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Social Class, Power, and Unethical Behavior Relationship

Juliet Bachtel Psychological Research Studies Article Essay Summary Psychological research has been used for hundreds of years to find correlation and causation between variables. How does one variable effect and independent variable? Research is used to decode how humans act and think with one another and other objects. The results can be used to affect public policy, enhance marketing, and give rise to new innovations. It is all around us. This report focuses on summarizing three scientific articles from the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Experimental Psychology, and Developmental Psychology. These articles ask important questions that effect people in their daily lives, such as: Are the rich more unethical than the poor and vice versa? Do people’s expressions affect how they allocate resources fairly or unfairly? Does taking a gap-year significantly affect the outcome of one’s future if they had not taken one? Each of these questions is relevant to any person in today’s society, especially students, and each has an interesting answer that can effect how people make personal decisions and or even affect public policy. An economic disparity has always been present in human civilizations since ancient times from the Indian cast system to the present “one percent” privileged few in the United States, which causes a rift between those categorized as the rich and the poor. But are there other differences between those groups aside from economic variations, specifically are there ethical differences between the rich and the poor? INSEAD’s Dubois, Northwestern University’s Derek D. Rucker, and Columbia University’s Adam D. Galinsky answers the question, “Are the rich more unethical than the poor and vice versa?,” with two novel findings in their article “Social Class, Power, and Selfishness: When and Why Upper and Lower Class Individuals Behave Unethically”. Their hypotheses are that those who are higher in social class behave more selfishly but not unethically, while those lower in social class perform more unethical behaviors that are prone to helping others and are subsequently less selfish. They define selfishness as a heightened concern with one’s own personal profit or pleasure while unethical behavior refers to any illegal or moral action deemed unacceptable by the large community. Method: Dubois, Rucker, and Galinsky created an experiment to test their hypothesis. In the experiment, they tested the hypothesis that higher social class increased unethical behavior that benefits the self. 151 (half female, with the median age at 38) participants rolled an electronic die multiple times and were told if the total number is at least 14, they would win a lottery prize of $50. They were individually responsible for reporting their own score, but since the die was programmed to only add up to 12, any reports over 12 (including the 14 that is needed to get the prize) is considered cheating and is thus measured as unethical behavior. The potential lottery gains could be given to the self or to another person, which was used to measure self-other beneficial manipulation. They then reported where they were on a ten step ladder that represented the different levels of social class and reported their age and gender. Results/Findings: Dubois, Rucker, and Galinsky’s research established that a parsimonious relationship exists between social class, power, and unethical behaviors. There was a higher tendency to cheat for oneself in higher-class individuals. While being in high social class does not inherently make those who fall in that category behave unethically, being in a high social class can be a prediction for selfish behavior (those who are in a higher social class tend to have more selfish or self benefiting behaviors, actions, and choices). Meanwhile, those in lower social classes tend to behave more unethically but more so when it benefits others. These differences tend to stem from differences in social power and influence. However finding out if “the rich more unethical than the poor and vice versa?” may not be the right question to ask. Society may be more interested in when the rich vs. the poor is unethical? People have been allocating resources since the dawn of mankind. Every day individuals make decisions on how to allocate items throughout their life and to different people, whether that be time, money, food etc. When making such decisions, people commonly weigh how they feel about the consequences each choice make and use these feelings to guide them into allocating their resources. In Cardiff University’s Job van der Schalk and Anthony S. R. Manstead, University of Groningen’s Toon Kuppens, and University of Konstanz’s Martin Bruder’s article “The Social Power of Regret: The Effect of Social Appraisal and Anticipated Emotions on Fair and Unfair Allocations in Resource Dilemmas” the question, do other people’s emotional expressions affect an individual’s anticipated emotions and subsequent resource allocation when making decisions about resource allocation? Their hypotheses is that someone who expresses regret about having allocated resources unfairly would elicit more generous offers from an individual (who is allocating resources) than someone who expressed pride about having allocated resources unfairly. Method They tested that whether another person (exemplar) who felt proud or regretful about allocating resources fairly or unfairly would (Study 1A) influence a participants own allocation behavior and (Study 1B) does so by influencing the anticipated emotions the participant is experiencing if the participant was to act the same way as the other person (exemplar). The experiment had a 2 x 3 between-subjects design. With two behaviors, fair and unfair, and three emotions, pride, regret, control. 218 participants (61.9% female, with a mean age of ~45 years old) in Study 1A and 207 participants (50.7% female, with a mean age of about ~47 years old) in Study 1B, all of whom were recruited online through a loyalty program which would give them points for compensation. The measure of fair behavior is the amount of monetary units or tokens that participants are willing to share. All participants were allocators that had 100 pounds to allocate. They would make an offer in the simulation game and immediately after would be asked how many tokens they would be willing to spend in the game for that same offer. The answers reflected acceptance or rejection made by the randomly selected participants. Their emotions were also reflected and exemplar influence was created by having participants seeing a transcript of a previous participants’ (exemplar’s) thoughts on that offer, which would also have how the participants would split 50 tokens, 45(self)-5(other), 25-25, or something in between those two measurements. Exemplars manipulated emotion by writing if they felt “good”, “proud”, and “pleased” or feeling “bad”, “sorry”, and “regret” about the decision. Participants first provided demographic information, and were assigned an allocation role. Results/Findings Data analysis found that the effect of the exemplar regret on an offer in the fair behavior condition was fully mediated by an increase in the anticipated feelings of regret and was reduced with the anticipated feeling of pride. Participants who received an unfair offer in the first game were less liked to make an unfair offer in the second game. Indirect effects from anticipated emotions were significant from the exemplar and the hypothesis was supported by the data. It is common for recent high school graduates to take a gap year from school before continuing their higher education in community college, university, or job training programs. Many benefits have been deducted from previous research, the main benefit being more emotionally and mentally prepared to handle the challenges going into high university deals with including enacting career goals and developing a strong sense of identity. Australian Catholic Univeristy’s Philip D. Parker and Jasper J. Duineveld, Cornell University’s Felix Thoemmes, and University of Helsinki’s Katariina Salmela-Aro’s article “I Wish I Had (Not) Taken a Gap Year? The Psychological and Attainment Outcomes of Different Post-School Pathways” asks the question, is there evidence to suggest that those who embark on a gap-year would have significantly different outcomes had they instead gone directly to university?” They look at the differences between those who took and a gap-year and those who went directly to university, and hypothesize that there is are differences in the growth in career and educational goals, satisfaction with life, and university degree enrollment. Method They used two longitudinal studies in Finland and Australia as well as following participants’ choices after leaving high school and cover an extensive time period covering enrollment, drop-out, degree completion, and further studies. The sample size for Finland was 636 (68% female, 30% both parents in a white collar profession with 50% with at least one parent in a white collar profession) of which 384 students planned obtaining a university degree and the rest going straight into the labor force or attaining a polytechnic university. Out of the 384 going into university, 279 wanted to go directly out of high school while 105 planned to take a gap-year. Of the gap-year participants, 55 went into the military, 26 planned to work, 14 wanted to go oversees, and 20 had no firm plans. Analysis was interested in university enrollment, cognitive developments and behaviors relating to participants central educational or career goals, and whether the post-school pathway influenced these outcomes. Propensity score matching was used to control confounding variables. Australia had a similar sample size. Each participant was followed throughout their educational career and gave input on how they felt and what they were doing and planning on doing for the future. Results/Conclusions Results concluded that on average a gap-year provides little benefit or disadvantage in relation to goal engagement or confidence. It was found that students on a gap-year in Australia, however, tended to drop out of university, less likely to go onto higher education, and 20% never accepted enrollment when offered a spot. This clashes with other studies that say that gap-years are positive influences in attainment. While gap-years do not affect someone’s intrinsic goals or confidence, it can be seen to negatively impact attainment of a university degree. Psychological research and experimentation reveals how certain dependant variables can affect independent variables. This in turn shows us correlation and possible causation between two factors that can be manipulated. This can help enhance society and help humans understand how we function when given experience to different variables and factors. In these articles, it was shown that the rich have more selfish behaviors than the poor but the poor behave more unethically to better other people. People’s resource allocation is influenced by someone else’s input and facial expression, and that taking a gap-year from high school to university does not effect confidence or goals, but negatively affects degree attainment.
Ethics and decision making in healthcare.

Select one of the following ethical issues in healthcare from the following choices:Gender selection in human embryosStem cell transplantsForegoing curative medical treatment due to religious beliefsFutility of careAbortion after six months.If no topic listed here is of interest to you, contact your instructor for permission to consider a different topic. Use the CSU Global Library and select Internet sources to conduct research on your chosen topic. Based on your research, provide the history of the issue from a legal, ethical, and moral perspective. In your paper address the following questions:Do the consequences of actions always direct what is morally required?What should happen when two principles come into conflict? For example, should patient autonomy be considered more important than beneficence? Defend your position.Are moral and ethically rules always binding, or are they only guidelines to be assessed in each case? Defend your position.Your paper should meet the following requirements:Be ten to twelve pages in length, not including the cover or reference pages.Be formatted according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements. Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of eight scholarly references – four of these references must be from outside sources and four may be from course readings, lectures, and textbooks. The CSU-Global Library is a good place to find these references.Utilize headings to organize the content in your work.
Ethics and decision making in healthcare

SSGS 300 American Military University The Resurgence of Voter Suppression Essay

SSGS 300 American Military University The Resurgence of Voter Suppression Essay.

The project should have at least 8-10 pages of substance not counting the cover and reference page. Please include a Cover Page, an abstract and a list of references. The research proposal you write in this course will NOT be sent to the IRB for approval. This is because you will not be conducting actual research for the purpose of this class. You will, however, gain an insight as to how to write a research proposal. The Research proposal will be on Voter Fraud/Suppression. Each student will be required to complete a research proposal, as the term project. The research proposal will include the following:Title pageAbstract (100-120 words)IntroductionProblem StatementPurpose StatementHypothesisLiterature Review and Definitions included in the researchResearch methods/designReferencesAppendices – as needed (annotated bibliography, example consent form, example survey if used)The research proposal (Term Project) must be in a Word Document (.doc) uploaded to the student’s folder through the assignment section. Students will be required to use at least five scholarly references in their work.Students are required to follow APA Style guidelines.Do not include quotes in your work.Your proposal is what is needed for a successful research project to be conducted in the future.
SSGS 300 American Military University The Resurgence of Voter Suppression Essay

The positive effects of napping: Physical and mental

programming assignment help The positive effects of napping: Physical and mental. The Truth about Napping! Sleep is an essential requirement for our body and mind. Lack of sleep can lead to physical health problems as well as causing “continuous sleep deprivation” (Scearse, 2015). Visualize a material that increases alertness and address the related problem, which is “non-toxic, has no dangerous side effects, and, best of all, is absolutely free” (Mednick and Ehrman, 2006). Such a thing sounds too good to be true, however, it’s as simple as a ‘tactical snooze’. Napping has always been a part of the normal daily routine for infants and toddlers, and the “frequency of napping has consistently been reported to increase with advancing age” (Ohayon and Zulley, 1999). In the more recent years, napping has also been shown to benefit adolescents. These benefits have been proved by many experts, with various research providing “well-documented evidence of the benefits of naps during total sleep deprivation” (Bonnet, 1991), in “nightshift workers” (Purnell et al., 2002), and the benefits of “appetitive napping for non-sleep-deprived groups” (Betrus, 1986). Indicating, there are a lot more benefits to napping than meets the eye. So What Are the Psychological Benefits of Napping? Learning and memory: Napping has proven to assist the learning process, enhancing individual’s ability to absorb and retain knowledge. This was proven in a study conducted by Diekelmann, Buchel, Born and Rasch, (2011), where two “groups of participants memorized illustrated cards to test their memory strength”. Post memorization, participants were given a forty minute break, wherein one group napped. Once the break concluded, participants were examined on their recall skills, in which, the sleep group’s performance excelled recognising on average “85% of the patterns, compared to 60% for those who had remained awake” (Diekelmann, et al., 2011). Their research reveals that napping drives memories out of the hippocampus where they are “fragile” and quickly forgotten; into the neocortex, thus prohibiting them from being “overwritten” (Diekelmann, et al., 2011). Alertness: Staying alert is a significant determinant of one’s performance, and individuals that nap display greater alertness and vigilance. Research provides evidence that “planned naps improve alertness and performance in emergency department physicians and nurses, along with first-year medical students” (Smith-Coggins, Howard, Mac, Wang, Kwan, Rosekind, Sowb, Balise, Levis, and Gaba, 2006). This study and more, confirm that napping helps restore attention, reduce mistakes and enhances work quality among individuals (Tietzel and Lack, 2002; Lovato and Lack, 2010; Smith-Coggins, et al., 2006). In addition, napping boosts individual’s capacity to learn on the job. Reduce Risk of Heart Disease: Studies definitively prove that napping can promote heart-related benefits, with research expressing that a nap as little as forty-five minutes can significantly lower blood pressure, decreasing chances of heart attack and stroke. Naska, Oikonomou, Trichopoulou, Psaltopoulou, and Trichopoulos, (2007) conducted a study on 23,681 individuals in Greece, over a six year period, in which none of the participants suffered from strokes, cancer, and/or coronary heart disease. Their research indicated that individuals who napped twice a week, averaging “thirty minutes a day had a 12% lower risk of dying from a heart-related illness” (Naska, et al., 2007). Napping three times per week, they discovered had a 37% reduced risk. Mood: Lack of sleep has consistently been linked with bad moods. If individuals have feelings of irritability, crabbiness, or being a total moan, the best solution is often to ‘sleep on it’. Napping promotes the release of serotonin, reversing these “effects and creating a more positive outlook” (Mednick and Ehrman, 2006). Furthermore, studies have shown that napping reduces feelings of depression. “Individuals showed 40% improvement, on the Hamilton-Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), after taking a nap if the depression was a result of sleep-deprivation” (Gillin, Kripke, Janowsky, and Risch, 1989). As well as these, sleep experts have found that napping can: “boost creativity, energy, reduce stress, improve perception, stamina, enhance sex life, aid weight loss, decision making and also preserve youthful looks” (Langille, 2012; Mednick and Ehrman, 2006). Conclusively, napping provides countless benefits for individuals of all ages. How Long Should You Snooze? When is the best time to catch some Z’s? Napping at different periods leads to various benefits, the type of sleep you get is determined on the time of day and length of nap taken. Mednick and Ehrman (2006) state “the perfect nap for everyone is 90 minutes long”, unfortunately, not everyone has an hour and a half to spare throughout the day. (Derived from Scearse, 2015) References Betrus, P.A., (1986). “Afternoon Naps: Immediate and Delayed Effects on Performance and Mood”, Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 3630-3631. [Assessed 21st February 2015] Bonnet, M.H., (1991). “The Effect of Varying Prophylactic Naps on Performance, Alertness and Mood throughout a 52-Hour Continuous Operation”, Sleep, 14(4), pp. 307-315. Available at: positive effects of napping: Physical and mental

Complete IT AUDITING TASK (AIU) 2 Pages

Complete IT AUDITING TASK (AIU) 2 Pages. I’m studying and need help with a Computer Science question to help me learn.

Library Research Assignment
In conversations with PVSS, you have talked about the long-term strategic goals and plans for expansion. You also know about the rumors of the past, and during an informal conversation with the media content and design manager, the subject of the leaked CD came up. It is obvious that the manager is still upset by the allegations. The topic of fraud came up, and the manager would like to know how this could be tracked if proper controls are in place.
Using the online library, Internet, and all course materials, research fraud and auditing fraud. In a report of 2–3 pages for the manager, complete the following:

Describe what fraud is and how it could be conducted.
How would an audit attempt to detect that fraud has taken place?
Deliberate the previous leak, and offer your opinion about the root cause.
Could it be traced back to PVSS? (Note: this is pure speculation on your part.)
Play devil’s advocate as both an employee who could have leaked the CD and an auditor in an effort to track and catch the employee.

Complete IT AUDITING TASK (AIU) 2 Pages

The Erosion of Cultural Differences Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Globalisation Culture Effects of Tourism on Local Culture Conclusion Reference List Introduction In the contemporary world, cultural differences are hastily fading due to the effects of globalisation. The world is becoming one large global village where people are interconnected due to innovations like the information technology and improved transport networks. Businesses and large organisations have been in the forefront in expanding their operations outside their countries of origin as countries open their borders for foreign investments. This move has convened people of different cultures into a common environment where they adopt new cultural practices, which are termed as homogenised cultures. Globalised consumer culture, which refers to consumption of international standardised goods and services in different consumer products and services such as supermarkets, tourism, and food products, has contributed greatly to the homogenisation of culture (Croucher 2004). However, the erosion of cultural differences has caused loss of cultural heritages by some communities around the world, where some groups are in favour of leading others due to political powers. Globalisation Globalisation is defined as international standardisation of economic, social, and political ideas. This paper looks into globalisation via cultural perspective whereby the mobility of people in the contemporary world has facilitated the understanding of new cultures and identities in a globalised world. In the twentieth century, globalisation was viewed only via economic perspective, but today scholars are quick to look at it through humanistic approach and its impacts on culture. The advancement of technological development in the modern world has played a major role in allowing a large population to travel easily and quickly across various parts of the world for various reasons. Despite humans being mobile creatures, psychologists define humans as social beings, and hence they interact with other people all the time at different places of the world. Through these interactions with different people belonging to diverse cultures, there is often flow of new ideas, concepts, and ideologies, which play a major role in behavioural and cultural changes (Bauman 1998). Globalisation can also be achieved via other means despite travelling and meeting with people of diverse cultures. In the modern educational system, students are taught newly developed ideas that change their lifestyles in the concept of being learned and well exposed. Hence, education system introduces new ideas to the society and it has an effective influence on society. The major difference between the education system and travelling is that the education system introduces ideas whereas travelling and meeting with new people from different cultures gives one the experience of ideas and ways of life (Baud