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Social Work and Looked After Children | Book Review

Cocker, C. Allain, L. (2008) Social Work and Looked After Children. Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd. (This is number 8 on the list) The area of looked after children have received considerable attention within the social work and policy discourse over recent years. The book Social Work and Looked After Children by Christine Cocker and Lucille Allain was chosen for this review because it is not just another addition to the discourse, it represents a comprehensive and definitive submission which navigates the system of state care for children from the moment they enter the system until the moments they leave. The area of looked after children is an important aspect of social work, entailing the care of extremely vulnerable young people usually suffering from trauma. Social work students usually approach the area with some level of fear and trepidation and there was a definite absence within the discipline of a comprehensive simple to use guidebook. This book is simple, but not simplistic and addresses the core concepts within the area of looked after children robustly. It addresses complex issues from legislation and policy to minority issues, disability, and theoretical debates deftly. While the book was seemingly created for the student practitioner, comprehensive span, research summary tables, bullet point tips and summaries of key frameworks and policies within each areas makes it a must have for any serious student and social work practitioner committed to working with vulnerable children and young people. The book starts by outlining the relevant policies that direct work with looked after children. It offers a comprehensive summary of the history and ethics of working with looked after children and the values which underline the policies. In tandem, it presents a statistical trajectory mapping the number of looked after children in the care system in recent years to set the foundation for the discussions within the book. The second chapter is an excellent accompanying foundation chapter which identifies the main legal frameworks guiding work with looked children e.g. The Children’s Act of 1989 and the Every Child Matters policy document of 2003. Central to the thesis in this chapter, was the emphasis that work with looked after children should attempt to remove labels of exclusion and reinforce the entitlements of the child, according to the United Nations Convention’s Rights of the Child document. The various pathways by which children entered the system was examined and these were considered in relation the existing legal frameworks and how the conditions surrounding their entry into care, should be of vital importance to social workers whose main aim to support the child by understanding the entirety of their cases. The navigation from entry to exit of the care system, highlighted its strengths and weaknesses and in so doing zoomed in on areas where social workers need to be especially alert, for example, in their support and assessments of foster parents and the conditions of residential care homes for vulnerable children. The examination of the child assessment process, presented a chronological and in-depth look at one of the core tools of the social worker. Cocker and Allain focused on the important skills such as observation, reflection and empathy needed by the social worker to deliver best practice meeting the needs of the child and also to build the future client practitioner relationship. The authors emphasized the importance of planning the assessment by studying the child’s files and reflecting on your own judgments regarding the issues emerging before beginning the assessment in order to avoid projecting your own values and stymie the future client relationship or create barriers to getting information which may best support the client. The book considered the importance of communication skills to the social work practitioner and in work with looked after children. It examined the impact of language on culture, the various types of communication patterns both verbal and non-verbal and highlighted how being able to engage the looked after child to participate in their own recovery through expression was central to successful practice. It also highlighted the need for practitioners to recognize that their language is inclusive and does not make the looked after child feel as if they are being controlled. It implores the practitioner to be aware of the power in language and to ensure that the way they communicate does not impart discriminatory undertones about the looked after child’s vulnerable position. While the issue of ethnicity and disability is often examined on the fringes of the mainstream work, this book dedicates two rigorous chapters to both areas. The chapter identified the importance of cultural awareness in working with looked after children especially considering the high numbers of minority children in looked after facilities. Cocker and Allain underline the need for practitioners to be vigilant in ensuring their practice is anti-discriminatory and impressively, they also link communication with ethnic minority looked after children as one are which is usually affected by cultural ignorance. They argue that looked after children from ethnic minorities are usually very aware that are sometimes treated differently because of not only being in care but because of their ethnicity and are therefore very attuned to individuals who are culturally ignorant of their needs. They highlight the dangers this can pose to developing trust within the client practitioner relationship and encourage vigilance in this area. Also considered was how attachment issues must be interrogated within social work assessments and interventions with look after children. The authors acknowledged the debates about using attachment framework with looked after children and acknowledged that while there is a risk of using attachment theory in a deterministic manner with looked after children who are constantly in transition between carers, it can also be useful to build problem solving skills, coping strategies and to build self reliance and resilience. Also addressed were the mental health needs of looked after children and implored social work practitioners to seek out inter-agency collaboration with other specialist for such children. They also address the importance of education in the lives of looked after children and explore the disjointed and inconsistent educational experiences they usually experience. Social work practitioners are encouraged to support the educational experience of looked after children as this can help to improve their self esteem and outlook. Finally, the book looked at the issue of adoption and permanence and discussed how this process can be emotional and confusing for the looked after child. It provides great advice on how to support both adoption parents and the looked after child through the process of change for example in working with them on how to display empathy and how to communicate with the child. In conclusion, there was a need for a comprehensive text on looked after children and as is demonstrated in this review, the areas interrogated by Cocker and Allain in this text, provides a first-rate resource with which to study, debate and get guidelines on current issues within the subject. 1
Top of Form Abstract This research will focus on the effectiveness of digital forensic in unveiling financial crime. Financial crime is becoming more massive globally, particularly in Indonesia. At this time, the sophistication of information technology makes financial crime in both government and corporations are increasing that significantly affect the business process. Forensic accounting is the forefront to understand the financial crime flow as well as this profession been experienced with information system analysis skills. Several public accountant firms provide the forensic services in Indonesia, but I will study at big four public accounting firms (KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte, and Ernst and Young), which already been experienced in handling the significant financial crime issues in Indonesia. This research will cover their procedures in investigating using a well-structured interview to collect some information which is relevant to financial crime investigation. Introduction Forensic accounting is an accounting application that applies financial skills and focuses on investigative mentality to undisclosed issues, by collecting some relevant evidence (Arokiasamy and Cristal, 2009). The demand for forensic accounting is increasing in the modern business. Forensic accounting emerges from both technical error or fraud that deliberately perpetrated by the human. Forensic accounting is a new business in Indonesia, and the public accounting firms who offer forensic services are still limited. Singleton and Singleton (2010) assert that a forensic accountant, as a profession, handles corporate investigations, tackles criminal litigation and support, insurance claims, and assistance in compliance with the regulations. Presently, forensic accounting offers comprehensive services and one of the modern advisory industries in Indonesia. Financial crime has emerged as a serious issue over three decades. This concern arises due to the impact of financial crime may generate a significant threat to the nations’ economic and interrupt the development. The financial crime relates to white-collar crime, corporation crime, occupational crime, and economic crime. International Compliance Association (2013, online) asserts that financial crime could involve money laundering, corruption, terrorist financing, and dishonesty or fraud crimes. However, other new topics in forensics such as digital fraud and corruption or bribery are alerted by several parties. Financial crime is a big issue in Indonesia, and the government has been starting to eradicate this issue. It begins with establishing regulation, laws, and further investigations. Align with this the public accounting firms offer advisory services in forensics since the commercial sectors are probably involved in some criminal cases. In this case, the role of digital forensics is necessary to combat the danger of financial crime. However, the investigation of financial crime is complicated since the financial crime may be perpetrated by using information technology. This method might be more effective than using manual examination. This concern leads to comprehensive research about the digital forensic procedures in mitigating financial crimes and assessed whether the procedures are effective within the big-four public accounting firms in Indonesia. Literature Review The Emergence of Digital Forensic Tools Digital forensics is a process using computer or software program to collect data and information that can be used as evidence. Investigation technique is changing today, some manual actions are gradually being handled by digital forensics. The capability of forensic technologies in data storage has improved significantly while the costs related to this are becoming more economical. Moreover, the forensic technologies advancement can collect data from new devices (i.e. laptop, tablet, etc.) becomes simpler then forensic technology is being expected to play a vital role in fraud investigation today (Kok, 2018, online). Computer forensics is classified as IT and law-enforcement subject (Kearns, 2015). However, accountants can also be a vital resource. Accountants, in particularly auditors, are familiar with accounting information system, internal controls, competent in analytical skills. For these reasons, accountants may combine the knowledge in accounting or audit with information system and technology. The accountants can investigate significant financial data and trace the unauthorized financial activities (Kearns, 2015). The Disadvantages of Digital Forensic Tools A digital forensic tool is designed to assist the forensic accountant analysing big data and to speed up the completion and accuracy of investigations. However, the tools have a problem that there are significant differences in task performance and knowledge requirements for the completion of an investigation. For example, computer forensics requires knowledge of computing systems, log files, graphics and other formats, and other non-accounting knowledge (Cusack and Ahokovi, 2016). Although the modernization of investigation of financial crimes using computer forensic is happening, the disadvantage is unavoidable. Digital forensics may be hacked, or it contains a bug. Garfinkel (2007) mentioned that a software bug is a weakness in a computer program generates unexpected results or may have unintended ways. Moreover, computer viruses may distract the investigation performance for forensic accountants and possibly will delete some significant electronic evidence. Another challenge in the automation of investigation is that an automated process cannot work in all cases; automated tools can miss some evidence. If the evidence disappears, forensic accountants are not able to conclude an investigation. In mitigating this challenge, it must be checked further how well-automated tools work and in what conditions they can be utilized. Once a performance automated machines are built based on the investigation goals, weakness in automated tools may be addressed or improved. Financial Crimes Financial and economic crimes can widely consist of some activities that are dealing with fraud and manipulation of the stock market or money laundering (ACIC, 2018, online). The economic globalisation as supported by new technology may create new opportunities for organized crime to get profits. While there are some agreements between several countries about money laundering, tax evasion and corruption, the financial crimes still exist. Financial crime, which known as financial abuse, is a non-violent crime but results in a significant loss by financial fraud. Financial crime consists of (Aslani et al., 2011): corruption and bribery tax evasion capital flight smuggling bank fraud insurance fraud organized crime terrorism financing pyramid schemes money laundering Impact of Financial Crimes Financial crimes endanger not the only individual member of a society but also attack the wealth of nations, injustice, and in extreme case people moral. Moreover, financial system abuse has a negative impact on the economic performance, bad governance, and trust from global society. IMF (2001) argues that financial system abuse may have other macroeconomic consequences. For example, it can inflate the local currency exchange rates and the volatility of international capital flow (IMF, 2001). In this era, the abuse of the financial systems results the collection of tax and law enforcement are more complicated. Another extreme case is that terrorism can emerge because the terrorists may acquire the fund from parties who commit financial abuse. Research Design A research design is necessary to assist a researcher in collecting and analysing data, and the model will determine the next step of the research process (Bryman and Bell, 2015, p49). In brief, research designs discuss five types (Bryman and Bell, 2015, p53-72): Table 1: Summary of Research Design No Type Characteristic 1 Experimental design Scarce in business research, due to the requisite level of control when dealing with organizational behaviour 2 Cross-sectional design More than one case, at a single point of time, quantitative data, detecting the patterns of association. 3 Longitudinal design Normally covers a long-time period 4 Case study design Focus either on a single case or multiple-case study 5 Comparative design Using more or less identical methods on two or more contrasting cases Based on the above characteristics, this research will be proper to use comparative as research design. Each forensic division at public accounting firms in Indonesia may have different approaches and significant cases to be investigated thus some components need to be compared and considered during the research. Qualitative research must have credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability (Guba, 1985). The credibility of this research will create an indicator in selecting participants that represent their involvement in responding to the problem of financial crimes investigation. Respondent should experience in forensics division at big-four public accounting firms for more than one year and frequently use digital forensics as a tool in the investigation. Confirmability refers to the level that might be confirmed by other parties in other researches. In this research, the researcher attempts to present the conceptual framework including disclosing of earlier studies which relevant to this research. Data and information will be acquired directly from the employees of accounting firms thus the accuracy and completeness of information can be confirmed. Dependability of this research will be developed by explaining the objective and the method of collecting data to the employees as respondents thus they can offer accurate information to this research. This explanation will also present the trustworthiness of research. The transferability of this research looks at previous studies and other relevant researches. Thus the argument of this research can be found in other research contexts. Research Question The competent forensic accountants perform the financial crime investigation. However, the modernization in technology makes forensic accountants gradually rely on using digital forensic tools to unveil the type of financial crimes instead of using manual tools. In this research, respondents will answer what method they use in investigating financial crimes, familiarity with digital forensics, and how they can conclude the result if using digital forensics method. On the other hand, involving digital tools might have a risk, for example losing some vital evidence. Moreover, bug or virus might be other reason to distract the investigation of financial crimes. If forensic accountants have missed the critical evidence, or in extreme case, the pieces of evidence are possibly hacked, the firms’ reputation will be doubtful. This research will also consider the distraction or disadvantages by using digital forensic in investigating financial crimes and how significant they can distract the performance of investigation. These issues will be critically analysed to observe the effectiveness of practical digital forensics in the investigation of financial crime with theoretical developments and with the results of recent studies. Methodology Research Based on earlier studies, digital forensics may be reliable in financial crimes investigation and more effective in generating the investigation results. A comparative design is required for the case, in a qualitative study employing investigation financial crimes procedures. The best way to collect data is through a structured interview. However, there are two options: A single case study of one public accountant firm in Indonesia. This research method provides more detail research information in one firm. However, each public accountant firm may have different tools and procedures to investigate, and it is predicted that the research result may not be objective, limited for generalization. A comparative study of four public accountant firms in Indonesia. This method may enable the researcher to gather different perspective from some respondents thus the massive scope of generalization will be achievable. Research Plan This research covers a structured-interview skill which face-to-face interview is required. The information needed is susceptible and limited to specific purposes thus the researcher is required to use a planned-sequence question. The research plan is described as below: Table 2: Research Timeline No Week Number January February March 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 Literature review 2 Develop interview questions 3 Finalization of interview questions 4 Meeting with supervisor 5 Conduct interview 6 Analysis of interview result 7 Research conclusion 8 Discussion with supervisor about the result Ethical Consideration This research may have moral issues; therefore the researcher should ensure that the adverse effect of the study should be minimized. Bryman and Bell (2015, p135-143) explain at least four ethical principles, such as: harmful for respondents, lack of informed consent, privacy, and deceptive action. The researcher should ensure that there will be no violation against ethical principles. To achieve, the steps are: Respondents will be sought by direct interview to the firm. Respondents may be asked to fill the written approval thus they recognize that the information given is complete. Respondents will not be asked about their names. Moreover, the investigation procedures will not be shared with other firms since those are sensitive. The researcher will ensure that the information given in the research report is free from misleading. Summary This result of this research can be used by other researchers to support the research which dealing with digital forensic accounting. Further steps needed to complete this research consist of enhancing relevant literature and design related questions on interviews that to be circulated to participants. References Arokiasamy, L., and Cristal-Lee, S. (2009) Forensic accounting: Public acceptance towards occurrence of fraud detection. International Journal of Business and Management, pp. 145-160 Aslani, M., Lotfaliyan,F., Shafiei, P. and Ghasemi, M. (2011) The Role of Auditing Profession in Fighting Against Economic and Financial Crimes, Vol 25, pp. 152-153 Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (2018) Financial Crimes, available from, accessed on 29 October 2018 Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2015) Business Research Method, 4th edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press Cusack, B. and Ahokov, T. (2016) Improving Forensic Software Tools Performance in Detecting Fraud for Financial Statements, pp. 17-24 Garfinkel, S. (2007). Anti-Forensics: Techniques, Detection and Countermeasures. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Warfare

Rasmussen College Quasi Experimental Design and Single Case Evaluation Discussion

Rasmussen College Quasi Experimental Design and Single Case Evaluation Discussion.

Response 11) Create a nonequivalent comparison groups design for evaluating the effectiveness of a parent education program for parents at high risk for child abuse. What would you do to assure the readers of your study that the threat of selection bias seems remote? Provide a description of the dependent variable, and when and how it would be measured.Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 273) explain that in a nonequivalent comparison design, the researcher is unable to randomly assign participants to groups, so a comparable group that appears similar to the research group is used as a comparison. This group is referred to as the comparison group instead of the control group.For the example above, the most comparable group to parents participating in the group (the research group) would be parents deemed at risk that are not participating in the group (comparison groups).While differences in motivation would undoubtedly exist in the groups, Rubin & Babbie (2017, pp. 274-275) discuss the importance of removing the threat of selection bias through various measurement options. One measure that would be a valid option for the example above by using the switching replication design. This design would allow for both groups to receive the treatment option (an ethical concern) but evaluated separately to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.In the example above, the dependent variable would be the score on a personality assessment tool that explicitly measures the ability to control actions and emotions when angry. The assessment would be administered to both groups as a pretest. The intervention would be presented to the research group only, and both groups would again take the assessment (posttest for the research group). The intervention would then be given to the original comparison group. Finally, a third assessment would be administered to both groups that would act as a posttest for the comparison group. If both posttests show positive results after the intervention (parenting education group), it is reasonable to conclude that the intervention is effective.2) Imagine you have been hired by the Florida Department of Corrections as a consultant to evaluate one of its prisoner reentry programs in which inmates are sent to this residential program before being released to the community. You are not able to randomly assign inmates to participate in this program – so conducting an experimental design is out of question. Design a quasi-experimental study in which you control for as many threats to internal validity as possible. Explain how you are controlling for these threats.A multiple time-series design study would study the experimental group (prisoners going to the residential program upon release) and a comparison group (prisoners not going to the residential treatment upon release).Both groups will be administered multi pretests at given time points before the experimental group receives the intervention. As Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 275) discuss, multiple pretests will strengthen internal validity by helping to determine that the groups are comparable, that one is not already engaged in a change process. After the experimental group receives the intervention (residential program), both groups will be given posttests over given points in time to determine if the intervention was effective.Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 279) also point out that while the multiple time-series design study is not a good as a study where participants can be randomly assigned, it is an improvement to the simple time-series design. By using the multiple pretests and posttests application, the researcher accounts for history as an internal threat by measuring reactions over time. If a participant experiences an external event that affects the responses to either test, it will be evident in the series when that event likely occurred. Under this same premise, the multiple time-series design also controls for maturation as a threat to internal validity.3) Select some aspect of your own behavior that you would like to improve and develop a plan to improve it. Design a single-case experiment. Discuss the potential measurement problems of reactivity and bias.The behavior being modified in this single case experiment is nail-biting. I will use a single case withdrawal/reverse design (ABAB) to lessen the frequency of the behavior. As Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 307), this design allows for a second baseline before the intervention is reintroduced and gives more plausibility to the fact that an extraneous event did not cause the change.The baseline will be determined by a 3-day period where self-monitoring and obtrusive observation (husband noting that I am biting my nails as I am not always aware I am doing it) are used to determine the frequency of incidents.The intervention will be to place bitter-tasting nail polish on my fingernails for one week.After removing the nail polish, we will use the same methods used in collecting the previous baseline data to compile a second baseline over another three days.Finally, the intervention (nail polish application) will be administered again for one week.As Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 263) note, the use of obtrusive observation lends to research reactivity in that the participant is keenly aware of being observed and may inadvertently act in ways to meet experimenter expectation. In the case of this experiment, it is highly likely that I will want to avoid any potential conflict with my husband over his willingness to repeatedly point out my bad habit ( )Rubin & Babbie (2017, p. 302) also note that self-monitoring is subject to reactivity in that the self-measurement process can bring about change in the targeted behavior. In consciously working on recording how many times I’m biting my fingernails, I may start to do it less often as I am more aware of the act.4) Think of a particular case or intervention that has piqued your curiosity about practice effectiveness. Design a single-case experiment that is relevant to that case or intervention. Try to design it in a way that would be feasible to implement.As a hospice volunteer manager, one of the services provided to hospice patients through my department was pet therapy visits. This single case experiment will be designed to determine if the pet therapy visits are effective in decreasing depression in the patient receiving the visitA basic single-case design (AB) study will be used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.A baseline will be obtained through the use of a scale that measures feelings of depression. After completing the assessment, the patient will receive a pet therapy visit within three days of completing the initial baseline assessment. The shorter the amount of time between the two is better to avoid the internal validity threat of history and an extraneous event that could be the cause of less depression Immediately after the visit, the depression scale will be administered again to determine if the pet therapy visit was effective in lessening the feelings of depression in the patient.ReferenceRubin, A., & Babbie, E. R. (2017). Research methods for social work (9th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.Response 2Create a nonequivalent comparison groups design for evaluating the effectiveness of a parent education program for parents at high risk for child abuse. What would you do to assure the readers of your study that the threat of selection bias seems remote? Provide a description of the dependent variable, and when and how it would be measured.In designing the non-experiment comparison group experiment, the researcher would select two groups of parents from two schools. Parents from school A and parents from school B. They are parents of children at risk of child abuse. The researcher would take baseline data to ensure that the characteristics of the parents, including demographic characteristics and risk of child abuse, are similar in both groups. It is possible to locate similar individuals within the community with similar characteristics and select them to act as the comparison group. Parents of children in School A would receive the education program, while those with children in School B would not receive the intervention. The researcher would then collect baseline data on knowledge about child abuse from both groups, then implement the education program for parents of children in School A, and compare outcomes in both groups to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Since there is no randomization, there is a high risk of selection bias. The addition of a control group strengthens the causal inference, and it is possible to overcome selection bias. One can assure readers of the study that there is no threat of selection bias by showing that the effect in the intervention group was in the intervention group, rather than the control (Salkind, 2010). Besides, one can report the approaches used to select participants to show that the researcher carefully selected participants to ensure proper matching. The dependent variable would be parental knowledge and attitude towards child abuse. When experimenting, a questionnaire would be developed to capture parental knowledge and attitudes at baseline. During the implementation of the program, both the control and the group receives education intervention.Imagine you have been hired by the Florida Department of Corrections as a consultant to evaluate one of its prisoner reentry programs in which inmates are sent to this residential program before being released to the community. You are not able to randomly assign inmates to participate in this program – so conducting an experimental design is out of question. Design a quasi-experimental study in which you control for as many threats to internal validity as possible. Explain how you are controlling for these threats.The study would utilize a non-equivalent control/comparison design to determine the effectiveness of the program. The first phase of the study would involve collecting data on the baseline characteristics of the inmates, including demographics and recidivism rates in two groups of inmates, those selected to undergo the program, and those who do not go through the program. Those who do not undergo the program would be the control, while those undergoing the program would be the experimental group. Data on recidivism rates among the two groups would be compared over time, for example, one year, to determine the impact of the residential program.Several strategies would be implemented to control bias. First, the study would incorporate a control group or those who do not undergo the program to reduce bias associated with historical or seasonal bias (Schweizer, Braun, & Milstone, 2016). Furthermore, a comparison of recidivism rates among inmates who undergo the program, and those who do not would strengthen the causal inference. Second, the researcher would use matching to ensure proper selection of the control group, through the use of demographic data, and prior recidivism rates. The third approach would be to conduct repeated data over a given period to determine outcomes or utilize an interrupted time-series design. Such a design would allow for the control of trends in maturation and seasonality (Schweizer, Braun, & Milstone, 2016). For example, one would collect data at baseline, sixth months after the interventions, and also collect data from other groups that undergo the program, after the initial study.Select some aspect of your own behavior that you would like to improve and develop a plan to improve it. Design a single-case experiment. Discuss the potential measurement problems of reactivity and bias.I believe that one of my weaknesses is poor social communication skills. The proposed intervention would be a ten-hour interview session with a social communication skills expert. Each session would last two hours and involve activities such as mentoring, direct instructions, and role-modeling. Before participating in the interview session, I would assess my interpersonal communication skills using the Conversational Skills Rating Scale developed by Spitzeberg (1995). The scale has 25 items that capture four skills clusters, coordination, expressiveness, composure, and attentiveness. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, I would compare the baseline data from the scale with my score after participating in the interview. An independent observer would be selected to evaluate my skills using the scale prior and after the intervention to determine the effectiveness. Since the study would not involve randomization, there is the risk of response-guidance bias and regression artifacts (Krasny-Pacini & Evans, 2018). Furthermore, since I would be aware that I will be undergoing evaluation, there is a high likelihood that I would alter my performance, resulting in reactivity bias. Such bias may affect the ability of the independent observer to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Think of a particular case or intervention that has piqued your curiosity about practice effectiveness. Design a single-case experiment that is relevant to that case or intervention. Try to design it in a way that would be feasible to implement.Child abuse and neglect is a significant problem in the U.S.A and have negative social-emotional, physical, and cognitive consequences of children (Prevent Child Abuse America, 2020). Multidisciplinary resolution approach interventions are effective in reducing child abuse. The proposed study is a single-case-experimental design with two phases, Phase A, which involves the collection of data about specific signs of child abuse, based on the input of informants, and Phase B, which will include the implementation of the intervention. The resolution approach intervention will consist of the creation of a safe environment for the children, treatment of psychological trauma, if identified, and monitoring of the children’s safety. Participants will be families of children aged between 6 and 12 years who have show specific signs of abuse. Informants from a community setting will be selected to identify families with children who have experienced neglect or abuse. The primary outcomes will be incidents of child abuse and neglect, while secondary outcomes will be parental-relationship, parental stress, and a child’s behavioral and emotional problems. A pre-test-post-test design will be utilized, where baseline data of both primary and secondary outcomes will be compared to data after the intervention at 3rd, 6th, and 12th month.References:Krasny-Pacini, A., & Evans, J. (2018). Single-case experimental designs to assess intervention effectiveness in rehabilitation: A practical guide. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 61(3), 164-179.Prevent Child Abuse America. (2020, July 4). The continuum of therapeutic approaches towards prevention of abuse and neglect- resolution. Retrieved from Prevent Child Abuse America:…Salkind, N. (2010). Encyclopedia of Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Schweizer, M., Braun, B., & Milstone, A. (2016). Research methods in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship- Quasi-experimental designs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiology, 37(10), 1135-1140.Spitzberg, B. (1995). CSRS, The conversational skills rating scale: An instructional assessment of interpersonal competence. National Association of Communication.
Rasmussen College Quasi Experimental Design and Single Case Evaluation Discussion

Visual Communication with Logos

i need help writing an essay Visual Communication with Logos. I’m studying and need help with a Marketing question to help me learn.

Image courtesy of: Starbucks logo
Image courtesy of: Walt Disney Pictures logo
Choose one of the logos above address the following points using the content from Module 6:

Describe the semiotic/symbolic visual elements in the logo design.
Discuss why having visual symbolic and iconic communication in a logo may be a good strategy to communicate visually with your targeted audience.
Discuss why drastically changing the visual elements in an established and successful logo such as Disney, Apple, or Nike, would have a negative effect on the emotion-based trust relationship clients have with the company.

Visual Communication with Logos

Operations Management 9

Operations Management 9.

Choose a large Middle Eastern company that has or had a problem with poor quality. In a 3-4-page paper, not including the cover and reference pages, explain the situation, and the consequences of poor quality in terms of loss of business, liability, productivity or costs. You may find Chapter 9 in your text to be of help to you. Explain what the company might have done to correct the problem, and what the condition of the company is now (for example, out-of-business, overcame the issue, etc.).Be sure to use at least two current, scholarly references beyond any required course readings. Current sources are those published within the most recent five-year period, and scholarly sources are those from peer-reviewed journals.Make certain for each listed reference that you have at least one supporting citation in the body of your content. Your reference page is always the last page of the submission where all individual references get listed.USE APA
Operations Management 9

Nursing research Methodologies

Nursing research Methodologies. I’m working on a Nursing exercise and need support.

Discuss how the positivist, post-positivist, and constructivist paradigms underpin associated research methodologies.
A. Discuss the types of questions that may be explored from the perspective of each paradigm
B. Given your phenomenon of interest, compose a research question (it may be either quantitative or qualitative depending on your selected lens).
Needs to be at least 500 words long, 2 citations, one including the book which I will post below and the other a shcolarly article within the last 10 years.
Chapters 1,2,3,
Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice – 10th edition
Nursing research Methodologies

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