail and perish; it was survival of the fittest and intervention for the poor was felt to go against nature.For this reason, financial assistance was not provided to the needy. Middle class formers continued to assume individual flaws caused poverty.

Lack of morals continued to be blamed for the conditions of the poor. However, people began to understand that certain environmental factors were responsible as well and felt that the poor needed some guidance. In 1877, Reverend Steven Grunter established the first Charity Organization Society in Buffalo, NY, in an effort to serve as an organizing body for all private charities.This organization developed a list of the poor served in their communities so that each person would be limited to services from one charity. In this case, he woman with three children would not be able to reach out to more than one private charity, as her services were recorded. This woman would receive services from the “friendly visitor”. This was typically a middle-class female volunteer who would visit the home to investigate the living conditions and reasons for poverty.

The “friendly visitor” would come to the home of the woman, inquire about the reasons for which her husband deserted her and teach her about the moral values Of the middle class. The goal was to “fix” the immoral environment so that the woman would be able to uplift herself from resistance and become able to adequately care for her home and children. She would be given advice on how to correct her problems. Additionally, they would record information about the woman and return it to their agency to better understand life in the slum.The “friendly visitors” seldom had knowledge or experience with the poor, which caused a huge, disconnect between them and their clients; often the clients suffered from decreased self-esteem. By 1890, there were 4,000 practicing ‘friendly visitors”. The recording practices of the visitors led to a better understanding of poverty and its causes.

It became understood that the sole responsibility does not fall on the individual. By the end of the 19th century, immigration increased and overcrowding was at its peak. There was a deficit in housing and education.In response, the first settlement house, the Neigh brood Guild, was opened in New York in 1886. In 1889, Jane Adams and Ellen Gates Starr opened the most influential settlement house, known as Hull House. This would have been the first helpful opportunity presented to a mother of three who was deserted by her husband. At Hull House, she would be given a mom to live in without the cost of rent.

The residents at Hull House were primarily women and immigrants. “In 1891 , Florence Kelley Weightiness’s was fleeing from her husband and seeking refuge for herself and her three children, ages six, five, and four. We were welcomed as though we had been invited,’ she wrote thirty-five years later in her memoirs… Jane Adams supplied Kelley with room, board and employment. ” Hull house provided families with daycare and kindergarten services, education and training for residents, culture nights to become familiar with various cultures, a library and entertainment.

Additionally, women in settlement houses worked to advocate for housing, public health care and improved working conditions for men, women and children.The Hull House residents conducted campaigns, which led to the passing of legislature, which mandated an eight-hour workday for women and children in Illinois. As knowledge of the poor grew through work in the settlement houses and friendly visitors, a growing need for a formal education Was presented. In 1898 the first school for social workers was established, The New York School of Philanthropy (Columbia University). Conclusion In the asses, a woman with three children deserted by her husband would have faced many hardships in obtaining any financial assistance.Social welfare and charity were the responsibility of the community and the needy were distinguished based on their ‘Videophones”. Able-bodied unemployed people were considered unworthy and sinful.

For this reason, moral teaching was the primary means of relief. However, as the 19th century progressed and arbitration led to an increase in poverty, social reformers such as Jane Addams began to take notice and advocated for the need to assist immigrants in obtaining housing, heath care, and employment.

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