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Social Protection and Competitiveness in the European Union Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Advantages in World Trade Trade laws Conclusion References Introduction The relationship between Social Protection and Economic Competition in the European Union reveals constant metamorphosis. With changing aspects of social realities, economic fluctuations, it is reasonable to assume that the Union itself is in constant flux between the two variables. Michael Porter identifies four main advantages of a nation’s competitiveness, which will be further discussed about Social Protection Policies within the European Union. Advantages in World Trade Porter states the following as important advantages in World Trade: Demand Conditions; Related and supporting industry; Factor conditions and company strategy, structure and rivalry (Porter, 2005). However, Porter also recognizes strategies employed by different nations to protect their own country’s companies by placing various restrictions on trade, these include Import quotas; Embargo’s; Tariffs, and Red Tape (Porter, 2005). The EU Competitiveness Council met in February this year worked towards finding key solutions to the problem with the competitive process: “The Competitiveness Council’s key issues paper covers key measures in the area of investment in knowledge and innovation and in the area of unlocking business potential, especially that of small and medium-sized enterprises, two of the four pillars of the renewed Lisbon strategy. It also offers recommendations for transforming Europe into a sustainable economy and stimulating European success on the global market.”(SPEU, 2008) The Slovenian Presidency of the EU issued the above press release stating that education ad business potential was the most important issue presently exhibited in market research. Trade laws Member states are, according to the EU has introduced several measures to control social protection within member states. These measures include that a member state may not limit social benefits to most citizens. It also insists that a member state may no longer limit its benefits to certain territories, excluding other territories. The member state cannot allow other policy systems to compete with social policies already existing within the territory and are unable to administer these benefits to migrants (Vandenbrouke, 2002). The White Paper, released in 2004 stressed that matters of general social interest were one of the pillars of the European model of society and that they were indispensable for social and territorial cohesion and the competitiveness of the European economy (Social Protection Committee, 2006). “The EU, and to a lesser extent its free trade equivalent NAFTA, creates important effects on internal and external trade possibilities, increased competition and increased competitiveness.”(The Athenian, 2000). The idea of protectionism and competition is a delicate balance whereby the EU attempts to establish a foreign relationship while still protecting trade and employment within its realms. For this reason, the implementation of measures that both boost competition and aid citizens within member countries is essential to competent motions of trade. However, in 2007, these trade laws were subject to abolition under the pressure of French President Nicholas Sarkozy. The ‘open market economy with free competition’ previously employed by member states was to be retracted after 50 years of practice. This leaves the economy again open to monopolies by stronger economic states, which undermines the overall economic status of these countries. Because there had been significant competition due to the free trade agreement, prices for consumers had been lower in commodities such as airlines, telephony contracts, and energy supplies (Ritson, 2007). The logical consequences of having free trade are often that companies under too much pressure to lower their prices may end up bankrupt, a case which Sarkozy himself saw in France in 2004. The problems involving free trade and competitiveness in the EU are complicated though particularly because some countries are economically stronger than others. Conflict exists surrounding the so-called Lisbon Agenda, these being that some member states differ in opinion on the importance of the Lisbon goals. Where Lisbon is concerned the congruency between social goals and competitiveness is questioned by some of the member states (Fannon, 2007). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Lisbon Agenda essentially seeks to minimize market failure, which occurs when the outcomes of annual trade are not economically efficient (CEC, 2005: 7). The problem appears to be that there are no defined laws in the Commission to regulate conflict between competitors and only basic guidelines as to free trade in the EU (OECD, 2005: 51). Lukasz Puslecki asserts that the competition of the global market is the primary reason for trade improvements particularly against that of the United States (Puslecki: 7). Indeed, competing in the global market is of extreme importance to the ever-evolving global competition. Productivity is the main contributing factor to the Lisbon Agenda and the EU competitiveness but there is a need for costs to remain low and wages high in the productivity circuit (IDABC, 2005: 7). This is where the contradiction in Social Policy and Competition conflict. Conclusion The conclusive evidence reveals issues similar to that of the United States NAFTA which although opens doors for economically weaker countries, but at some stage pulls the other down. The employment issue in the United States consequential to the NAFTA puts forward issues to the EU that the primary concern should be the welfare of workers involved in productivity within member states, rather than the success against global communities. The EU has to reach a stage where both the competitive features and social needs are met. This would more than likely include laws that control to some extent the nature and expansion of economic factors: trade between countries NEEDS some form of tariff, which is presented to the member union states equally distributed between them for the implementation of further economic development. This is a delicate balance because the citizens of the member states are reliant on the decisions of the governing bodies and need to be in the best interest of citizens particularly concerned with productivity. Those working in production are the life-blood of the economy in the long run. References APF. 2000. “Announcement of a Conference on TRADE, COMPETITIVENESS AND SOCIAL PROTECTION.” The Athenian. Web. CEC. Brussels 2005. “State Aid Action Plan.” Commission of the European Community. Web. “EU Competitiveness Council adopts paper on key issues within the Lisbon process”. 2008. Slovenian Presidency of the EU. Web. We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Protection and Competitiveness in the European Union specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fannon Lynch, Irene. 2007. “Regulation and Competitiveness: A mysterious and difficult relationship in the European Union.” EUSA Conference, Montreal. Web. IDABC. 2005. “The impact of e-government on competitiveness, growth and jobs.” IDABC eGovernment Observatory. Web. OECD. 2005. “European Commission: Peer Review of Competition Law and Policy.” OECD Country Studies. Web. “Press Release: Informal meeting of the Social Protection Committee.” Vienna, 2006. EU Presidency. Web. Puslecki, Lukasz MA. “The Lisbon Strategy: European Union’s competitiveness against that of the United States of America in the process of globalization of contemporary world economy.” Web. Porter, Michael
CNSL 502 CSUB Wk 2 Professional Identity and Careers Counseling Career Essay.

CNSL/502: Graduate Portfolio IWk 2 – Professional Identity and Careers Paper [due Thurs]Wk 2 – Professional Identity and Careers Paper [due Thurs]Assignment ContentWrite a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper on counselor identity and counseling careers.Include the following key elements in your paper:Explain the concept of counseling as a professional identity.Research and summarize the key characteristics of a counselor.List and describe the duties and functions in at least four counselor roles in your respective area of study.Describe at least two career paths you want to pursue after graduation.Evaluate two professional settings you would consider after graduation.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Submit your paper through the CWE Plagiarism Checker and a writing review service prior to submission to your instructor.Submit your paper.Print and bring a copy of your paper to class for peer-review. MaterialsFeedback Guide: Professional Identity and Careers PaperCopyright 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
CNSL 502 CSUB Wk 2 Professional Identity and Careers Counseling Career Essay

NEOUCOM Evaluation and Analysis of Breaking Bad Paper.

I’m working on a writing project and need support to help me learn.

– “This paper will include a thesis focused on the rhetoric ofthe text rather than the topic (how and why the text works –or fails to work – rather than a statement that simply sayswhat the text is about)- This paper will incorporate information that helps tocontextualize what you’re analyzing or supports your ideasabout how the text works.- This paper will be organized in a way that helps your readerunderstand what you analyzed and how it works.- This paper will use well-developed examples, details, andfacts based on close analysis.- This paper will follow appropriate MLA guidelines.- This paper will include approximately 1,200 to 1,500 words(4-5 pages) of polished writing” (Sura and Morris 62).
NEOUCOM Evaluation and Analysis of Breaking Bad Paper

Petition by the Citizens of London

AUTHORSHIP This document was a petition by the citizens of London to King Charles the I, written in September of 1640. Due to the nature of the precise formatting and proper grammatical usage, it is plausible that it was written by members of Parliament on behalf of the citizens, or a highly educated member of high social status. The exact authorship is not clear, but it is clear that the petition was written on behalf of the citizens of London to address their concerns, of which there were many. As the exact author is unknown it is hard to state with any authority what the author’s history and association with the issues are, precisely. However, as King Charles I was the King of three separate countries (England, Ireland, and Scotland), at the same time, it is reasonable to conclude that the citizens of London were familiar with the current state of Political and Religious concerns in the other two Countries that Charles the I was the King of. An excellent example of such a concern that virtually every citizen of London had to be aware of was the Religious Strife in Scotland. “In 1633 Charles appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. Charles and Laud held similar views on the Anglican Church (the Church of England). They both wanted the clergy (ordinary priests) and bishops (senior churchmen) to have more power and importance.”[1] William Laud then took a drastically confrontational step with regard to the operation of Religious Ceremonies in Scotland with the approval of King Charles I. “In 1637 Laud and Charles insisted that Scotland should use the prayer book that they had brought into the Church of England.”[2] The first time it was used in a (Calvinist/Presbyterian) Church Service in Scotland, a riot in Scotland immediately ensued. This prompted King Charles I to immediately march to put an end to this religious rebellion. “Charles immediately marched north with an army, but the Scottish Covenanters defeated him in 1638. Charles was beaten again in 1640 and the Scots invaded Newcastle.”[3] The Scots offered to leave occupancy of Newcastle if Charles agreed to pay a large sum of money, but as Charles was unable to pay the sum and he was forced to call parliament for monetary support. Between 1629-1640 he had ruled without the convening of a Parliament. This essentially led him to lead the Kingdom of England as a Monarchy or Absolutist, until he was forced to convene the parliament and was actually responsible to answer to a parliament and cooperate with said parliament to rule the country in a form a Constitutionalist form of government, even if it was a temporary change. The intended audience of the Petition by the Citizens of London, was clearly King Charles the I, as the petition starts with “To the King’s Most Excellent MAJESTY. The humble petition of your Majesties subjects, the citizens of London.[4] The author of the petition is encouraging the King to address many of the citizens’ grievances that had not been addressed previously to the publication of the document. The document reflects the values of the society at every point addressed in the petition. Those values are an increasing level of frustration of having to pay excessive taxes that were previously non-existent. As London was the largest city in the nation, it was also the most heavily taxed and suffered more than other regions of the country. The monopolies, patents, and warrants that one person was granted, which caused trade in the city and other areas of the country to decline as it limited the citizens’ ability to produce goods for trade and earn an income from trade as well as the unfair advantages to those patents, warrants, and monopoly holders. The further reduction in the ability to provide an income either through import and export being lost during transit over-seas or from the taxation on ships that were previously non-existent. This taxation was due regardless of the ships successful arrival at it’s intended destination or their destruction by Turkish pirates as well as other un-named pirates, during transport. The fear of changes in religion, the changes in church rules and the resulting fear that the citizens may be deprived of their ministers. Further, the concern over the great crowd of Catholics living in London and their access to means and opportunity to plot against the established religion. The concern over the perceivably unfair imprisonment of various citizens for non-payment of taxes, and the prosecution of many others in the Star Chamber for not following rules regulating trade. And finally their loyalty to the king and their fear of the danger that King Charles I had been exposed to in the events leading up to this petitions presentation. The citizens were still very loyal to King Charles I, even though they were upset over the causes for concern that were addressed in the petition. Including the sudden rising and falling of parliaments without resolution of the citizen’s grievances. As the author is unknown the qualifications that the author possessed for production of the document is uncertain, though a reasonable argument can be made that anyone living in the city of London was critically aware of these issues and had experienced them since the Scottish defeat of King Charles I, both the first and second time the two armies engaged in combat. The resulting cost of financing the military losses and costs of rebuilding the English Army of King Charles I, and the lack of a parliament from 1629 until 1640 and the financial strains that placed upon the King would have been evident to any citizen who authored the petition. As the publication date of the petition was so close to the 3 preceding years of conflict with Scotland, it is inherently implied that the Author was a witness to these events. The author’s credibility is also questionable, however, as it matches with all other historical representation of the time frame of the publication of the document it is also probable to assume with a reasonable degree of certainty that the author was indeed a credible author with accurate representation of the Petition’s requests for addressing the citizens of London’s multiple grievances that had not been addressed. RED FLAGS As the author is unknown, there are a few things that may have been intentionally left out of the document or could cause a misunderstanding of the topic. This is specifically almost probable in the discussion regarding the Puritan English Religion and the fear of the Catholic Scottish citizens occupying London and surrounding regions following the second Bishop’s war (which was after the date of the publication of the document, stated in the interest of clarity). Since it is not clear who the author is, the author’s religious preference is questionable, and thusly it is questionable that the Religious points in the Document may not have fully represented the London Citizens desires fully, and/or, further that some information might have been intentionally omitted if it were a damning evidentiary piece of information that might have caused harm to the author’s Religious alignment, if the author was not accurately representing the London Citizen’s petition preferences accurately. Again, as the author is unknown, the social status that the author held within the London Citizens population is questionable and may have been slanted to the author’s benefit. Due to the nature of the writing in the petition, it is reasonable to conclude that the author was highly educated, most likely a member of the higher levels of the social hierarchy, and further that it is reasonable to assume that the author may have even had legal training or served in a governmental capacity (either in a Parliamentarian role or even a member of the courts). At the time of the publication of the document King Charlies I was essentially ruling a Monarchy, which is very similar, if not exactly the same as an Absolutism form of government, in which the ruler claims sole and incontestable power, and usually relies heavily on the church for funding. It even eventually leads to the mentality stated by King Louis XIV of France that “L’etat, c’est Moi.”, meaning “I am the state.”, during the reign of his rule of France in the Absolutism form of Government in the years (1643-1715).[5] King Charles I, as a result of the First Bishop’s war and England’s defeat by the Scots, was forced to change his form of Governmental Rule immediately, primarily because he needed funding for the preparation for future conflicts with the Scots (The Second Bishop’s War.) After the publication of the Petition, King Charles I was forced to call Parliament, even though it only lasted for three weeks. When this occurred it changed his governmental rule to a Constitutionalism Government, a form of government closely resembling a democracy. Constitutionalism was the competing form of government to Absolutism (Monarchy). This inherently leads to questions with regard to misinterpretations with the demands presented in the petition, as the transitional timeframes of governmental change occurred within of 2 years time and then 3 weeks later was again reverted back to Absolutism with the dismissal of the Short Parliament. These frequent changes are indicative of chronological slants or misinterpretation as they occurred within such a short time frame and the citizens at those transitional periods may have been under the impression their grievances were being addressed. Then concerned they weren’t. Then again, unsure where the future of the Governmental Rule would end and whether their grievances were going to be addressed. HISTORICAL CONTEXTUALIZATION From 1629-40 Charles I ruled without calling Parliament.[6] In doing so he had no one he was responsible to answer to in the form of a Parliament who was able to place restrictions upon the Monarchy. “…The State of Monarchy is the Supremest thing upon Earth, for Kings are not only God’s lieutenant’s upon Earth and sit up God’s Throne, but even by God himself they are called Gods.”[7] This 11-year lapse of a parliament ended when the Covenanters won the first Bishops’ War. “Charles refused to concede victory and called an English parliament, seeing it as the only way to raise money quickly. Parliament assembled in April 1640, but it lasted only three weeks (and hence became known as the Short Parliament).”[8] King Charles was unwilling to concede to any compromises at the Short Parliament. “The House of Commons was willing to vote the huge sums that the king needed to finance his war against the Scots, but not until their grievances—some dating back more than a decade—had been redressed. Furious, Charles precipitately dissolved the Short Parliament.”[9] This led to an underfunded army facing the Scots in the Second Bishop’s war, an utter defeat of the English Army, and even the Occupation of Newborn. “As with the collapse of Royal Power in 1639-1640, the defeat of Charles I owed much to the Scots, and it is not surprising that they played such a major role in the politics of the late 1650s, nor that England only became stable when a government acceptable to the Commonwealth was installed in Scotland in the early 1650s. The union of the Crowns ensured that the political fate of the two countries could not be separated.”[10] King Charles I was forced to call the “Long Parliament” as a result of the defeat by the Scots in the second conflict, in 1640. This parliament called for the impeachment of Wentworth, the Earl of Stratford, and even the eventual execution of Stafford. Constitutionalism triumphed in England ONLY after the execution of one King as a traitor and another had been deposed. The English conflicts over authority laid the groundworks for modern political science. The Second Primary Document is a Document addressing Scotland in 1639. “This nation knows (that contrary to their claims) there is an intention to invade England. So to clear all doubts, that may breed worries in your minds, we repeat our just and real demand. If all civil obedience is effectively and quickly given to us, we do not intend to invade with any hostility.”[11] This document corroborates the intention of the Scots to engage in hostile actions which transpired in the First and Second Bishop’s wars. It states with authority that the Scots intend to invade England as a result of the hostility of the 1637 actions by Laud and King Charles I with regard to religious services in Scotland. It also corroborates the Petitioners of London’s fear for the King’s safety. It is indicative of the expenditure Charles I knew he would have to manufacture in the defense of England should England be invaded by the Scots. It further corroborates that King Charles I knew he would have to have financial assistance in the future from Parliament. However due to his stubbornness to concede to the Short Parliaments only requests of concession. He was solely responsible for generating that funding, which he accomplished through the various imposed taxes stated in the petition as grievances. CONNECTIONS This Absolutism vs Constitutionalism competing forms of government is something that was seen in the Roman Empire as well. Initially, Julius Caesar refused to give up the title of Emperor. When he was assassinated shortly afterward, his successor Augustus was a more politically shrewd ruler. He disguised the Government as the Roman Republic while maintaining the appearance of an Empire. By allowing a false Senate to hold the Glory while he maintained ironclad control over the Senate’s actions through the use of various manipulations and forceful Senatorial member removals by violence when necessary. King Charles the I was more obvious about his rule of Government as a Monarchy, but he also gave the appearance of reverting to a Democratic rule when calling Parliament, even though he ignored the few requests of the Parliament. He also was responsible for executing five members of parliament who were his strong political opponents. This was done without a fair defense at trial, and in some cases with no trial at all. This same type of Governmental behavior is repeated as recently as 2017, by President Trump. Trump forcefully threatened nations in the United Nations who voted against his decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. “The Palestinians claim Jewish settlers are trying to buy property from Palestinians in East Jerusalem to prevent the eventual establishment of a Palestinian capital there — and it’s exacerbated by the Trump administration’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, move the U.S. embassy to the city and downgrade the U.S. consulate in Jerusalem that conducted relations with the Palestinians.”[12] Bibliography Deborah Roberts, Absolutism and The English Civil War, HIS 201 Western Civilization I, Yavapai College, 11/30/18., November 25, 2018)., November 25, 2018)., November 25, 2018). Hunt, Lynn, Thomas Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: People and Cultures. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013 Jeremy Black, A History Of The British Isles, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1996. Lacey Baldwin Smith, This Realm of England 1399 to 1688, D.C. Heath and Company, 1976. To the King’s Most Excellent MAJESTY, The Humble Petition of your Majesties Subjects the Citizens of LONDON, John Rushworth, Historical Collections, Vol III, 1639- 1640, page 1263., Published in London, 1680-1701,, accessed November 2, 2018. (Accessed, November 25, 2018). [1] [2] Ibid. [3] Ibid. [4] (accessed November 2, 2018) [5] Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013), 502. [6] (Accessed, November 25, 2018) [7] Deborah Roberts, Absolutism and The English Civil War, HIS 201 Western Civilization I, (Yavapai College, 11/30/18). [8] (Accessed, November 25, 2018) [9] Ibid. [10] Jeremy Black, A History Of The British Isles, (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1996), 127. [11], November 25, 2018). [12] (Accessed, November 25, 2018).

Is Michael Porter S Five Forces Model Viable In Today S Rapidly Changing Environment Business Essay

essay help online free Is Michael Porter S Five Forces Model Viable In Today S Rapidly Changing Environment Business Essay. In the first essay, Michael Porter’s five competitive forces were introduced and were used to analyze the environment of the banking industry in Tanzania. This essay is about examining the five force’s viability in today’s technological business era. It will look at the three generic strategies introduced by Michael Porter as a solution for the firms to compete in their industries. The essay will then compare on the uses or benefits of the five forces framework and the strategies and also the downside or limitations of these forces. Finally there will be conclusion stating whether the model is applicable to today’s business environment. The essay begins with a brief reminder of the five competitive forces and then explores the viability or feasibility of these forces in today’s rapidly changing environment which is the aim of this second essay. As introduced in essay one, the five competitive forces were introduced by Michael Porter in order to examine the attractiveness and profitability of various industries in the market. In his book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors (1980), Michael Porter pointed out that any industry is surrounded by five main elements and their collective reaction affects the profitability of that business namely Threats of new entrants, Threats of substitutes, Bargaining power of the buyers, Bargaining power of the suppliers and the overall rivalry or competitiveness. Once the firms have analyzed their business environment, they could use the generic strategies introduced by Michael Porter to create a competitive advantage and also compete successfully within their respective industry. Let us now look at these generic strategies and also how banks apply them in their daily operations. The below is a diagram that summarizes these strategies: Michael Porter’s Three Generic Strategies: Source: Michael.E.Porter, (1980) Competitive Strategy-Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. The Cost-Leadership Strategy This is a business level strategy in which a business is the lowest-cost producer in its industry. It tries and keeps all its overhead expenses at a minimum and the firm does everything to cut down costs. An example of banks, they can apply this strategy and reduce some of their costs by providing services based on charging low premiums like customers opening accounts with minimum deposits and the also by the usage of new technology can reduce other administrative costs like storing all the relevant data in the software used instead of using papers and files. This strategy targets the broad market or all the customers. Various banks like US bank of America, Bankers Trust Corporate, Chemical Bank, Chase Manhattan Bank, Citibank, Morgan Guaranty Trust Corporation and Wells Fargo use this strategy in giving loans to their corporate customers and they compete with one another with the interest rates charged. (Anon, 2011) Differentiation Strategy A firm differentiates itself from its competitors by providing something unique that is valuable to customers. (Musika et al, 2008) Here the firms give the customers a different product or service than provided by its competitors. For example banks providing different facilities to its various customers like loan, credit or over-draft services which is different from other banking institutions, it might add a little more services that help the customers track their transactions. The banks introduce various innovative and diverse products and services to make themselves different from their fellow banks. Another example could be the introduction of Visa cards. In Tanzania this facility was not there before but just started recently. This also is a business level strategy that is directed at all the customers. Focus Strategy As Michael Porter (1980) pointed out that this generic strategy is focusing on a particular buyer group, segment of the product line or geographic market. In other words it is a combination of a cost-leadership and differentiation strategy. It simply means focusing on a small segment or a niche market or product like banks focusing the retail customers only or corporate customers only. Many banks provide special accounts for students who are studying so that they could save for their education, small children who are growing up and who are taught about savings and also women who have various responsibilities like the Exim bank (T) limited introduced Tumaini account especially for working women to help them save money. Diamond Trust bank (T) limited has a Junior Jumbo account for young children. It can either be a cost-focus strategy or a differentiation-focus strategy targeted on a narrow segment. (, All the three strategies are related to business level. The managers or the people holding authority in the business decide on what strategy to pursue so as to create a competitive advantage in the market. According to Michael Porter, most firms use either one of these strategies or combine them together to create a position in the market at large. Let us now look at the benefits of the five forces and the generic strategies provided to the firms in the industry: USES OR BENEFITS OF THE FIVE FORCES FRAMEWORK : The information gathered by the five forces analysis can help the firms in their corporate planning strategies like these forces provide statistical analysis. Using the framework, various firms and their competitors are taken into account and hence the firms conducting the analysis get a good deal of information on the activities taking place in the market. The analysis provides an idea on the attractiveness and profitability of the business. It helps the firms to decide whether to enter or exit from a particular industry. For example the banks use this framework to know the performance of all the financial institutions and see where the customers are more demanding and introduce strategies so as to take advantage of this situation. The information from the framework provides the firms with various choices from which they can know which force is in their favor and which is not and thus they can create a strategy which can give them advantage in having a competitive position in the market. So in simple words, the five forces give the managers different options. It also provides the firms with a dynamical analysis so as to determine the changes that might take place in the future. They could view the external environment and the five forces together and can get the direction of what might change in the competitive forces. Also the application of the fives forces helps the firms in getting information on how are different competitors affected by these forces. All the firms within the industry are different and are affected differently. Some firms are of large size and capital while some are small or medium and so their industry structures are not same. Just like in banking industry there are retail banks, corporate banks, and Western unions. The industrial analysis conducted could uncover these affects and so the firms could have strategies to continue to exist in the market. (Johnson et al, 2009) Another benefit provided by the five forces is that they provide the firms with an understanding of sense of competition and then to look for a way to develop a strategic position in the market relating to the firms concerned. Hence it will be known what or which force is in favor of whom and solutions could be found to guide the firms accordingly. Again the banking industry can give us a good example, as the banks corporate customers possess some degree of power; the banks offer them various services like temporary loans or overdraft facilities with good rates so as to lessen the power. USES OR BENEFITS OF THE GENERIC STRATEGIES: The cost-leadership strategy leads to the firm producing and also offering products at minimum prices and hence increases the market share in the industry. This strategy is widely used by various financial institutions; they open various branches at different locations so that they can reach many people and hence get a good deal of market share. The firms can also achieve economies of scale as it would be producing in large quantities so as to avoid the unit costs. The differentiation strategy helps the firms in the industry to produce good quality products that are valued by customers and hence increase customer base. It also creates awareness among the customers for products which are different from that offered by everyone in the industry and thus creates a good image or reputation. The Focus strategy helps the firms to identify a niche market from the whole big market and the firm can then specialize to serve that segment creating its own competitive position. (Musika et al, 2008) Apart from the benefits it provides, Porter’s competitive forces and the strategies have limitations on the other hand. Many scholars have criticized the model as per their research findings. Let us now look at these limitations and see whether the framework is practical or not. The following are the downsides of these competitive forces and strategies: LIMITATIONS OF THE FIVE FORCES AND GENERIC STRATEGIES: It does not define the right industry. It takes industries as a whole while there are segments involved to make a whole industry. For example in the banking industry, there are segments like the normal banking services involved in the country and those associated with outside the country and also there are different customer segments like retail customers and corporate customers. So these forces are likely to act differently in these segments and Michael Porter’s forces did not consider this. The Converging industries are also not considered in the framework. Nowadays due to the scientific and technological era, many industries seem to converge or overlap each other where earlier they used to be separate. So when conducting the industrial analysis, this matter is not taken care of in the model. Hence it limits the firms in their proper information gathering. Here again we can take example of the banks, nowadays all the banks have IT systems that help in converging many of its activities like branch communication, customer queries. The competitive forces model has one force that talks about the substitute goods, but it does not take into account the other category of goods or services called the complementary goods. These goods or services are those that can be used together than separate. Hence when carrying out a competitor analysis, the complementary products should also be considered. The firms in the industry might consider conducting business with those firms providing complementary services like banks and the DHL or FedEx services. (Johnson et al, 2009) The basic idea from the model was to create a strategy that helps firms to compete in the industry. According to Michael Porter it seemed that the main aim of the business was competition but this is not true. There are many other objectives of the firms apart from competing with each other. Some business give high attention to customer service, providing quality products, maintaining economic stability by creating job opportunities. According to Adam Brandenburger and Barry Nalebuff in their 1990’s research, they found out that the firms could make use of their concept of game theory to come to create the strategies that will help them in their firms. Unlike the Porter’s forces, the game theory includes two main parts of co-operation and competition which are both necessary and desirable in conducting business. The Porter’s model just concentrates on competition. (, 2005). Nowadays many firms join together to form mutual partnerships like they form strategic alliances, joint ventures so as to eliminate unnecessary competition and also benefit from each other’s resources. Another group called Sylloge Corporation, an Indian marketers group criticized the five forces framework saying that they provide the strategic options and not the exact strategies to be followed. (,2010) According to this statement, it means that the model tells the industries involved of the activities taking place and their outcomes but it does not show any solution or direction that the firms in these industries might want to follow. In other words, we can simply say that the model tells the concerned parties about the problem but it does not give an answer to that problem. The competitive forces have many assumptions involved while in today’s era, these assumptions no longer apply. It assumes a static market structure. When Michael Porter discovered this framework in the 1980’s, the market was stable and one could easily foresee the trends in various industries but today this is not the case. In today’s era many new technological development causes the business environment to change and so do these forces. A very good example is how the introduction of internet banking has had an influence in the banking industry; it has changed the degree of power from one force to the other. With technology any player can get into the industry virtually and also reach a large market at the same time. Other changes that the internet seems to have created might be the change from economies of scale to altering rules of competition. With Information technology small players in the market can create a competitive advantage as they possess the knowledge of applying the technology. With the internet banking, the banks are no longer the gatekeepers but they act as gateways to the financial products. The customers can easily log in to a bank’s website and see what products and services are offered. (Siaw I, Yu A, 2004) The framework sees everything from an outside-in perspective. It doesn’t take into account the resource based view of the strategy (inside-out) which is the competitive advantage and superior performance of an organization explained by the distinctiveness of its capabilities. (Johnson et al, 2009) This view includes firm’s unique resources that perform the best in the overall industry. They could be the firm’s management team, employees or equipment. Michael porter did not see these as acting within the firm’s boundary. They help the firms in the industries to build competitive advantage. If a firm does something which is better than all the firms in the industry, then no matter how low the threats of entrants is or how high the bargaining power, this will lower down and act in that firm’s favor, hence that firm does not need to worry about the forces within the industry. A Model of Competitive Advantage by using the Resource based view: Resources Distinctive competencies Value Creation Competitive Advantage Capabilities The forces and the strategies mentioned by Porter are more deliberate than emergent. Nowadays the world is changing rapidly and the firms have to be ready to operate in the different environment, like recently there was a big credit crunch or economic crisis that hit all the countries in the world and due to this fact, even the competitive forces would have changed their power in favor of one player to the other. During the eighties era, the firms had a stable environment and there was cyclical developments in the industries but this is not the case in today’s dynamic environment. According to Larry Downes the competitive forces are not applicable in today’s period. He identified three analytical tools that would make the Porter’s forces to be vulnerable. As per his findings, today’s environment is affected by the three elements namely, Digitalization, Globalization and Deregulation. As many firms get influenced by the information technology, all the players within the industry can get access to various information and hence get the knowledge of what is taking place in their respective industry, not like before, the buyers or suppliers had to conduct researches, then only they could get an idea about the general environment of the market. As Globalization takes place and as many people of different cultures and backgrounds meet with one another, it is likely that there will be many new methods introduced of conducting businesses and hence the competitive forces will not be able to really give a picture of the attractiveness or profitability of a particular industry. An example can be see in the banking industry, long before the banks worked independently on their own but when the western union concept came in, many banks joined hands with the western union outlets and are now operating in providing the transfer of transactions together. (Recklies.D, 2008) Michael Porter had based his knowledge on the existing businesses. According to his assumptions, if any firms wanted to get into business, they would look at the present industries, He did not give a thought that the firms might consider to go into new markets. In their book, Blue Ocean Strategy, how to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant, (2005) W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne criticized Porter’s framework because it was too narrow, it discussed about low cost or niche players while ignoring the value of the products or services that is more important to the customers. Porter’s framework plays around the known industries where the boundaries and competitive rules are well defined. Here the more firms get into the market, the more need arises to outdo the firms and this tends to sometimes create conflicts between the firms, this is termed as the red ocean strategy. While if the firms look around for opportunities and go into new industry, then they could successfully achieve a space in the market and also gain profits, which is called the Blue Ocean strategy, meaning the firms have to search deep and discover the new gaps which had been left out by the existing firms. An example of ING Direct in the 1990s applying this strategy shows how the banks can benefit from it. ING Direct focused more on the savings and mortgages accounts, unlike other banks in the industry focusing on the current accounts. Hence it started serving a different segment which was untapped and it also benefitted from it. (Burt. G, n.d) The below diagram summarizes what a blue ocean strategy is from the red ocean one which was the focus of the five forces framework. Michael Porter’s forces are based on the Red ocean strategy Source: Furthermore there are still a number of things that Porter’s framework doesn’t take into account like the non-market forces. Porter had not taken into view the government’s influence in the market of a particular industry. Today the Governments play an active role in the economy of their country, there are various rules and regulations that the firms (existing and those planning to enter) must fulfill in order to successfully run their business. In the five forces, there is no mention of this governmental influence. For example as mentioned in essay 1, the governments and the central bank of the country first audit everything, from the capital requirements to the people going to be in the management of the bank. Also there are other activities like the corporate social responsibilities, some firms might not be performing well in their profitability but they would be on the top when it comes to serving the society and hence these firms could take advantage of this and market their firms and gain a position in the industry. (SPS, 2009) As found out in the article by Dagmar Recklies (2008), the competitive forces framework is based on the theory of Economics. Michael Porter just based his evaluation on various economic laws and came up with the five forces framework. Now as the time passes by these economic laws also vary with the situations and hence this makes Porter’s model to be vulnerable or less applicable in the changed surroundings. The below is the diagram that shows how the Porter’s framework came into being by comparing it with the universal economic laws. Porters Five Forces Areas of Microeconomics Bargaining Power of Suppliers Supply and demand theory, cost and production theory, price elasticity Bargaining Power of Customers Supply and demand theory, customer behavior, price elasticity Rivalry between Existing Players Market structures, number of players, market size and growth rates Threat of Substitutes Substitution effects Threat of New Entrants Market entry barriers à Industry attractiveness à Profitability, supernormal profits Source: Apart from these limitations of the five forces framework, there are risks involved in the generic strategies introduced by Michael Porter as a solution to deal with competition. In his book (1980), Porter does mention about the risks involved in pursuing the generic strategies. For example: in the cost leadership, the firms might not see an opportunity to invest in new areas as they would have to spend on the research and development, they might alter the quality of their products due to more focus on lowering the costs. In the differentiation strategy, the firms might alter their products and reduce the customers brand royalty as the customers were more used to the older services provided but the firms would not be aware as their main strategy is to differentiate themselves. In the focus strategy, the firms narrow their reach of the market as they just target a small segment and that also they are not sure would work because the customers do have a tendency to change their tastes and preferences quite often. COMPARISON OF THE BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE FIVE FORCES FRAMEWORK AND CONCLUSION The above discussed were the benefits gained from using Michael Porter’s five competitive forces framework and the limitations of the model in application of the model in today’s era. The five forces framework helps the firms in analyzing the general environment of the industry. Through conducting a research using these five forces, the trends of the business and the external influences of the industry is pictured. The level of competition gets revealed and the firms create strategies to continue in their respective industries. However the framework is kind of static in its application, it tells the firms on how the competition is but the firms themselves have to find out ways to deal with the competition and continue to survive. The forces can act or behave differently with the different players in the industry. Many firms within the same industry have different positions within the market and they also differ from each other in their capabilities, one firm might not be good in one area but it would be performing well in another area. As the framework takes the industry as a whole, it is better to disaggregate the industries and then analyze the environment using the framework. When using the framework, the firms should look at the macro environment as the forces are focused more on the inside (micro) surroundings, it is not advisable to make decisions based on the framework itself. The firm should also consider applying various other tools like the SWOT analysis, PESTEL and BCG matrix so as to gain a broader picture. The firms should reduce the threats and use its strengths to take advantage of the strategic gap, which is the opportunity in the competitive environment that is not being fully exploited by competitors (Johnson et al, 2009, p 50) The research question of this essay can be concluded that the model introduced by Michael Porter in the 1980’s does not have much influence in today’s changing environment. It was useful in that period but as today, the situations keep on changing, there are many new discoveries going on, the e-commerce or the information technology has had a greater influence on all the industries, the porter’s framework did not see this coming. However the framework is a kind of analytical tool which can be used by the firms in making their decisions based on more research or knowledge. A good and competitive firm does not make decisions based on one analysis; it must use many tools and frameworks to come to the final decision. The competitive forces should be used together with other business frameworks like the SWOT, PESTEL to give a broader view. Overall the framework is a tool that helps in scrutinizing the business environment in general and provides an idea but it has to be used alongside with other tools as well so as to get a better result and formulate a strategy or business decision based on sound research. Is Michael Porter S Five Forces Model Viable In Today S Rapidly Changing Environment Business Essay

TSU Substance Abuse Treatment Articles Analytical Review Workseet

TSU Substance Abuse Treatment Articles Analytical Review Workseet.

To complete the MDA 4 first identify and briefly summarize 2 pieces of peer-review literature that address practice with this client population. Include a description of interventions utilized and the success of each as documented in the literature.Use critical thinking to discuss how your chosen research can help inform your work with this paragraph for each two questions, 3-5 sentences. APA 7th edition format requirement.NO page or word count requirement, APA 7th edition format. Type answers in the box adjacent to each question. Use the information found on MDA 2 to gain more client population information.client population includes white women who are recovering substance abusers
TSU Substance Abuse Treatment Articles Analytical Review Workseet

Tenant Focused Housing Services Essay

Introduction to Tenant Focused Housing Services Tenant Focused Housing Services involves tenants’ participation and as such, it is a situation where tenants are engaged by the landlords in order to help in the process of making decisions concerning housing services as well as the way their homes are managed by the landlords. This process, according to a research conducted by Uguris (2004), involves the sharing of information as well as ideas. Contemporarily, many housing companies have realized the importance of such programs and therefore, they have come up with strategies for tenants’ participation. Tenant Focused Housing Services strategies are established to inform tenants about various things among them being; how to become engaged in the making of housing decisions; how the housing company intend to inform and engage the tenants with regard to the future plans; how the company intend consult and communicate with the tenants; and how the tenants will get involved (Uguris 2004). Engaging the tenants is an essential aspect for any housing company and as such, it is part of the customer service. In addition to this, the engagement of tenants ensures that important feedback concerning the kind of services offered by the housing groups is provided. The opinions of the tenants ought to be taken into account since they can cause a significant change to the provision of housing services. Moreover, the opinions and perceptions of the tenants plays an important role in that they lead to improved housing services as well as better local environment (Samson 2007). Thesis Statement With reference to invitation for application of tender with regard to Tenant Focused Housing Services Program evaluation, this paper will aim at applying for the position as a consultant to conduct the evaluation process of the program for the GWS Housing Group. Response to the tender invitation Understanding of the brief This tender invitation by the commissioner of GWS Housing Group seeks to identify an individual or a corporate with the required experience as well as qualifications regarding the evaluation of tenant focused housing services programs. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once identified, the consultant will be given the responsibilities of undertaking the interim evaluation of the Company’s Tenant Focused Housing Service Program (Pawson 2011). Precisely, the tender seeks to appoint a consultant on the basis of the preferred evaluation approach, which is capable of selecting the most viable techniques as well as processes for comprehensive and effective evaluation of the company’s program. In addition to this, the preferred approach should signify that the appointed consultant is not only knowledgeable and conversant with the context as well as the background of the tenant focused housing services but also understands it in a comprehensive manner. The commissioner of GSW also seeks to identify a consultant who is willing and able to commence the evaluation process of the program in August 2012. Moreover, the identified consultant must be able to conduct the evaluation of the program and deliver the results by the December 2012 in form of written evaluation report (Balchin

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