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Social Identity Perspective for Negotiation

Critically discuss how the social identity perspective can help negotiation in organisations’ There are many ways in which the social identity perspective can help the process of negotiation in organisations. When agents – people who work for an organisation – consider themselves to be insiders in the organisation group they tend to work harder. Creating an environment in which workers feel they are a central part of the organisation is thus desirable and achievable; there are potential methods organisations can use to achieve this. Social identity perspective concerns how individuals identify themselves as part of various groups and means that an individual tends to have a bias towards other members of the same group as them as opposed a member of a different groups. In this essay I shall start by analysing the key theories concerning social identity perspective before providing a broader critical analysis. Social identity theory. Social identity theory concerns how individuals identity themselves as being part of a certain group, and why they do this. Social identity theory states that people tend to classify themselves concerning certain categories(Hau Siu Chow, 2004). For example these categories can concern race or gender – or potentially in some cases they might concern a work organsiation. Rubin (2002) states that a “successful inter-group bias creates or protects relatively high in-group status, thereby providing a positive social identity for in-group members and satisfying their need for positive self-esteem.” Dual concern model of negotiation. This model of negotiation emphasises concern for others. Individual difference approach. This approach concerns people’s individual behavior, and how one individual’s behavior may differ from that of another. People can potentially differ form one another in many aspects of their personality, for example in levels of self-esteem. Motivational Approach. Concerns the various ways that individuals can be motivated to act in a certain way concerning social identity perspective. One way of motivating your staff is to provide hem with challenging work. The more challenging a task is then the more motivated staff will be to go and achieve a successful outcome in that given task (Chalofsky, 2003). Goal-setting theory. Goal-setting theory assesses the impact which goals may have on individual performance. This theory states that if an organsiation sets easily attainable goals then this will tend to correlate with lower performance by the individual. This is also the case if these goals are vague or not easily recognisable. More specific goals tend to result in a higher level of performance and greater effectiveness from the individual. A narrowing of the attention of the individual is helpful in achieving this end. Goal-setting theory works on the belief that specific goals tend to encourage workers to work with persistence in the face of setbacks. Goal-setting is a classic motivational tool. Expectancy theory. Expectancy theory concerns the processes an individual goes through when making choices. Individuals tend to believe that putting in more effort will result in better job performance. This theory states that systems should tie awards closely to performance. Neff (2002) states that “Motivation depends on how much an individual wants something (the strength of the valence) relative to other things, and the perceived effort-reward probability (expectancy) that they will get it.” Control theory. This theory concerns the attempts by human beings to control what they perceive as being the otherness of their surroundings, and is also known as choice theory. The effectiveness of social forces and systems is seen as being very important. Deviant behavior occurs when external forces on behavior are week. In order for an individual to be influenced positively they need strong social bonds. Strong bonds with society make deviance by the individual a more costly choice and hence a choice which they will be less likely to make. Feedback theory. This theory concerns feedback and how feedback can help to motivate individuals in an organsiation. If the organsiation works effectively as one then feedback can be very important in helping to forge a good collective identity. If an individual is encouraged to give feedback then it can be beneficial to both them and the individual. Self-categorisation theory. This theory, which is also known as the social identity theory, states that we often put others and ourselves into categories. We compare our own ‘in-group’ as being more favorable than an ‘out-group’ (Rubin, 2002). What then occurs is an inter-personal inter-group continuum. An individual’s self-conception is developed and acts on numerous levels of inclusiveness. When comparing yourself to other groups you begin to se yourself as part of a group rather than an individual. Empirical studies. Empirical studies are used in psychology for when ends are based on evidence and not just one theory. * In the modern workplace awareness of social identity perspective can be incredibly useful. Various different in-groups may exist within one organisation. An increasingly important focus for organisations is the demography of their workforce. For example if there are members of several different social identity groups, then it is sensible for an organisation to, for example, have a demographically diverse committee membership. Diverse membership of this committee can help to achieve good negotiation. If one racial or gender group within an organisation feels that they are being marginalised in the decision-making process then this could potentially have a very negative impact on the organisation and how it functions as a whole. A situation where groups feel marginalised has the effect of reinforcing hierarchies within the organisation (Hau Siu Chow, 2002). Many, such as Theresa Neff, feel that hierarchies need to be deemphasised in an organisation. In a hierarchical workforce those at the bottom are more likely to identify themselves as being opposed to those at the top (Neff, 2002). One way organisations try to get around this problem is by the re-labelling of job titles so that more menial or secretarial roles are given more aspirational job-titles. Organisations also now often rely more on workers to make decisions, and this helps to create a more efficiently motivated workforce (Chalofsky, 2003). This is against a backdrop in which social identity theory has become central to the way that organisations operate (Scott, 2007), as more attention is paid by organisations to organisational psychology. In the social identity perspective members of an ‘in-group’ tend to look more favourably on themselves than they do on members of an out-group (Rubin
North Central University Safety Issues in The Workplace Pamphlet.

To begin this week’s assignment, conduct research in the NCU library on violence in the workplace related to the field of social work. Reflect on possible scenarios that could present in a human services organization.
For this week’s assignment, you will prepare a pamphlet. Draft a plan for a human services organization concerning how to address traumatic emergency situations. Include both how to respond to an emergency and how to address any long-term effects based on theories you explored this week. Finally, based on this week’s resources and your personal experiences, explain your greatest concern about the safety of social workers working in a human services organization and illustrate how you would address these concerns as a social work leader

North Central University Safety Issues in The Workplace Pamphlet

This paper analyzes current e-government trends in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors also critically look into the problems and opportunities of using new technologies as a tool to transform the public sector. How do new technologies enhance democracy? How do they set up countries to compete in the networked economy? It analyzes knowledge-intensity and the fast pace of global economies. The authors find that the region is falling behind others in government preparedness and usage. Despite outstanding exceptions, the authors discover, e-government initiatives throughout the region have focused on front-end service transactions but little on innovation and institutional growth and change. This paper discusses the key policy challenges governments may consider in the future. It points out that e-government is essentially a political, not a technical project. Recognizing the political and institutional change nature of e-government provides the key to moving e-government beyond ‘window dressing’ and towards realizing the transformational potential of ICTs for governance and public service performance. The paper suggests key measures to harness this potential for public sector reform, including informed and committed leadership, a national consensus on ICT-enabled reforms, incentives for sustained institutional change and process innovation, ICT governance and institutional framework for interagency coordination, public-private partnership, and linking vision to implementation mechanisms, multi-year investment plans, and continuous monitoring and evaluation. A country that enters into an economic integration has to abide by the rules of the integration. In the case of the euro zone, all countries are required to align their agricultural, economic, and industrial legislation with the requirements laid down. Additionally, the financial policies of a country must be in line with the European community. It is also mandatory to have certain taxation regimes and to have certain tariffs and subsidies. Additionally, a country aligns its budgetary requirements with those of other countries in the eurozone. A country is also restricted from conducting business with another country if it can conduct that business with a country in the European community. All these are legal consequences that come with integration elsewhere. One of the reasons why trade integration treaties do not work is because most countries do not take the integration seriously. Also, the structures in place to ensure that these rules are adhered to watered down by the fact that a country has the free will to pull out at any time. Poor members are one of the major reasons why economic integration is hard. Poor members feel like they are alienated and are not enjoying similar benefits as the rest. This had threatened the very existence of the Euro Zone in the 1980s. These disparities include per capita income, infrastructure developments, education levels, productivity, and employment. All these led to trade imbalances and hence poor countries were feeling the brunt. Efforts were made to harmonize this and some years later a fund specifically designed to address these problems was set up. These structural policies systematically advocated the introduction of new provisions that would make social and economic cohesions a common goal. Most integration treaties do not go to that extent. This means that in the end, most poor countries that are hungry for domestic development pull out. Eventually, the ability of the integration to continue working is severely scuttled. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference Rubino-Hallman, S

The Widespread issue of Illegal business entrepreneurship

The Widespread issue of Illegal business entrepreneurship. Illegal business entrepreneurship is widespread throughout the world, occurs in a variety of forms, and is often regarded as the mysterious side of entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to critically analyze, integrate and synthesis three different case studies (entrepreneurship and illegality, illegal entrepreneurship experience, and an emergent entrepreneur) that studies and focused on the entrepreneurship and illegal business. To achieve the purpose of this paper, the current study divided into two sections. The first section provides sufficient definitions on the topic of entrepreneurship illegal business, and critically discusses literatures that primarily developed from the three aforementioned cases, which is the base background of this study and its analysis. The literatures focus on the relationship between 1) human capital (e.g. education) and illegal entrepreneurship motivation, and 2) the previous experiences of entrepreneurship its effect on motivation or intention. The second part of this study attempts to provide empirically evidence to enhance literatures. Based on case study and interview approach, the current efforts thus aim to provide general framework in order to depth our understanding of illegal entrepreneurship motivations and its causes. A key benefit associated with studying illegal entrepreneurship at a case-study level is that entrepreneur perceptions and experiences can be easily. Finally, conclusion stated at the end of the study. ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEFINITION Entrepreneurship is an act or a perform of starting new venture or stimulating mature organizations, principally new venture generally in response to identified prospects and opportunities. Entrepreneurship is not easy to undertake, as an enormous majority of new venture fail. Entrepreneurial activities are to a large extent dissimilar and it depend on the new organization Per-se. Entrepreneurship ventures are ranges in scale from solo business to gigantic business that creating many job opportunities. The litterateurs reveal that the concept of “Entrepreneurship” has been employed extensively, studying three case-studies reveals that the differences in the nature of entrepreneurship as concept may occur due to the diverse entrepreneur and complexity of entrepreneurial activities and uncertainty-bearing. For example, Palich and Bagby (1995) uttered that “when tracing the development of this concept in the literature, it becomes clear that no one definition of the entrepreneur prevails”. Definitions have call attention to a broad range of activities the better-known of which include, uncertainty-bearing (Cantillon, 1755), co-ordination (Say, 1803), innovation (Schumpeter, 1934) and arbitrage (Kirzner, 1979). Defining entrepreneurial activity is very complex as these entrepreneurs that are less likely to receive external examination. Entrepreneurship has even become a broad title for many studies, however very little intention has emerged to support the purpose of conceptual framework. (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). Some studies explained that a contradiction existed in terms value, attitude and, the very nature of a planned economy inadvertently promoted the development of widespread entrepreneurial values (Ritter, 1998). ILLEGAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Illegal venture activity is widespread and diverse (Baucus, 1994; McClennahen, 1998). The term “illegal entrepreneurship” has been used in three case studies to include a vast array of different activities (for example, drug dealer case and cross-border trade case). However, literatures show that the most serious and extreme form of illegal entrepreneurship is organized crime (e.g. hijacking and kidnap) that indicate predatory (Vold, 1958; Albini, 1971, p. 47). We believe that all above-mentioned categories considered illegal action and government role and nation authorizes should exhibit these activities. The three cases present the importance of government penalties in the prissiest of illegal entrepreneurship, however no explanation of how government may conduct their role. Away from government role, many case-studies has explained the urgent need for greater understanding of illegal business practices, which is even greater today, as they appear to be increasing globally. We believe that the economies of many parts of the world are significantly influenced by the activities of illegal entrepreneurs nowadays (for example, the drug trade in Cuba, Europe, and the USA, the Russian Mafia). At the local level, illegal smuggling and corruption is widespread in Kuwait and most of Middle East countries. In the other areas of the world, notably Russia and sub-Saharan Africa illegal business activity appears to be so prevalent as to be almost the norm (MacGaffey, 1991; Tomass, 1998). In an article published by the Economist (US) states that ”in Russia free enterprise is almost synonymous with criminality” (The Economist, 1999). In his study, Sardar, (1996) underlined that corruption and fraud that accompanies this activity, is usually regarded as a ”social cancer” weaken the entrepreneurial capacity of economies where it is spread. Hanke (1996) uttered that “corruption is more than a moral curse. Bribes and other payments for government goodies are nothing more than unauthorized taxes, and as stated in the World Bank 1996 Development Report, these taxes discourage honest entrepreneurs, inhibit private investment, and restrain economic growth”. We believe that his definition of corruption is valuable and reveals how illegal business has affect the whole world, ethical has not considerable from many entrepreneurs, which result later in inequality and many unfavorable situation. From our reading and analysis, we believe that the case present fair description of illegal entrepreneurship. However, the corruption and other illegal business activity are proving frustratingly persistent all over the world. For example, In Kuwait trading in visa is illegal and have many ethical consideration of Oppression many workers who come from the third world, this issue will be explained later in section two. For now, literatures existing in the three cases presented demonstrated that illegal businesses activities – with all of its forms – have deeply rooted in sociality, which become a complex phenomenon to study. As Sardar (1998) uttered, there is ”a sociology of corruption” that needs to be comprehend before real solutions can be initiate. Illegal business practices are widely twisted within the political, social, and economic fabric of many developing countries, where ”social stigma” for these types of wrong doing has disappeared, and a ”parallel economy” has emerged (Sardar, 1996). The need for a qualitative approach that focuses on the illegal entrepreneurship is also indicated by the difficulties of obtaining suitable data (Bygrave, 1989). We believe that there is great complicity of identifying suitable cases of illegal entrepreneurship and getting access to them, Its hard to keep researchers safe and protecting from possible personal danger when they conduct empirically study. It’s difficult to researcher to grapes and evaluates the usefulness of responses from people whose profession is popularly associated with covertness and deceit. Thus, we found that the literatures of the three case-studies suggested that only through patient ethnographic techniques, (e.g. participant observation over many months) could the necessary trust be established. However, we believe that this is not always the case, illegal activities not necessary associated with dangerous entrepreneur, (e.g. Illegal business licenses or illegal visa trading). Understanding the three case studies expose that strong apparent links with illegal business activities and entrepreneurship, and the paucity of studies in this area is an urgent need to understand this relationship better, and to explore its potential complexity. We believe this suggests that studies should be exploratory and qualitative until a fuller understanding is achieved to guide more positivist approaches. To obey thus urgent need and enhance literature, in the second part of this study, we will conduct qualitative study with three entrepreneurships who involved in illegal business in the state of Kuwait. To be away from danger and threat, the type of illegal business we selected is alcoholic activities. The result of the qualitative study presented in the second part of this study. Next we will briefly defined and analyze the entrepreneurship characteristics that included in the three studies. ENTREPRENEURSHIP CHARACTERISTICS The three studies clearly explained that the difficulties associated with defining the entrepreneurial individual existed, which urge the need of a clear basis to differentiate entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs. We found that studies examining entrepreneurial traits or characteristics have proven largely unable to predict entrepreneurial capacities and activities as well as proving incapable to differentiate entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneur; references to specific traits continue to pervade the entrepreneurship literature. We found that McClelland (1961) has provide very good example to illustrate that, he has introduce to the concept of an achieving society and a person need for achievement remains, questionably, the most often cited characteristic associated with entrepreneurs. Bandura (1977) has further added characteristics concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers as the perception that a person can produce desired effects and prevent undesired ones through ones actions. From our understanding, the foremost reason that self-efficacy maintains to be associated with entrepreneurship is that it has a straight effects on the types of goals that an individual will set for themselves, the obscurity of the tasks that the entrepreneurs is prepared to engage in as well as their levels of commitment and in the face of challenges and competitions. Furthermore, one of the characteristic of entrepreneur is ability of comprehension of a decision to exploit an opportunity is contingent on a “pre-existing belief of entrepreneurs that the “opportunity” is both desirable and feasible. (Krueger, 2000). We found that literatures focus on the ability of a person with some personal propensity to act on opportunities and some sort of precipitating factor. We believe that according to Krueger, a “desirability” is relates to the extent to which a chosen action is considered as personally desirable, while in the same its important that this action is being congruent with perceived social attitude and norms (e.g. In Muslim countries its desirable to establish non-alcoholic soft drink business). On the other hand, we believe that a “feasibility” is closely relates to the extent to which the potential entrepreneur believes that a particular venture outcome is achievable (e.g. in term or sales or degree of acceptability by society). We believe that If both desirability and feasibility are positively achieved by an entrepreneur, he is likely to shape intentions to a degree which he will actually behaviors and conduct his business. Indeed, we have to points out that judgments relating to desirability and feasibility are considered not on the foundation of available information, but rather on interpretation of available information; “the … literature teaches us that information is important, but the impact of that information is more important” (Krueger, 2000). In attempts to provide deeper analysis, More recently Gatewood et al. (2002) have provide similar finding that assist Krueger, 2000. They state that the decision to satisfy an opportunity depends on three factors; 1) a positive relationship between effort and performance, 2) a strongly belief that a specific performance level will result in the specified outcome and, 3) a level of incentive that the individual considered attractive. We considered that the subjective assessment of opportunities provide a useful explanatory framework as to why some individuals when presented with identical information will choose to become entrepreneurs whereas others will not (Forbes, 1999). EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP MOTIVATION Is there is relation between education and entrepreneurship motivation? We found that studies have extensively formulated hypothesis related to human capital (e.g. education) and entrepreneurship motivations. However, so far, little research has been successfully measured the real effects of human capital on entrepreneurial business motivation. The entrepreneurship experience contributes to these modest empirical literatures on the relationship between human capital, business performance and motivation in transition countries. For example, Fairlie (2002) has analyzed the influence of illegal drug dealing experience on the choice for self-employment (in the USA context), and Earle and Sakova (2001) have investigated the effects of “gray market” experience on the probability of becoming self-employed in the transitional context. From our reading, we can say that Johnson and Loveman (1995) study and Mathijs and Vranken (2001) studies are exceptions, because these studies measure and identify a positive relationship between the entrepreneur’s human capital and business performance. Johnson and Loveman (1995) studies explain that Polish entrepreneurs with a university degree perform better than entrepreneurs with lower levels of education. In the bases, Mathijs and Vranken (2001) study reveals evidence that more highly educated entrepreneurs run more efficient farms in Bulgaria and Hungary. We deemed that education has greatly affected on the entrepreneur’s motivation and performance. Later, our qualitative study investigates of the effects education and illegal entrepreneur’s motivation. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EXPERIENCES AND ENTREPRENEUR INTENTION The core analysis of this section is the measurement of the relationship between illegal entrepreneurship experience intention and their motivation or intention. Intentionality is viewed as “state of mind, directing attention, experience, and action toward a specific object (goal) or pathway to its achievement (means)” (Bird and Jelinek, 1988, p. 21). We found that studies suggest that in order to study intentions and understanding the difference in that respect between entrepreneurs with and without illegal entrepreneurship experience requires a perspective based on intention models that developed in the psychological literature. We believe that understanding this model is very important and required to be the basis analysis of future studies. Intention models have been widely adapted to better understand entrepreneurship decisions and actions (Arenius and Minniti, 2005; Douglas and Shepherd, 2002; Krueger and Brazeal, 1994). “Intention considered as the single best predictor of any planned behavior, including entrepreneurship” (Krueger et al., 2000). We found that the typical entrepreneurship decision analyzed in the intentions literature is the decision of new business formation, not of continuation and growth. We found that the intention to persist and grow a venture is different from the intention to start a new venture; this fact has been assisted by voluminous studies (e.g. Van Praag, 2003; Utsch et al., 1999). Next, will discuss and analyses the intention in the light of illegal entrepreneurship. The literatures of this section directly enhance and assist our empirical study that presented in the second part of this study. INTENTION AND ILLEGAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP The decision to conduct illegally activities hold greater risks than trading conventionally, though the risk can vary appreciably according to the nature of the illegal goods being traded or the illegal practice accompanying the trade. We believe that the risk from illegal venture can involve heavy penalties, including imprisonment and, in many countries, even capital punishment for the trading of some substances. An entrepreneur willing to risk such penalties is either a irresponsible gambler or exceedingly confident that his or her knowledge and methods are highly effective. Several case studies reveals that the risk-taking propensity of entrepreneurs have shown that ”the perceived context (knowledge and situational characteristics) is a more important determinant of risk-taking than personality” (Delmar, 2000). We believe that an entrepreneur may appear to outsiders to be taking greater risks, but from his perception and knowledge, the risk may be limited. In dealing with uncertainty, entrepreneurs may tend to minimize risks through superior knowledge and wise judgment; studies confirmed that they also gain the confidence to reap greater rewards (Casson, 1990). The propensity to risk, its perception, and knowledge context become vital issues when considering why entrepreneurs may seek to act illegally in their pursuit of trade and profit. To trade illegally, however, is not just a function of the willingness to accept and manage risk. There is an implication that the person finds the illegal process ethically and morally acceptable. Morality tends to differ between individuals as well as societies, and there are many different grades of acceptability for different actions. Many people, for example, find little to stir their conscience in smuggling a bottle of spirits, but would never contemplate trading hard drugs. The variability in moral acceptance between individuals ensures that there will always be a potential supply of illegal traders in any society. These will tend to be a small minority where the social norms morally condemn certain illegal practices. There are countries, however, where illegal actions appear to be widespread, and thus socially acceptable to the social majority. In these, what is legal and what is moral do not necessarily coincide in large subsets of the population. Moral acceptability of illegal action can occur especially where a minority considers themselves oppressed by the rules of others. Blok’s (1974) study of the Sicilian Mafia, demonstrated that the Mafia, though illegal and widely condemned, has played a significant part in helping the peasantry to bypass and negate the effects of the laws and regulations imposed by generations of foreign conquerors. Thus, where illegal commerce is rampant and endemic, as it is in many developing countries, such trade, though illegal can nevertheless be moral and acceptable for thousands of participants. CONCLUSION Considering the paucity of literatures, studies on illegal business have provided us usefully information that mainly developed through case-studies. The current study has critically analyzed and discusses literatures that principle developed from previous case studies. We have attempts to defined entrepreneurship, illegal entrepreneurship and discuses entrepreneurship characteristic. Furthermore, literatures on the effect of human capital and previous experiences on entrepreneurship motivation and intention have explained. EMPIRICALLY STUDY The first part of this study obviously reveals that there is paucity of literatures and research on the topic of illegal entrepreneurships. To enhance in providing studies and response to the urgent need of developing literatures, this part of provide empirically study. Qualitative study conducted with three entrepreneurships who involved in illegal business in the state of Kuwait. There are various form of illegal business (e.g. cross-broader trade, drug dealers, hijacking and kidnap are few forms), however to be away from risk and any potential threat, the type of illegal business we selected in this study is trading in visa. Before presenting the methodology, its important to provide background of the illegal trading in visa in the state of Kuwait. BACKGROUND OF VISA TRADING IN KUWAIT In the state of Kuwait, Visa trading is illegal businesses conduct by entrepreneurship that become flourishing in Kuwait despite measures taken by the Kuwaiti government to improve worker’s rights. Recently the Kuwaiti Parliament overwhelmingly voted in favor of a new labor law that provides massive rights for their expatriate especially for workers in the private sector. But the new labor law stops short of abolishing the Sponsorship system -a law that will supposedly create a total dependence of the worker on his sponsor. According some human rights groups, if kafil system eliminated there could be end to some human rights and workers violations including visa trading. Earlier reports said that legislation provides more rights for workers in the private sector, including better annual leave, end of service indemnities and holidays. The bill requires the government to introduce a minimum wage for certain jobs, especially in the lower-paid categories. New labor law should be implemented to prevent this illegal business. Studies reveal that workers mostly from East Asia worked with their Kuwaiti sponsor -entrepreneurship- for the several years as domestic helper. With their sponsor permission, almost a year, their jobs shifted from housemaid to a car driver, shopper, dressmaker or other jobs. Workers got their new visa and their sponsor still holding an article 20 visa, which is nothing but similar to visa from workers previous employment as housemaid. Kuwaiti laws stress that this action consider illegal business, as entrepreneurship take advantageous from those low-payed labor. The domestic help affairs in Kuwait are handled by Kuwait’s Ministry of Interior while article 18 visa are enforced by Kuwait’s Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, under which they have special advantages and disadvantages. However, in Kuwait, if someone working in private sector, he should be holding article 18 visa, but if he employer provides you with article 20 visa, then, his sponsor is clearly violating Kuwait’s prevailing law. Reports reveals many violation and illegal action are held by visa trader, for example recent report has interviews Filipinas housemaid, Mendie said that “my employer has been into collusion with local agency, so she can get workers from the Philippines easily. But I was hired locally with three other Filipinas. She promised us visa 18, but until now, we are working under visa 20,” Mendie Addedd that “When I demanded for my rights, my Kuwaiti sponsor told me to pay KD700 and I will be free to leave my dress shop. “I told my sponsor I want to leave and get a release without money involved just like the way my previous sponsor had let me transfer to him sponsorship, but now my sponsor demanding KD700, where can I get KD700, so I told her to just let me go back to my country, now, my sponsor don’t want to give my passport”. Mendie’s case was just one of many workers in Kuwait whose rights are violated by Kuwaiti entrepreneurship who conduct visa trading business. Kuwait’s government seeks vivdly to cover such business, prevent it by laws and plenty Kuwaiti entrepreneurship for their illegal action, however, in many cases, such business cannot be detected easily. METHODOLOGY As explained in the first part of this study, paucity of research has been conducted to measure the influence of human capital on entrepreneurial business motivation. Johnson and Loveman (1995) and Mathijs and Vranken (2001). The focus of this empirically study on the human capital and entrepreneur intention on their motivation. In order to achieve the purpose of this empirically study, we found that the three case studies presented in the first section has implemented dissimilar methodology, one study adapted social constructionist stance which was shared through narrative accounts and interpreted as discourse, while other studies- the majority of research as well- within the entrepreneurship regulation has followed and continues to follow the positivist methodological paradigm (McElwee and Atherton, 2005). We found that studies based on accounts or narratives has been widely criticized on the grounds that such accounts are subject to post hoc rationalization, while social constructionist stance approaches have been criticized on the grounds that they are rather static in nature and, as such, are not well suited to exploring and explaining the dynamic and oftentimes unique nature of enterprise and entrepreneurship. To avoid repetitive and limitations, the current study aims to build the analysis on the background of an interviews with three Kuwaiti entrepreneurships as a case study level. We believe that a key benefit associated with studying entrepreneurship at a case-study level is that individual experiences and perceptions can be easily captured and interpretative. Eisenhardt (1989, p. 534) argues that interviews at case study approach provides to research the ideal platform for “understanding the dynamics present within a single setting”. The use of an interview technique supports the subject to structure their narrative around critical events/episodes without constraining or inhibiting their response (Chell, 1998). In asking the respondent to discuss events of both a positive and negative nature, the interview, which bore a strong resemblance to the “depth interview” (Jones, 1985) Thought interviews, Kuwaiti entrepreneur asked specific questions that developed from literatures. Most of questions related either to human capital (e.g. education and entrepreneurship motivation, or to their intention and motivation. In purpose of anonymous, the three Kuwaiti entrepreneur nameless stated as; Mr. A, Mr. B and Mr. C. EDUCATION, INTENTION AND ILLEGAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP MOTIVATION The aforementioned literatures clarify that the prior human capital has associated affected the entrepreneurship motivation. (Becker, 1964; Mincer, 1974). When we asked Mr. A about his education he said that “I never when to school or university, I joined military defense when I was 22 years old, several years I left the army and start my own venture, its visa trading business, I realize that East Asia worker strive to have an opportunities to come to Kuwait, and my business will be help those people to improve their situation as well as myself”. From the interview, we found that Mr. A didn’t achieve any success in his previous job; this was primary reasons that push him to trade in visa. “It’s hard to be financially fine while you are working in public sector,, the life expense increase and I don’t want to involve in depts., I cant rise my kids or help my family in such circumstances”. Mr. A has developed some experiences to be surviving competition in the private sector, trading in visa was not totally acceptable and reasonable to his value. “I think we have no permit to operate. Our business is located in the Kuwaiti area; but will never know that this villa has the visa trading business, my former colleagues provide me with all information needed to start this venture “. Mr. A. experiences has greatly affected by his former colleagues, he has improved his skills by cumulative experiences. Bhide (1994) finds that 71% of entrepreneurs found their ventures by replicating or modifying an idea they encountered at their previous employment. Firms started by a former employee of an established firm are often referred to as spin-outs-no equity link between the parent company and the start-up (Garvin 1983). Mr. A has indented to conduct this type of business long time ago, however he couldn’t achieve it until he retired from the military. Mr A. said “If government know that I have two job in the same time, this could lead to lose all my retirement benefit, I decide to retired from military once I had complete information of how to handle my venture” the case of Mr. A assist many literatures demonstrated that intentions explain 30 percent or more of the variance in behavior, as averaged across a wide range of studies on a large variety of types of behavior (Kim and Hunter, 1993; Krueger et al., 2000). In the same bases, Kim and Hunter (1993) further demonstrated that over fifty percent of the variance in intentions is explained by an entrepreneur characteristics and attitudes towards the intended behavior or decision. Related to Mr. A case, we found that he developed various skills to prissiest in market, life pressure and expense has push him to trade in visa regardless of being legally or illegally business. The empirical implication of human capital theory stress that that higher levels of education lead to higher earnings may not appropriate here, however Studies reveal that previous knowledge assists in integrating and accumulating new knowledge as well as in adapting to new situations (Weick, 1996). Furthermore, interviewing Mr. B reveals conversely finding. “Since I graduated for my post ground study, I hired in higher-position in public sector, however I find this good opportunity to establish my business and invest my time”. Mr. B believes opportunity to increase his income, giving worker low salaries, he believe that these employees can’t find better job in their countries anyway. Mr. B explain that “Its an opportunities, and government know that such business existed, then why I cant benefit from trading in visa, I believe am securing my job career in case of any future circumstances… even you can do such business while you are setting at home”. Literatures reveal that such a relationship between earnings and human capital has been confirmed empirically for wage earners (Ashenfelter et al., 1999). For entrepreneurs, the effect of human capital has been measured in terms of earnings and other various others such as profit, business survival, the number of employees and business turnover (Van der Sluis et al., 2003). Similarity Mr C. believes that opportunities existence urge entrepreneurship to gain profit and advantageous even on the cost of others. Mr. C said that “Its free-market system, we understand that in ever market, some people gain profit resulting in losing others. I open an unlicensed business, which is trading in visa, and I believe my prior education enhance my knowledge to expand my business” I trade visa in average KD500, I only asked KD100 when renewing it for one year for the workers, so I am satisfied with it, and I those worker could gain much better opportunities to developed their income compared their peers how works in their third-word countries”. When we ask him about the legality of his business, Mr. C said “I know, article 20 state that visa is not allowed to work as beautician, however, its government know that many entrepreneur work in this filed, our employees always have do a hide and seek game with inspector thus they can stay working with no complication”. “The employees of third world countries are favorable in term of salaries, I provide private sector companies with an opportunities to reduce their costs.” When we ask Mr. C about Human right, he understand that those employees are not always in favorable situation “In Kuwait, these employees cannot complain in the Ministry of Labor because they are under article 20 visa, most of time, their salaries depends on the mood of our the ‘kafil’ if he is okay at that time of salary. To Mr. C, he was hesitate to conduct such business, but this has vanished since he become one of the leaders in this market and profit generated much more than conducting other business. The case of Mr. C assist many previous literatures that indicated by intentions could also be a result of norms (Krueger et al., 2000), moreover, the intention to continue a business could reflect the personality traits such as perseverance, while the intention to grow a business may reflect optimism (Markman and Baron, 2003; Crane and Sohl, 2004). CONCLUSION These are various attitudes and characteristics that should be considered when analyzing entrepreneurs’ motivation or intentions to continue and grow their businesses. However, the case of conducting legall The Widespread issue of Illegal business entrepreneurship

AHI 001D UC Riverside Buddha Roshana versus Amida Buddha Japanese Art Discussion

order essay cheap AHI 001D UC Riverside Buddha Roshana versus Amida Buddha Japanese Art Discussion.

I’m working on a art discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

There are two-part to this question.Part 1Below are images of two large scale sculptures of buddhas and the temples in which they sit, each created during a different era in Japanese history. Both are covered in Chapter 13 of your textbook so be sure to read about them before completing the assignment!BUDDHA ROSHANA (VAIROCHANA), TODAI-JI, NARABuddha Roshana, Nara period, 8th century, reconstructed 17th century, bronze (53’)The Great Buddha Hall (Daibutsuden), Todai-ji, original structure completed Nara period, 752, destroyed 1180, rebuilt and restoredJOCHO, AMIDA BUDDHA, PHOENIX HALL, BYODO-INJocho, Amida Buddha, Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, Heian Period, c. 1053, gold leaf and lacquer on wood (9’8”)Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, Uji, Kyoto prefecture, Heian period, c. 10531Compare and contrast these sculptures with a focus on the experience of viewing each of them. Think of the spaces that they inhabit and the position of the viewer in relation to the sculptures. How do these experiences compare? What do the differences reveal about the different purposes for the works and the different contexts in which they were made?(at least 250 words; 10 points)2Read through your classmates’ responses and engage with at least one of them. Is there anything you feel that they missed? Are there ways you could have improved your own response based on reading others’?(5 points)Classmate’s Post:The first Buddha sculpture is located in Todai-ji and was first built in 752. The temple was “designed to impress” and is ranked as one of the largest wooden buildings in the world. Even with that, it is only two-thirds the size of the original eighth-century temple. Despite its smaller size, Todai-ji still engulfs the visitor and, as said in the textbook, “overwhelms the believer and nonbeliever alike with its monstrous beauty”. Inside the its temple resides the gigantic bronze Buddha. Buddha’s left hand is lying open in his lap and performs the gesture of welcome. His right hand has his palm facing outwards which expresses the wish to end suffering. This temple and statue would have those who visited it experience feels of wonder and awe. Additionally, with the Buddha’s hand placements, visitors would’ve felt safe and welcomed and I think that is a very important aspect for a religious building to have. Especially for those that visit with the intent of religious purposes, it must also be an extremely enlightening experience. In comparison, the second Buddha sculpture would accomplish the same feeling. The Amida Buddha is located in Kyoto on the banks of the Uji River in the Byodo-in temple. This temple overlooks a lotus-filled pond and depicts an earthly vision of Amida Buddha’s Western Paradise. In the textbook, it is described as “a perfect place to contemplate the pleasures of Amida Buddha’s Western Paradise.” The main difference between these sculptures is that the Amid Buddha more of a religious context behind it. As said in the textbook, “devotees believe that when a follower dies, Amida Buddha will descend from his Western Paradise to welcome the soul into Paradise.” So while these sculpture had similarities in the sense of a religious viewing experience, the Amida Buddha has definitely more centered around that.Part 2The image below shows a detail from one of the most famous Japanese handscrolls, the Gaki Zoshi, which features hungry ghosts in a variety of situations. While beliefs regarding hungry ghosts differ over time and in different places, generally speaking in East Asian Buddhism these creatures are beings that exist in the human world but are invisible to humans. They have an insatiable hunger, usually for shameful things, such as rotting human flesh or feces. Typically, they are understood to have formerly been humans who are now being punished in this incarnation for actions (usually greedy actions) taken in their previous lives. Hungry ghosts are also sometimes understood to be the ghosts of people whose descendants have ceased to honor them by bringing them offerings. ‘Hungry Ghosts in a Graveyard’ from the Gaki Zoshi, late Heian period, 12th century, handscroll, ink and color on paper (103/4” x 12’52/3”)So far, most of the Buddhist works we’ve looked at have been positive – that is, they’ve shown beautiful places and examples of ‘good’ beings – Buddhas, bodhisattvas, great monks and nuns of the past, the Buddha in his previous lives, etc., which the viewer is meant to look up to and emulate. This work is clearly different. What do you think is the purpose of a work like this? What ideas is it meant to convey, what emotions is it meant to provoke, and what response is the viewer meant to have after viewing this work? How does the work achieve these aims?
AHI 001D UC Riverside Buddha Roshana versus Amida Buddha Japanese Art Discussion

Criminal Justice Capstone Project Topic Proposal

Criminal Justice Capstone Project Topic Proposal. I need help with a Law question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

This project will require you to demonstrate your mastery of the program outcomes by analyzing and writing about an issue that will provide a foundation for the development of either a program or a policy proposal within your chosen specialization. To demonstrate proficiency of the program learning outcomes, you will develop your selected topic specific to each outcome. In the Criminal Justice Capstone Project, you will identify and define a problem you feel needs to be addressed within your discipline (emergency management, criminal justice, or homeland security), describe the significance of to serve as the basis for the development of a program, implementation of a new policy or change to an existing policy, and design an appropriate solution that is specific and measurable for purposes of effectiveness based on the delineated goals and objectives.
In this unit you will choose a topic for your Criminal Justice Capstone Project. You will also provide one paragraph per program learning outcome section:

Competency 1: Apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners.
Competency 2: Explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge.
Competency 3: Integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice.
Competency 4: Describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions.
Competency 5: Assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions.

Your topic selection should be specific, with clear parameters that will enable you to fully address each program learning outcome. You will identify direction that will enable you to make those connections by sharing preliminary approaches specific to each program learning outcome, connected to your proposed topic.
Special Instructions:
Create a 2 page essay according to the instructions above. Use 2 scholarly sources for references. Be sure to utilize in-text citations.
Criminal Justice Capstone Project Topic Proposal

MRKT 310 UMGC Consumer Behavior Market Segmentation and Positioning Essay

MRKT 310 UMGC Consumer Behavior Market Segmentation and Positioning Essay.

NB: INstructions and direction are located on the attached folders DirectionsRefer to the product or service you selected for your first writing assignment. This week, you want to take a closer look at what consumer factors may be relevant for customers who are considering buying your product or service offering. This will require some critical thinking on your part based on your own behavior if you are a customer yourself, or you may want to talk to others who have purchased the product. Sometimes you can find clues when looking at the marketing messages that may be addressing some of these factors. So far, you have only been considering the customers of your product or service as one big group, or a mass market. More astute marketing breaks down this large group into smaller market segments of consumers who have similar characteristics. For any specific product or service, there could be numerous market segments. However, company resources may only allow a company to pursue one or two or these market segments, which then become target market(s). In this paper, you should divide the mass market for your product or service into at least two market segments and then pick one target market you think would have the most potential for future growth. Chances are you picked a product with which you are familiar. That is a good starting point, and you may represent one target market. But you may represent a target market that is saturated and therefore not the best target market to pick for the remainder of the semester. So be sure your second target market is different enough and represents growth potential. If you did not do a thorough analysis of the competition in the prior writing assignment, you may need to go back and figure out the nature of the product’s or service’s competition. This will be important when you address the positioning of your product for your newly identified target market inasmuch as positioning is a competition-based concept.
MRKT 310 UMGC Consumer Behavior Market Segmentation and Positioning Essay