1- What societal need is important to you and how do you think you can use your gifts/talents/skills to make a difference?2- fter reading and reflecting on the article The Ultimate Guide to Writing Your Own Personal Mission Statement (Links to an external site.)write your own Purpose Statement. Be sure that your purpose statement reflects “Who You Are” and “Who You Are in Relation to Others” (as identified in the previous two assignments).3- Demonstrate personal accountability and effective work habits, e.g., punctuality, working productively with others, and time workload management, and understand the impact of non-verbal communication on professional work image. The individual demonstrates integrity and ethical behavior, acts responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind, and is able to learn from his/her mistakes. After having completed the Professionalism/Work Ethic module, think about how you have developed and demonstrated your Professionalism/Work Ethic. Give 3 examples of how you have demonstrated Professionalism/Work Ethic and write them in bullet format as you would in a resume. Make sure that you use proper grammar and spelling. For example :Demonstrated commitment to the company and its customers through being responsive and present at all times, and volunteered to take on additional shifts for employees who were unable to work.”4- Articulate thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively in written and oral forms to persons inside and outside of the organization. The individual has public speaking skills; is able to express ideas to others; and can write/edit memos, letters, and complex technical reports clearly and effectively. After having completed the Oral/Written Communications module, think about how you have developed and demonstrated your Oral/Written Communication Skills. Give 3 examples of how you have demonstrated Oral/Written Communication Skills and write them in bullet format as you would in a resume. Make sure that you use proper grammar and spelling. For Example: Demonstrated outstanding written communications skills in preparing clear, concise summary of the minutes of the Student Government meetings. 5- Exercise sound reasoning to analyze issues, make decisions, and overcome problems. The individual is able to obtain, interpret, and use knowledge, facts, and data in this process, and may demonstrate originality and inventiveness. After having completed the Critical Thinking /Problem Solving module, think about how you have developed and demonstrated your Critical Thinking/Problem Solving Skills. Give 3 examples of how you have demonstrated Critical Thinking/Problem Solving skills and write them in bullet format as you would in a resume. Make sure that you use proper grammar and spelling.Example: Identified inefficiencies in the processing of purchase orders and implemented new procedures resulting in a quicker turn around time with fewer errors.
Skills Talents and Gifts Uses Personal Accountability Questions
How Does the Internet Aid Communication? Analytical Essay
The Internet has become an integral part of the life of many people. The invention and spread of the Internet changed all aspects of modernity. Thus, the Interned made the life quicker and communication easier. The communication via the Internet is becoming more and more popular nowadays. People prefer sharing their ideas and best moments while being online. Although the Internet has become of extreme significance nowadays, there are both advantages and disadvantages of using it. Communication and Its Forms Before examining the Internet and its role, it is necessary to be aware of the notion of communication and its various types. There are numerous definitions of communication. The central idea of all of them is that communication is a process of sharing thoughts. Thill and Bovee (2013, p. 3) define communication as ‘the process of transferring information and meaning between senders and receivers, using one of more written, oral, visual, or electronic media’. The nature of communication is complicated as far as it can be presented in various forms and dimensions. According to the most general division, the communication can be of two types: verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication presupposes the usage of words. Thus, when people communicate with the help of words (either orally or in writing), they are engaged in the verbal communication. The distinctive feature of spoken communication is that people use different gestures, postures, movements, and facial expressions. All these signs are referred to as nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is not formally accepted though it exists. However, one should always bear in mind that meanings of nonverbal signs may differ among cultures and countries (Sarvaiya 2013). The sub-types of verbal communication are oral and written. The oral communication is spontaneous, personal, and flexible. Written communication is usually influenced by particular rules of writing and is rather formal. Depending on the number of participants, the communication may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and massive. An intrapersonal communication occurs when one thinks. All people practice internal communication. It assists in the better understanding of the world. An interpersonal communication is realized in the form of dialogues between two people. Group communication occurs between members of the particular unity. The group is a company of individuals who are united by the common goal. There are small (from three to seven participants) and large (seven and more) groups (Sarvaiya 2013). The mass communication is the last form. This type is conducted via television, radio, or any other mass media channels. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internet Communication and Its Forms Internet communication is more often called online communication. The aim of the Internet communication is the same — to transmit information between senders and receivers but with the help of computers or any other devices that have access to the Internet. The classification of the forms of online communication can be rather a challenging task due to its constant development and improvement. The Internet communication is divided into several types. The first type is “one-to-one” messaging. It is the most popular method of communication. It presupposes sending “e-mails” or messages via other platforms or social media. The primary thing about one-to-one messaging is that it is the way of online intercourse between individuals. The second type is “one-to-many messaging”. This type means the automatic sending of messages to many recipients at the same time. For instance, a person may visit some website, like it, and subscribe to it. All people who subscribe to the particular content will receive automatic e-mails about the news. “Distributed message databases” comprise the third type of communication via the Internet. In this case, people participate in group discussions. Thus, one person leaves a message, and others can write responses. All messages are visible to everybody. Many forums may serve as examples of distributed message databases. The next type of online communication is known as “real-time communication”. It should not be confused with the first type where users read messages later. In a real-time communication, one can answer immediately. This form is possible in all social media as well as in many chat rooms or specially designed services (Methods to Communicate Over Internet n.d.). Barret suggests another classification of the Internet communication tools. He differentiates traditional services, World Wide Web, video and phone calls, streaming video, and video games. Barret combines e-mailing, chat rooms, and forums into the group of traditional services. World Wide Web provides opportunities for every user to find required information. It is a service that works on the basis of the Hyper Transfer Protocol or HTTP. The user has to request particular information and the web server answers to that request. Modern online communication is not limited by messaging. Video and phone calls are possible nowadays. One has to have the gadget that supports such function and the access to the Internet. Skype is one of the most popular platforms for video and phone calls. Barett suggests that streaming video is one more option for communication when one can download film or music. Finally, video games are the last type. Many gamers can play games and communicate with other players simultaneously (Barett n.d.). Communication before the Invention of the Internet Human communication was realized in a variety of forms before the invention of the Internet. People used different media to transmit information. Drums were one of the first methods for sharing information. They were the primary way of communication in Africa in pre-historic times. The sound produced by drums could be heard from the distance of one hundred miles. In 2000 BC, Egyptian pharaohs established the other method of sharing information. We will write a custom Essay on How Does the Internet Aid Communication? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They developed the courier service to deliver written messages. The first prototype of the modern postal system was first used in Ancient Persia in the 5th century BC. It happened when the Athenian messenger run to ask for help from Sparta when Persians invaded Marathon (O’Neil 2013). Smoke signals represent an easy and efficient way of the visual communication. They were first used on the Great Wall of China. Pigeon post is regarded as the first most efficient system of communication. This type of message delivering was developed in the 12th century by Sultan Nur-ed-din. He built dovecotes in Damascus and Cairo, and pigeons carried messages over long distances. Besides, pigeon post played a crucial role in World War I and World War II. Telegraph was the first technologically aided method to transmit information. It was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and gave rise to the further development of the modern ways of communication such as telephones or faxes (From Smoke Signals to Smartphones 2014). The Development of the Internet The invention of the Internet is usually associated with the name Leonard Kleinrock. He was the first to write about ARPANET, the network that is considered to be the beginning of the Internet, in 1961. ARPANET is the abbreviation for the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network that was initially used by the U.S. Defense Department. Leonard Kleinrock sent the message via ARPANET in 1969. Since that time, many communication protocols appeared, and they were used for transmission of messages. The term “Internet” was introduced in 1973. Telenet was the first Internet Service Provider that used ARPANET for commercial purposes. The standard protocol for the Internet (IP) was introduced in 1982. A year later, the Domain Name System developed the modern version of website names such as.org,.com,.gov, and others. In the 90th, the era of rapid development continued and became close to the modern version of the Internet. Thus, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, worked on the HTML (HyperText Markup Language). A few years later, Microsoft and Apple Corporations started to work on the browsers for the access to the Internet (Zimmerman 2012). A crucial point in the development of the Internet happened in 1998. The Google introduced the search engine system that changed the human communication. In 2004, Facebook was launched. This event is another milestone in the Internet communication as far as it gave rise to the social networking. In six years, the number of Facebook users increased to four hundred million. Since 2010, social media became essential for the human communication. The Role of the Internet The Internet has changed not only the nature of communication. It modified a variety of other aspects of everyday life including: Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does the Internet Aid Communication? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Education is much more accessible nowadays than whenever before. People have opportunities to receive degrees online regardless of their location. Although the online education is still developing, it brings a substantial hope to the sphere of education; Research. Millions of people use Google or other online sources to find answers to everyday questions. The World Wide Web has become a massive storage of helpful pieces of advice for every day; Business. The Internet gave rise to the development of the electronic commerce. Nowadays, e-commerce is an essential part of the successful business. Also, the job search became much easier. An employee can send resumes via e-mails from one place without wasting too much energy; Travelling and shopping. There is no need to go the travel agency anymore as far as one can reserve tickets to any place online. The same is with shopping. Online stores made it possible to buy everything without living home; Entertainment. The Internet provides numerous opportunities for having fun in the virtual reality. Thus, one can play games, watch movies, or listen to music using the same computer or gadget; Healthcare. Currently, an individual can use a variety of online applications that can calculate ideal weight, suggest necessary treatment or well-balanced diet (Mehta 2014). Online Communication and Politics The topic concerning the way the Internet communication influences democratization and public engagement is one of the most discussed nowadays. Some scholars argue that the Internet has made communication more democratic and allowed people to be more open in their judgments. One of the reasons to speak about online democratization refers to the increasing number of online protests or arranging of real protest with the help of online communication. The Internet gave people the possibility to collaborate and coordinate whenever there is a necessity. Online communities, blogs, forums, websites — all of them can be used to demonstrate the particular attitude towards some issues. Tsatsou (2014, p. 88) writes that ‘the Internet can contribute to enhance the autonomy of citizens to organize and mobilize around issues that are not properly processed in the institutional systems’. The term “digital democracy” is used to define the notion of online democratic communication. However, the increasing engagement in online affairs makes people distracted from the real-life citizenship and social life. In this respect, the Internet is believed to impede communication in real-life settings and, in its turn, decrease the role of democracy. The other fact that undermines the notion of digital democracy refers to the ethical issue of privacy. Service providers can define who is hiding beyond the anonymous blog. Even more, personal data of users are now actively used for the variety of purposes. Consequently, people claim that their rights to privacy are violated. The Influence of the Internet on Personal Communication: Advantages and Disadvantages Probably, the most significant impact of the Internet refers to the personal communication. Virtual communication is a subject of numerous discussions nowadays. There are both advantages and disadvantages when speaking about the role of the Internet in human intercourse. Matusitz (2007, p. 23) writes that ‘a virtual community can be considered as a “real” gathering of people where they communicate, like in a physical environment, create webs of personal relationships, and strengthen weak ties over time, even if everything occurs in cyberspace’. Thus, the Internet makes communication accessible for all people regardless of their location. The second advantage of the online communication is that people can improve psychological well-being. Virtual reality allows everyone to find individuals who share the same point of view on politics or like the same music. The Internet erases barriers and loneliness. One can communicate with everyone who has the same values or preferences. Finally, people feel free when they express their opinions via the Internet. It is possible to write a response anonymously. It gives the possibility to express such thoughts that could be regarded as unacceptable in the society. Thus, the Internet provides individuals with the feeling of digital freedom. Nevertheless, there are adverse sides of online communication as well. Some scientists believe that the online communication is nothing but the illusion (Matusitz 2007). Virtual communities can never replace real as far as they lack such features of the human intercourse as touches, facial expressions, gestures, smells, and other non-verbal signs. One more disadvantage of the online communication refers to the fact that there is no moral obligation. Thus, it is easy to deceive people about one’s beliefs, interests, or even gender. People who have bad social skills or are lonely often start to communicate via the Internet. However, Kim, LaRose, and Peng have demonstrated that such an escape from reality impedes the situation and deepens the feeling of loneliness and psychological dissatisfaction (Kim, LaRose,
Ohio State University Columbus’ Letter Analysis
essay helper free Ohio State University Columbus’ Letter Analysis.
(PLEASE CHOOSE EITHER THE LIINK OR DOCUMENT FILES POSTED)Write a 3-4 page Document Analysis based on one of the documents OR linkYour task is to show how the document you select sheds light on the period during which it was written.In other words, what does the document show about an event, socio-economic relationships, ideas or religious sentiments during the period we have studied?Do not just assert what you think to be true – you need to quote or paraphrase from the document to show exactly how the document supports the position you are asserting.https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/5b723fe24a537/2975727?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%2A%3DUTF-8%27%27Letter%2520of%2520Columbus%2520concerning%2520commerce%25201493.pdf&response-content-type=application%2Fpdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20191011T064938Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=21600&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIBGJ7RCS23L3LEJQ%2F20191011%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=1e01bbd33bf989ab91b9c45e16426808b2fd7b34f37889c4cf1df0a440011a94
Ohio State University Columbus’ Letter Analysis
Genetically Modified Salmon Labeling Essay
The issue of genetically modified (GM) salmon labeling is a rather complicated one as it is associated with customers’ perceptions. Traditionally, GM food is considered as something artificial and dangerous to health. In their study, Amin, Azad, Gausmian, and Zulkifli (2014) state that the very notion of modern biotechnology, religious beliefs, and eating preferences may divert people from consumption of such foods. More to the point, as noted by Haspel (2015), GMO technology was foisted for a long time. In this connection, some organizations may reject labeling their GM products. However, in case GM salmon meets the officially established standards of safety and containment policy, where the latter relates to the separate breeding and escape prevention, why not to label it? It seems that GM salmon labeling should be implemented to clearly indicate that this food was modified. The information should be obvious and visible, so that every customer may easily understand what he or she attempts to purchase (Haspel, 2015). In this connection, transparency is to be proposed as the top priority for GM food manufacturers as customers have the right to know what they eat. In particular, it seems appropriate to use the approach that implies the presence of some additions. GM salmon is to be labeled as a GM product. At the same time, to introduce this product to customers, it is necessary to identify that it is nutritionally identical to regular salmon. In this case, it seems that both customers and food manufacturers would benefit from GM salmon production. To sum it up, the research with which I also agree shows that the mandatory GM food labeling guidelines are to be implemented in the US. References Amin, L., Azad, M. A. K., Gausmian, M. H.,
Problems Faced By Leather Sector In Pakistan Economics Essay
Leather industry, including leather products, is the second largest export-earning sector after textiles. Currently, this sector is contributing around $800 million a year but has the potential to multiply volume of exports with the improvement of quality and diversification in different range of products, specially garments and footwear. The exports are also carried out in un-tanned raw leather due to the quality and amount of livestock available in Pakistan. It is a job-oriented sector providing employment to a very large segment of the society besides earning foreign exchange for the country. The leather finishing and made ups industries represent an important sector in Pakistan, contributing almost more than half a billion US dollars in foreign exchange earnings to the national exchequer. The leather industry consists of six sub-sectors namely, tanning, leather, footwear, leather garments, leather gloves, leather shoe uppers, and leather Goods. The Tanning industry plays a vital role in the progress of these sub-sectors by providing the basic material i.e. leather. Today, Pakistanis, are among the leading countries in the production of Leather Garments and Gloves. The leather and leather made-ups industry plays a significant role in the economy of Pakistan and its share in GDP is 4%. Ten years ago, it was the fifth most important export industry in the manufacturing sector, and now it is the second. (Leather analysis report leather mag, 2009) At the time of independence there were only a few tanneries producing sole leather and that too at a very small scale. However, since then this industry has been flourishing. During 1950s, some well-equipped tanneries were set up at Karachi and Lahore, while during 60s and 70s more units were established at Hyderabad Kasur, Sialkot, Multan, Sahiwal and Gujranwala. Starting with the production of picked and vegetable tanned hides and skins, the tanneries, today, are producing not only wet blue and crust, but also fully finished leather. The entire production of hides and skins were being exported in a raw form. Thereafter the local tanning industry making at first semi-finished leather made rapid progress due to favorable raw material situation, cheap labor and the existence of growing demand and foreign market. Problems Faced By Leather Sector in Pakistan Challenges and Issues Leather and leather garment industry of Pakistan is confronted with various challenges to survive in international market such as: Absence of advanced technology, shortage of human power Absence of high tech quality products and the shortage of skilled manpower to cater to the needs of the world market. There is a growing need to prepare labor force having capacity to produce leather garments on scientific lines and comply with the demands of international market to compete. High Cost of production Cost of production is also very high in pakistan as compared to competitors like China and India. The high cost of various inputs, especially utilities and taxes make Pakistan’s products – finished and unfinished – uncompetitive in international market and with no subsidy provided by the government, it just adds to the hurdle. Environmental Impacts of leather industries in Pakistan Leather tanning tends to be very polluting as compared to other manufacturing industries. Numerous measures are suggested to take care of the environmental hazard It causes but it is not implemented due to lack of funds. At every unit of output, the level of toxicity is high due to the heavy hides-leather converting process. Chrome issue Chromium III salts are used extensively in the tanning process. Approximately 90% of the leather manufactured is tanned using chromium III, but misconception and ignoramus decision makers, end up using chromium VI which is quite contrary to Chromium III Relocation of industries: Local leather industry may have to face stiff competition in the WTO scenario as export prices can reduce significantly due to relocation of industry from the developed countries to Asia. The leather industry is the second largest export industry of the country. During the last fiscal year, leather exports stood at $744 million, exceeding the annual target of $715 million set by the Export Promotion Bureau, (EPB) (Gulf News Focus, 2007) Flood impact: Tanveer Sher in his article in Daily Times on 25 August, 2010 said that because the livestock took a massive hit in the devastating 2010 floods in different province, the leather industry was sure to bear the brunt. The huge devastations unfolded by the massive floods are feared to take leather industry worth one billion dollars in their lap, BNA reported Monday in Times of Pakistan. Pakistan Leather Garments Manufacturers And Exporters Association’s Chairman Chaudhry Zulfiqar said a huge number of livestock were destroyed by the flooding, to the effect that hides acquisition would drop by 15 to 20 percent. This would lead a 30 percent slump in exports. Zulfiqar Chaudhry said the already expensive leather products would soar higher beyond people’s purchasing power. (The times of Pakistan Monday, August 23, 2010) Government Policies Regarding Leather Export Government revised its trade policy for the leather sector from 2009 – 2012, to stem the decline in leather exports. Federal minister for commerce announced these steps, on July 26, 2009: Facilities from Export Investment Support (EIS) Fund for procurement of expert advisory services, matching grant to establish design studios/centers and establishment of research and development centers in Karachi and Sialkot. In addition, this sector would be able to avail EIS Fund facilities that include sharing 25 per cent financial cost of setting up laboratories and matching grant for setting up of effluent treatment plants. To ensure predictability of electricity supply, commerce minister said, the ministry of water and power and electricity distribution companies will enter into agreements with cluster of industries whereby electricity will be supplied at mutually agreed times. The 15 agreements would have punitive and compensation clauses and the compensation could be in the form of electricity charges credit. The following reactions arose to the policies adopted: Chairman, leather exporters association, commended the government decision to release funds for hiring experts for research and product development. He said, this will considerably help in improving exports. However, the target of six per cent increase in exports this year is low as the country has much more potential and the government should have aimed for a higher target. Chairman tanners association, termed the new trade policy to be “hopeless for the leather sector.” He said: our foremost demand was to provide rebate on exports, which other regional countries enjoy, for instance most of our regional countries get up to 15 per cent rebate on all leather product exports. What we get is less than one per cent rebate from the government.” “There is an immediate need for establishment of a Leather Board in Pakistan which should operate as an independent body and funded by the government from export development fund. A person exporting value-added leather products should head the board. Leather Export Associations of Pakistan There is no specific association that looks after overall leather sector, except for SMEDA, the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Association, which focuses on developing more industries, but has its hands ties due to lack of funds. The most prominent association is PLGMEA (Pakistan Leather Garments Manfacturers and Exporter’s Association). The following are the active associations catering to different parts of the leather industry in Pakistan. A.E.S.I.L.T. Anjuman Ex-Students of I.L.T.,Gujranwala, A.S.A.I.F. Asian sports and allied industries federation FPCCI Federation Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry LIDO Leather Industry Development Organization Ministry of Industries and Production(Industries WING) Pakistan Footwear Manufacturers Association Pakistan Tanners Association (Indian Leather Portal) World Trade Organization’s Role There was a case concerning Pakistan’s export measures affecting hides and skins on 7 November 1997, in which the European Communities (EC) were the complainant. Hence, EC requested consultation with Pakistan at the WTO regarding their decision to prohibit the export of hides and skins. This case, although old, highlights the role of WTO in Pakistan and the involvement in the exports and imports of commodities to and from Pakistan. Under the WTO regime, member countries can impose penalties or restrict imports from exporting countries whose industries do not observe environmental/labor concerns or social compliance, thus signifying their role in Pakistan’s exports in not only Pakistan’s exports not only in the leather sector but overall exports. WTO also ensure protection of trade rights as per the agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) of WTO, Pakistan through Trade Marks Ordinance, 2001, provides effective protection and rights to the owner of trade marks. As WTO sets standards regarding labor and other issues, hence the industry needs to tackle all the labor issues to which the consumers in the importing countries are sensitive to. It needs to be ensured that the leather industry in Pakistan adheres to the working condition requirements that have been developed by certain international bodies, particularly, the associations of leather industries in the importing countries of the west. (iin.com.pk) Export History of Leather Sector The years considered in the report are 2005 – 2009.(SBP Export Receipts) Analysis of Export History 2005-2009 Leather export in 2009 witnessed a drop of 20%, which was expected to rise to 25% by the end of the fiscal year. It was because the leather sector needed an immediate rescue package from the government and was facing a capital crisis. Another major reason for the fall in export was because the transport prices had risen, which was an indicator of further shut down of industries (Chinese Leather, 2010). Industry leaders say that leather sector`s exports have suffered partly due to a lower demand amid global recession and partly because leather industries in China, India and Bangladesh have become more competitive on the back of incentives. Leather garments exporters in China, for example, receive 13-15 per cent duty drawback while their Pakistani counterparts get 2.4 per cent. For past many years, leather industries have been importing finished leather to supplement local purchases. According to a recent report of International Trade Organization-an affiliate of the UN and WTO-Pakistan spent $76 million in 2006 on imports of animals` hides and skins. “So there is a strong case for developing livestock sector and improving the system for collecting, preserving and finishing hides and skins as raw materials for leather industry,” an official commented Makers of leather products say since Vietnam`s export of footwear to the US has become duty free this too is hurting Pakistan. To take advantage of this, many Chinese leather industries have relocated into Vietnam. “This has made it even more difficult for us to compete with Vietnam, as Vietnam is exporting very cheap footwear to the US taking advantage of the economies of scale introduced by Chinese companies,” says Sheikh Javed Ilyas, a former chairman of Pakistan China Business Council. Since Vietnam is part of ASEAN and its exports to ASEAN countries are tariff-free, this also frustrates Pakistan`s attempts to penetrate into ASEAN markets. Moreover, from Yiwu city in Chinese province of Zhejiang, containers of cheap footwear are dumped daily into Pakistani market and that too hurts our footwear industry. This has compelled manufacturers of joggers and at least one producer of a leading brand of sleepers to outsource production to Yiwu and take advantage of the low cost of doing business there. (Dawn Archives e-paper, 2009) The Ministry of Industries has funded a study to help the Pakistan leather garment exports to reach $5 billion by the year. Pakistan’s leather exports witnessed a decline of 29 per cent in the fiscal year 2008-09, after a decade of constant growth. The sharp decline in the exports of highly value added and labor intensive leather sector, which is Pakistan’s second top foreign exchange earner after textiles and employs some 500,000 workers, is a matter of serious concern, calling for immediate remedial steps to improve the industry. Before 2008-09, the country’s leather sector has been witnessing an upsurge in its export earnings, which increased from $271 million in fiscal year 1990-91 to $349 million in 1994-95, to $643 million in 1996-97, to $938 million in 2004-05 and to $943.788 million last year. Meanwhile, the export of leather garments moved from $736 million in fiscal year 1996-97 to $1,088 million in 2004-05. Although the total export earnings of the leather sector increased till 2007-08, the percentage share of this sector in the total exports of Pakistan has decreased from 10.41 per cent in 1989-90 to 7.73 per cent in 1996-97, to about 7 per cent in 2007-08, and to 5.33 per cent last year. In the global leather trade of $98 billion, Pakistan’s share accounted for 1.29 per cent. The export dropped from $19.1 billion in 2007-08 to $17.8 billion in 2008-09. (Analysis leather industry, leather mag 2009) The ratio of cow/bull slaughter in Pakistan is higher than goat/sheep during the Eid sacrifice. The percentage of slaughter of cows/bulls is approx 60-70% as compared to 30-40% goat/sheep. Presently the supply of hides from Brazil and South America has increased. The skins procured from Middle Eastern and African countries, especially from Saudi Arabia and Ethiopia, are of medium quality. Leather Industry: SWOT Analysis STRENGTH WEAKNESSES: 1. Easy availability of raw material 2. Management skills learned through experience 3. Easy availability of labor 4. Presence of institutional supports for technical, services, designing, human power, and marketing 5. Export market in Europe and USA and far East 6. Export friendly government policies 1. Insufficient level of modernization and technology up gradation 2. Low labor productivity 3. Lack of confidence among SMEs for further growth 4. Lack of skilled labor 5. Environmental problems 6. Lack of market information(for SMEs) OPPORTUNITIES: THREATS: 1. Room for capacities utilization 2. Scope for bulk supply of finished leather to big Units. 3. Product diversification
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