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Skills Required For Effective Management And Leadership Education Essay

It relates specifically and only to us, and will enable us to tailor our own development to suit our particular needs. Development This is all about you recognising the need to improve in particular areas of your personal and professional life. Development is a relative term so it may be about developing existing skills, or acquiring new ones. Its depend person whether he enhance existing or go for new one. And secondly development could be about gaining specialist knowledge in an area, or a broad knowledge of another area. Thirdly and finally development may be about finding space to develop your career, and space within your career to develop yourself. Personal development It is process for an individual to do his or her self development and then developments of others. At individual level personal development includes plans, goals, objective and action orientation toward following one or multi aims. To improve your abilities Create self awareness To gain self knowledge To develop talent To identify your strengths To improve quality of life Develop social abilities Professional development Provides way of capturing the things you need to do in order to grow and learn either in your current role or a new one. It also refers knowledge and skill to improve personal development and career advancement. For professional development there are a variety of approaches including: consultation coaching communities of practice lesson study mentoring reflective supervision and technical assistance Skills require for effective management and leadership Personal management skills General Attitude and Behaviour Planning Meetings Decision making Support Problem solving Communication motivation be responsible adaptable Professional management skills Technical skills conceptual skills interpersonal skills communication skills critical thinking skills PERSONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS As an owner of the organization we should develop qualities of leadership so as to be successful in the business. Whether our aspiration is to become the leader, there are certain skills that should be developed. Styles of leadership will vary according to different personalities but the main and the important qualities should be present for excellence. There are different important keys of the leadership. Standard centred leadership Measuring situations logically Being important and also taking instant action when it is required Communication Should lead by the example Strong self esteem Decision making Skills Planning and executing skills Leading teams Skills People Skills PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS Leaders play an important role in the success of the organization as leaders will motivate the employees of the organization to contribute and to work with their capabilities in order to be successful as an individual as well as the organization. We receive it for fixed the good leaders have high-quality communication skills. Leaders should have few professional skills so as to reach success personally and also professionally which in turn leads to the success of the business. Courage Inspiring followership Vision Serving Decision making Advocacy Entrepreneurship Role of Leadership and management skills in achieving organizational Goals In Business, Leadership and management is about inspiring followers to achieve Team or Organizational goals. The person may be a Team Leader or Manager in a Business, and he or she may have built the respect of his Team. According to my own practical work experience I am going to describe my role of leadership and management skills. E.g. I am working in B
Assignment of Universe.

For this assignment you are going to practice some of the data analysis that astronomers have to do to look for evidence of extrasolar planets. You are given six example graphs of data that use three different methods: the astrometry method, the “wobble” or spectral method, and the transit method. I have provided some notes in the reading section on each of these methods, using the same types of diagrams I provide for the assignment. You will also be able to find a lot online about these methods and the discoveries made with them. There are two examples for each of three methods: Astrometry, Spectral, and Transit methods. For each example you are to determine if there is sufficient evidence to claim that there is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star. You are going to do this six times, once for each of the graphs. They are not connected to each other. Part 1 : For each graph answer (15% each) :
Is there evidence of a possible extrasolar planet orbiting this star? (Yes or no)If there is not sufficient evidence to say there is an orbiting star, you should include a paragraph explaining why there is insufficient evidence of an extrasolar planet. There is no need to try to explain what could cause the patterns you do see in the data, but you have to explain why they are different than what you might see if there were a planet orbiting the star. (about 100 words)If there IS evidence of an extrasolar planet, you must include a paragraph about the evidence you used to come to that conclusion as well as the orbital period of the planet (how long it takes to a complete orbit around the star). (about 100 words)Part 2 (3 pts): Answer the following question (10%)
Are any of these graphs likely from the same star? Explain your answer. Remember to think about the orbit and the way we view the star. (about 100 words)Please submit in PDF or a current version of .docx (MS word) to the DROPBOX area under COURSE ACTIVITIES on the top menu bar. Our TA will grade them and should return them within 2 weeks. If you have trouble submitting, please email a copy of the assignment before the due date to get full credit. Astrometry Graph 1 Astrometry Graph 2 Spectral Graph 1 Spectral Graph 2 Transit Graph 1 Transit Graph 2
Assignment of Universe

An Analysis Relations Between The Us And Israel Politics Essay

During more than four decades of state-building, Israelis have looked to the United States for inspiration, financial and military assistance, and diplomatic support. Americans, in turn, have viewed Israel with a special appreciation for its successful effort to follow the Western democratic tradition, its remarkable economic development, and its determined struggle against its uncompromising enemies. in this Paper will indicate the beginning of US-Israeli relations, the US policy towards Israel , then the public opinion about Israel, the role of Israeli lobby in USA, the timeline of US -Israeli relations , then US Criticism to Israel ,the current relations. -Research problem: Why does it seem that Israel’s relationship with the United States beyond the barriers of political and ideological? -Research Questions: 1-what are roots of US -Israeli relations? 2- Is Israel exploiting America? 3- What are the interests between them? 4-Does US criticizes Israeli Policy? 5- Dose US Foreign Policy towards are affected by Israeli policy? The Hypothesis: The relations between Israeli and United States through politics and history. My approach will be Conflict Management Approach. Introduction: Since the creation of the Jewish state on May 14, 1948, the United States and Israel have maintained very strong ties. Israel owes it very existence in large part to the efforts of the United States. Traditionally, Israel has been looked upon as a solid friend and ally in a very tumultuous region of the world. A tremendous amount of aid, especially military and economic, has been given to the country. American support for Israel has been accepted as the “right thing to do.” Israel currently receives about $3 billion per year in economic and military grants, refugee settlement assistance, and other aid. Congress has monitored the aid issue closely along with other issues in bilateral relations, and its concerns have affected Administration’s policies. the beginning of US relations began U. S.-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the U. S. superpower trying to balance competing interests in the region. American support for the age-old aspirations of the Jewish people to return to their homeland dates from the Colonial period when John Adams wrote: “I really wish the Jews again in Judea an independent nation for, as I believe, the most enlightened men of it have participated in the amelioration of the philosophy of the age.” In 1917, Lord Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild, president of the British Zionist Federation, stating that the British Government would facilitate the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. President Wilson expressed his support for the Balfour Declaration when he stated on March 3, 1919. Congress was no less sympathetic to the Zionist objective. One can look back to the joint Congressional resolutions of 1922 and 1944 that unanimously passed an endorsement of the Balfour Declaration. The House Foreign Affairs Committee stated in 1922, Legislatures in 33 states, representing 85 percent of the population, also adopted resolutions favoring the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Governors of 37 states, 54 United States senators, and 250 congressmen signed petitions to the President. [1] 23 History of the American-Israeli relations can be divided into during the previous phase to four major periods: 1-Phase ONE from 1948 to 1973: During the first phase of this period was characterized by the development of strategic relations between the two sides slowly with the declaration of the State of Israel and the recognition by the United States, and the Suez Crisis of 1956, which resulted from the introduction of Israel’s strategic vision of America in the region, from the premise that Israel’s moderate is not a burden, and then revealed years following the crisis until the 1967 war on the frequency of strategic cooperation between the two countries and access for the second phase 1967, 1973, marked by the rise of fast at the site of Israel for several reasons the most important failure of the regimes that are hostile to the United States within the region, and the failure of the prestige and the role of the Soviet Union in the region, particularly since the American perspective Israel deems capable of striking the Arab party’s pro-Soviet, so that Arabs understand in the end futility of a military solution, and accept a diplomatic solution. 2-Phase TWO from 1973 to 1981:this phase called Recovery of the strategic role of Israel after the war of 73, which lasted until 81: since the outbreak of the 1973 war and military consequences that resulted from the day after the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli peace in 1979, it moved the position of Israel in U.S. policy from a maximum unreasonable to a minimum is expected to return without a rise gradually to arrive at the end of the decade to its original level, where this war resulted in the destabilization of Israel’s strategic position during 1973 or 1976. Showed the dependence of America, which shook the foundations of U.S. strategy toward the region based on preventing a major Arab-Israeli war and attract the Middle East between the great powers. Or link between the conflict in the region and the oil war confirmed that the future of the Israeli state force of arms, the document warns of pessimism and crossed Kissinger policy step by step for this new vision of the situation of the region. 3-Phase THREE from 1981 to 1992: it called Strategic Alliance This represents the period one of the most important stages of the evolution of American-Israeli relations and the most complicated, as had not gone a single line, In the first phase of 1981 1988 which continued the presidency of Ronald Reagan saw relations return to the doctrine of strategic stock that means has the supporters of this doctrine vision implicitly to the peace of services attributed to Israel, starting from below and up to the most important, from the geographical location, which serves the U.S. presence in region, infrastructure and logistical capabilities that distinguish Israel from other U.S. allies in region, in addition to the defense capacity that supports U.S. interests by protecting the stability of the region, and possibilities of research and development and intelligence .which strengthen over the following years 1983 1989 and despite the intermittent differences and confusion and misunderstanding has continued to emphasize the view Israel as a strategic asset and help the regional and international developments, especially the collapse of the Shah in Iran and the failure of the policy of detente and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the pressures of lobbies and interest groups, and the disunity Arab, where the combined these factors to prevent a crisis in US-Israeli relations as a result of the invasion of the recent Lebanon in 1982, but emphasis was placed on strategic cooperation in the framework of that resolution was adopted Directive 111 and evolved forms of cooperation in 1983 in 1989 under what was called the Cold War following convergence of the Syrian USSR, “and despite a change of the general context of relations under the Bush administration 1988 1992 end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the outbreak of the Second Gulf War and the launch of Arab-Israeli negotiations, that did not affect the total general formulation of the relationship even though it had become clear that Israel is a burden on the interests of America, and it is the opposite of what it is rumored as a set for the region’s conflicts and the safety valve to counter the threat of Islamic fundamentalism. 4-Phase Four: from 1990 to 2001 this phase called correspondence of interests that is the phase which began with the arrival candidate Democratic Bill Clinton to the White House, and its continuance in which, for two periods for two successive represent this period Summit in relations between the two parties, which witnessed the first period return of the second formulation, the mouthpiece of the depth of strategic cooperation, which has taken aspects to many of the development of weapons to contribute to projects conquest of space, but in parallel with the revival version of this and raised the strategic relations between the two sides to unprecedented levels, has emerged the principle of burden-sharing in crisis management following the end of the Cold War, the United States of America, According to this principle no longer willing to shoulder alone the burdens and costs of managing crises, and that Figure that you see in this case is the distribution of these burdens on the coalition or a consortium of parties with an interest in the management of a crisis, and for reasons that have resulted from the end of the Cold War and international conflict, and also of the reluctance of public opinion to bear such burdens and pressures to direct spending on overseas programs within the country, as well as an emerging divide within the elite influencing the political decision for the position of foreign policy and burdens. The answer of Why does it seem that Israel’s relationship with the United States beyond the barriers of political and ideological? This interpretation depends on the use of the United States to support the interests of Israel in the first such, it does not explain why America supports Israel, even in cases in which Israel is a burden on the interests of America . This is based on outer interpretation of the influence enjoyed by the pro-Israel Lobby in the United States, which has a special ability to influence, through having contact with the administration and the Senate and the House and possession of a database and the potential to influence the election campaign, and through funding. Also has a lobby, a knack for organizing and directing the Jewish vote during the elections, which is characterized by American Jews that they are so politicized and more than 90% of them participate in elections while than there were 3% of the total population at the same time, more than half the American people are not interested in participating in the electoral process. This maximizes the relative importance of Jewish groups, which in turn are concentrated in cities of the weight of an election as important as California and New York. Lobby based in its role of several factors such as the status of the State of Israel and the role of great power by the U.S. today and ideology of American cultural reference, which is reflected in the relationship with the Jewish community of American society based on inclusion, adoption and special relationship with the State of Israel. [4] 5 The timeline of US -Israeli relations was beginning 1917 Belfour Declaration by the British Government which controlled Palestine, details English support for a Jewish home setting the groundwork for the ultimate creation of the state of Israel. 1948 War/Israel’s Birth Israel wins the first war against its Arab neighbors leading to the establishment of the state of Israel. The United States is the first country to recognize Israel in the United Nations. 1956 Suez Crisis Israel, France, and Britain attack Egypt in October of 1956 after the Suez crisis but the US comes out against the war forcing United Nations intervention and an end to hostilities. 1967 Six-Day War Israel fights its third war in the region against the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and emerges victorious and in control of the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, Syria’s Golan Heights, and Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. 1973October/Yom Kippur War Egypt and Syria attack Israel in October of 1973 in an attempt to reclaim lands lost in the Six-Day War. Israel initially suffers major losses until the United States arranged a massive airlift of weapons which helped Israel in its counteroffensive. 1978Camp David Accords President Jimmy Carter mediates negotiations between Egypt’s Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Menachem Begin leading to the Camp David Accords, the prerequisite to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty. 1982 War of Lebanon Israel gets explicitly involved in the Lebanese Civil War, attacking Syrian and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) forces. The United States mediates an agreement with the PLO to withdrawal which leads to American troop deployment in Lebanon. 1991-Current The Peace Process The United States plays a mediating role between Israel and its neighboring Arab countries, leading to the Madrid Conference (1991), Oslo Process/Accords (1993), the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty (1994), and most recently the Roadmap For Peace. 2006 War with Lebanon Israel attacks Lebanon in retaliation for the Hezbollah kidnapping of Israeli soldiers. Questions arose about whether or not Israel used American supplied weapons during the conflict. [6] The answer of Question Is Israel exploiting America is that Nature of the relationship between the United States with its ally Israel, being related to common interests, of course, all these things are the basis of the relationship between the two parties, but that Israel could exploit the penetration of the Zionist lobby in the joints of the American state to the implementation of stealing technology and espionage and exploitation American figures are important to implement its goals and ambitions Pure unchecked, restriction or fear of cracking the alliance with the United States or taking into account the interests of the U.S., it is something worthy of wonder and a source of uncertainty in what looked like to say that successive U.S. administrations is satisfied with the repeated violations caused by Israel, despite the danger to security U.S. national. [7] American Researcher says. Hal Turner “Hal Turner on his Web site, we have to consider whether Israel really an ally of the United States,” or that Israel would exploit the Last Jews in all joints sensitive America for the implementation of their own, which may be subversive and dangerous to the security of the United States secrets and strategy, and it must be asked, is that the US-Israeli relations cost too much for the United States? Why this insistence blind without restriction or condition on the protection of Israeli interests, despite the recent lack of keenness on the interests of the sponsor? If we want to know that we have to look at the evidence the following: where should not ally that the acts contrary to the nature of the alliance as Israel did, spied on the United States, and sold the secrets the U.S. military to the enemies and rivals, America, and is stealing U.S. technology and are used without a license, and produce and storage of weapons of mass destruction, and attacking a U.S. warship (RL) on international waters and destroy, Israel had done a lot of this and are still continuing it. The United States has been Israel’s closest ally throughout its history; nevertheless, the U.S. has acted against the Jewish State’s wishes many times. Ever since the war began in 1948, the U.S. was unwilling to insist on projects for the resettlement of Arab refugees. The United States was also reluctant to challenge violations of the Arab Charter of the United Nations and its resolutions. Thus, for example, allowed the Arabs to escape from the siege of the Suez Canal, and to impose a boycott on Israel to commit acts of terrorism. In fact, the United States has taken positions against Israel at the United Nations in more often, and do not use the veto in the Security Council to block the anti-Israel resolution until 1972. Perhaps the most dramatic example of American policy different from that Israel came during the Suez War, President Eisenhower when he took a strong stand against Britain, France and Israel. After the war, U.S. pressure, and forcing Israel to withdraw from the territories it occupied. David Ben-Gurion adopted on American guarantees dubious that planted the seeds of conflict in 1967. In 1991, President George W. Bush at a press conference to ask about the delay in the consideration of Israel’s request for loan guarantees to help absorb Soviet Jews and Ethiopia because of disagreement with Israel’s settlement policy. In the interest and prestige in this delay, mild language Bush used that inflame sentiments and have raised concern in the Jewish community that raised anti-Semitism. Though often described as the main pro-Israel more in history, as Bill Clinton was critical of Israel on several occasions. Has shown the administration of President George W. Bush also do not hesitate to criticize Israel’s actions appear to be incompatible with the interests of the United States, but not generally more conservative in public statements. During the first year of the war Palestine, the United States imposed an embargo on spare parts for helicopters due to anger over the use of U.S. helicopters in targeted killings. The Bush administrations also punish Israel to agree to sell military equipment to China in 2005. [8] ‘Current Relations: Two contentious issues have brought the close relationship of the United States and Israel under scrutiny and have contributed to some tension in the relationship. One is Israel’s continued building of settlements on Palestinian land, despite the illegality under international law and the objection of U.S. politicians. Another issue has been the Israeli lobby in the US which has been criticized for advocating Israel’s interests within the American political system, even if they are contrary or might harm U.S. national interests.’ [9]

Effects of Technology on Culture Research Paper

essay writing help Introduction Background of the Study The world has incurred critical, extensive, and rapid development as far as technology is concerned. On daily basis, new gadgets are discovered by the technological specialists to ease, support and complement human life (Egger 2010, 291). Importantly, the history of technological obtained significant meaning during the 1980s when Apple computers started manufacturing high-quality devices with greater capabilities and better experience than the competitor’s products (Bennett 2011, 116). Where this development has taken place in general terms and transformed the popular culture technologically, it has equally affected the family unit bearing in mind that the devices are mostly used in the family context (Reiser 2009, 276). As such, it has led to critical implications on the interaction of family members and the manner in which they communicate to each other. This research focused on how the family unit transformed in the technological era. In addition, it showed how these devices changed communication and routes of interaction. Research Scope of the Study Whereas the technological advancement has taken place extensively and affected almost all aspects of human life, this paper sought to provide a step-by-step discussion on how technological devices transformed the family unit with advancement in technology. Importantly, it focused on the effects of devices such as televisions and personal computers on the cohesiveness of the computers. In this light, the research paper emphasized the changes that took place from 1980s to 1990s. This emphasis was based on the fact that there were robust inventions during this period as far as technology was concerned. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aim and Objectives The aim of a research is basically the broad focus of a research for which it seeks to achieve at the conclusive end. On the other hand, the objectives are subsets of the research aim which shows how the broad focus will be achieved. In other words, they provide understandable and more particular ways of attaining the stipulated aim. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the home-based entertainment changed the family unit to a device-centered unit. The objectives are as shown in this list presented below this paragraph. To determine the historical process of changing the family unit to a device centered unit. To identify the main players, such as people and devices, that led to the attainment of this condition in the family unit. To determines some of the family aspects and attitudes that may have contributed or accelerated the paradigmatic shift. As stated before, the question of how the family unit changed is a broad-focused area of interest. It cannot be discussed from the limited perspective of identifying the steps and stages of the process. Instead, it must be tackled from the idea of the involved players and the attitudes that led to the condition. Research Question What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit? What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit? Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit? Significance of the Study A family is the basic unit of the society since it comprises of the simple but critical definition of relationships. Indeed, the manner in which people behave towards other colleagues in the wider society is affected by the way the individuals were brought up at the family level. As such, it becomes crucial to investigate the trends that take place in our families from both internal and external perspectives. Importantly, the relationships within families are determinants of effective communication. In fact, breakdown of communication in a family can lead to devastating moral degradation in a society. For example, a drug addict who does not have a suitable platform to interact and share his or her problems with parents can degrade completely. In fact, the paradigm shift can be blamed for the moral degradation that is being experienced in the present times worldwide. In addition to this, the study seeks to track the history of this shift from the beginning. This will help to determine all the factors that led to the change in family orientation. As such, it will be the basis and foundation of providing a solution to the society in order to reinstate the family cohesion and bonds. We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Technology on Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understandably, it is very difficult to cure something that one does not acknowledge. Indeed, one needs broad and deep knowledge about the problem before presenting effective and credible solutions. In that regard, therefore, this study is an avenue to obtain the necessary knowledge. Evidently, this study seeks to study the separating aspect of technology in the family. Interestingly, however, the study will provide insight and ideas on how the same technology can be used to unite family members and reinstate the original family structure. This is based on the fact that the world cannot reverse technological advancements for the sake of creating better family bondage. However, technology can be manipulated in order to ensure that the original cohesiveness and family unity is reinstated. As such, this study will be a very crucial inquiry that will help to form the basis of inducing the right change and attitude in the family. As such, parents and the children started consuming different forms of entertainment according to the modernity and trend differences. As time progresses, each individual in the family regardless of the age warmed up towards personal tastes. This tendency increased the lift between member of the family regardless of whether they were parents or children. In other words, it drew the family members from each other and pushed them towards their own entertainment preferences, tastes, and interests. Due to such individualized personal interests, the technological devices became personal gadgets of use and the interests towards them became different all together. Literature Review Family Status before Technological Advancement A number of authors touched on some of the important aspects regarding the importance of family bonds and technological effects. It was evident that such authors sought to describe some of the critical changes that happened with special interest to interaction and basically communication. In one case, Gray (2010, 76) focused on the status of the family during the post-war period. During this period, there were various life-promoting undertakings that made life more enjoyable. Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Technology on Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, the education promotion program, which availed education to children in the society, supported family development and involvement with each other. Parents harbored little stress due to the poverty reduction efforts and health promotion initiatives alongside the postwar baby boom (Groening 2014, 67). The reduced stress enabled them to concentrate on raising children. Indeed, they interacted with them for longer period of times to provide protection and nourishment. In addition, parents secured employment easily so they could afford money to go for leisure in the theaters. In different study conducted in 1950s, it was evident that entertainment and family lives were inseparable aspects. In this case, the study describes the transformations that took place in the family due to emphasis put on entertainment. In essence, the postwar period provided enough time for the family members to have fun since the country got relieve (Katz 2009, 114). In addition, the country was not experiencing critical strains as far as finances were concerned. In that regard, therefore, citizens could afford enough money to cater for their basic needs and attend the entertainment premises together. As such, the family is depicted as a cohesive and well coordinated unit. Family Changes Caused by TVs Whereas the family was very intact during this period, the narrative changed with time due to the introduction of TVs. Murray (2009, 167) explains the challenges posed by the television in the world upon introduction and consumption of content from the boxes. During the 1970s, the TVs eliminated the traditional orientation of the families that was originally prevalent in the society. Couples slept together away from their children to watch some of the classified programs such as the Mash where the actors showed the belly buttons. The popular TV shows, such as the Pong, were aired so that people started buying the boxes at a very high rate. The advancement wooed more people to buy the TVs in the country. In 1980s, there was very insignificant development as far as technology was concerned. In this case, television remained the major invention of the world with few developments such as the VCR. Whereas the development of the TVs as a device was minimal, it was evident that the content was developed extensively during this period. As such, the developers discovered amazing technological innovations such as the radio stations, new music tracks, and tape players. Some of additional developments included the innovation of tapes, and Atari among many others. As a result, this became a very critical age for the family cohesion because availability of the devices alongside the content started drifting the family members from each other. Indeed, the 1980s is the period where the family bonds started weakening due to this shift of attention. However, this period did not play a fundamental role as the later 1990’s. This condition was occasioned by the fact that some of the commodities, such as the Apple’s McIntosh, were very expensive to afford. Indeed, Apple was one of the major manufacturers and its high prices reduced the prevalence of the computers and their usage in the popular culture. Advanced Technological Innovations However, the 1990’s became the true periods of technological innovations. During this period, the personal computers became more affordable than ever before. The personal computers affordability was reinforced by the availability of internet in the country and households. People could surf on the internet and get entertainment from online platforms. Additionally, the TV shows became more interesting but they included content with violence and sexual incidences (Petrie 2009, 127). A critical review to this period indicates the start of visible separation of the family especially when it comes to watching sexual content. In essence, parents cannot watch sexual content alongside their children. As such, the television became an effective social separator in the family circles. In addition to this, the Oxford explains the entry of commercialism during this period. Due to the increased materialism and commercial oriented society, the time used by families to have fun and watch content together reduced drastically. Parents did not have enough time to move out with their children. This played a very crucial role to eliminate the bonds that existed in the families. In fact, it reinforced the original forces of family-based entertainments. Invention of Video Games Finally, the invention of video games became a critical game changer in the family circles. In the first, instance, the TV shows separated the parents from their parents because the toddlers could not be allowed to watch violent and sexual contents. The invention of the Atari video game came to intensify the individualization of the entertainment in the families. In this case, the children were drawn to the Atari video games (Singer 2001, 79). As such, this eventuality provided two completely parallel entertainment interests and tastes. As such, the children drew satisfaction from the video games while the parents concentrated on the TV programs. In this situation, therefore, the families could not meet anymore to watch the TVs. In addition, the low prices of the devices in 1990s enabled the parents to afford both the TVs and the video games (Sultanik 2012, 59). Even in the present times children and parents have been divided by this parallel interest. Methodology Research Philosophy This research employed the philosophy of interpretivism during the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. A research philosophy refers to the mechanisms in which a researcher interprets data and make conclusion. In this case, interpretivism allows the use of qualitative data but does not invalidate the use of quantitative information. On the contrary, the positivism is a research philosophy that allows the use of quantitative data only. However, the use of interpretivism neutralizes this ideology by allowing researchers to analyze data that cannot be quantified. In this research, the information concerning the historical background and process of transforming families into device centered units is value-laden. As such, only qualitative techniques can be used to extract the necessary information Research Approach, Design and Time Frame This study followed the deductive research approach to complete the process and make conclusion. In this case, research questions were posed and the hypothesis stipulated in order to predict the possible outcome. The data was then collected and analyzed in order to answer the research questions. With regards to research design, the study adopted the exploratory method. This design capitalizes on inquiring into a problem. Indeed, it seeks to obtain more information about the problem identified in the society in order to proceed and find relevant solutions. Lastly, the time frame was longitudinal in nature since the data used was drawn from previous event dating from 1980s. As such, it focuses of a long period of time from which amounts to about 35 years. Research Strategy In regard to the research strategy, it is evident that the study adopted the survey method. In this case, the study involved respondents who had vast knowledge and interest in history and technological transformation. They were interviewed by administering questionnaires that had a range of questions. With the responses provided by the respondents, the data was analyzed and conclusions were made. In addition, the secondary information, which was drawn from the literature review, was used to answer the research questions. The combination of primary and secondary research provided reliable and extensive information regarding the transformation of family unit by technological development. Population and Sampling The population comprised of technological specialists and historians since they were considered as relevant respondents as far as the study was concerned. However, the population is understandably extensive since there are very many technologists and historians with the required data. However, the population cannot be involved entirely because of the time limit and cost issues. As such, sampling becomes important since it enables the selection of few people in the population to participate in the study. In this case, therefore, random purposeful sampling was used to collect the sample population. This technique was a combination of two techniques including the purposeful and random sampling. Random sampling is used in order to ensure that the respondents are not selected in a biased manner to get some predetermined results. On the other hand, purposeful sampling was applied by selecting people who were adults in the 1980s. Data Collection and Analysis The data was collected using the questionnaires which were administered during detailed interviews with the respondents. In this regard, the information provided was recorded used thematic gadgets to ensure that all information was available in its authentic nature during the analysis. As such, the analysis was conducted by reviewing each of the filled questionnaires in details. In essence, each of them was analyzed singly in order to get the individualized approach to all the questions posed to the respondents. Results Item Description Sample Size (N) 50 Respondents Historical Process Post war stable families Discovery of TVs in 1970s Advancement of TVs and content in 1980s-1990s Discovery of Atari Videos Main Player/Contributors in the degradation of family bonds and creation of device-centered units TVs Discovery Low cost of TV boxes with advancement in technological capability Content incompatibility for parents and children to view together Atari Video games Mobile devices helped to individualize the entertainment Family Attitude Families’ believed in the uncontrollability of information Parents were reluctant when it came to the control of content Discussion In order to conceptualize the expectations of this research study as well as the findings that were made, the data was analyzed according to the three questions posed in the introductory part of the research. As such, this was presented in this chapter in terms of the three research questions. What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit? According to both the primary and secondary research, it was evident that the post-war period was both peaceful and productive. It was indicated that the nations was regaining its financial stability gradually. As a result, the parents could afford money to take their children to theater or purchase Television boxes. In essence, entertainment at home and in the theatres was a family undertaking since the members went to the theatres together. Alternatively, they sat around their TVs to watch the movies together. However, the robust introduction of TVs and personal computers in 1908s to 1990s led to massive discovery of content. This content could not be viewed by the parents and children simultaneously due to the sensitivity of the content. As a result, parents bought private TVs for the bedroom to watch content with sexual ascent or aspects of violence. This separated the parents from the children since they watched and consumed different content. The final blow to family cohesion was made when the Atari video games were discovered. The children warmed up to the Atari videos while the parents separated themselves by using the bedroom-based TVs. As such, the further introduction of mobile devices individualized entertainment such that all the family members enjoy different content. What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit? Indeed, the main player that contributed to the elimination of family cohesion is the simultaneous discovery of TV boxes alongside the content. Indeed, the Atari videos and violent-laden content made it difficult for parent to watch TVs together with their children. The mobile devices individualized the entertainment industry and intensified the separation of family members and the creation of device-based family units. Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit? Whereas technology has led to the massive separation of family unit and the creation of a device-centered orientation, there are various family-based attitudes that led to this condition. Indeed, the families did not control the type of content that they could consume. As such, they consumed all the content provided by the developers. As a result, they did not have the control to resist the unfortunate technological twist. Conclusions and Recommendations The development of technological devices and the subsequent creation of diverse content led to the emergence of different entertainment preferences. The critical review of literature has indicated similar findings showing the before the introduction of TVs and personal computers, people enjoyed themselves together. During the postwar period, mothers concentrated on raising their children. However, the advancement in technology in 1980s to 1990s led to the reduction in the price of computers and TVs. Indeed, enabled households to acquire more than one TV so that children and parents could watch separate shows. In addition, the invention of videos intensified the separations and classification of preferences in accordance to age. In regard to recommendations, there several advocacies that can be proposed especially when it comes to the use of technology to reinstate family cohesion. It developers should invent family-based applications which helps members to share content using their mobile devices Media should come up with shows that provide more lessons concerning some of the problems incurred by families. This will ensure that family members are encouraged to live a cohesive and integrated life. Works Cited Bennett, John. The Televisions. Columbus, OH: Luna Bisonte Prods, 2011. Egger, Garry. Technology in the 20th Century and Effect on Culture. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Gray, Jonathan. Watching with the Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge, 2010. Groening, Matt. The Simpsons Family History: A Celebration of Television’s Favorite Family. New York, NY: Abrams, 2014. Katz, Elihu. The End of Television. Its Impact on the World so Far. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2009. Murray, Susan. Reality TV Remaking Television Culture. New York: New York University Press, 2009. Petrie, Kristin. Televisions. Edina, Minn.: ABDO, 2009. Reiser, Stanley. Technological Advancement and Cultural Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Singer, Dorothy. Handbook of Children and the Media. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. Sultanik, Aaron. Cinemulacrum: A Secret History of Film and Video for 1960 to 2010. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2012.

Nature and Nurture in Language Acquisition

INTRODUCTION Researchers have studied how children acquire language. There is a constant debate about the impact nature and nurture has on language. One of the topics is how children learn a language. I intend to answer the question: How do children learn and acquire language through nature, nurture, or a combination of both? DEFINING LANGUAGE Language is “a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements (13).” Further, language has “a finite number of phonemes and each sentence is representable as a finite sequence of these phonemes.” (Chomsky, 1957). This ability a child has to learn a language is extraordinary. Scholars say that infants have an understanding of the grammar needed to comprehend sentences such as: “who did what to whom; e.g. the bunny pushed the frog.” After a significant period of research of child language acquisition, it is still a mystery the machinery that enables a child to piece syllables and words from the different sounds the child hears to obtain grammar and to yield language. (Rowland

“The Bridge on the Drina” a Book by Ivo Andrić Essay

Symbolism of the Bridge at Visegrad In the history of Yugoslavian literature very few authors can claim to have drawn the attention of their audience precisely while they maintained their reluctance to take a certain stance on an issue, such as Ivo Andrić. The bridge on the Drina is a narrative of a beautiful stone bridge built during the Ottoman Empire in Visegrad, Bosnia, which survived numerous conflicts until when the First World War began. Andrić was awarded a Nobel Prize in literature for his efforts in coming up with the novel The Bridge on the Drina. Andrić argued “these glorious buildings involved so much disorder and unrest, effort and expense” (Andrić, p. 22). The main protagonist in this book which is the bridge, 180 meters long does not speak. In this exciting tale covering almost 400 years of the history of Bosnia, the author places emphasis on regional, cultural, historical, and religious event based on the context of an enormous stone bridge built on the Drina River that links Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Legacy of the Ottoman Empire in Bosnia The town of Visegrad develops among the few areas in which the waters of the Drina spreads to accommodate agriculture. A road from Sarajevo to Stambul passes through, but it requires a ferry service before the bridge is built. The bridge also served as a venue for cultural meetings due to its wide breath. In this novel, Andrić compares and contrasts the nature of human behaviour, which is constantly changing to the resilience of the marvels of architecture. The author argues that human beings are in time, between evil and good and that their destinies are to their traditions and surroundings. The author revives some of the past occurrences as a reminder that the lives of humans, as well as historical and social phenomena, can be partially explained through their origin. He further argues that the past because of stereotyping patterns, is a unique prefiguration of what is to come in the future. In this novel by Andrić, there is no white or black, moral and ethical decisions are because there is no certain decision which could be unanimously satisfying. In the plot of this novel, most of the characters are between and are yearning for a neutral decision, which is a fact that only bridges can bring. While Andrić did not experience any illusions in relation to the human capacity to commit evil, he strongly argues that a mixed society could be the foundation for cooperation and conciliation if the individual’s political ambitions can be withheld. Early Balkan Nationalism Written after the conclusion of blood-letting within the Balkans region, the bridge on the Drina should be of interest to those individuals who would love to explore the background of the previous events in Bosnia. It particularly enumerates a better picture of the history between the correlation between the Muslims and Christians in the region in a better way than any other account of dates, conflict, and treaties could ever achieve. However, one does not require to have an interest in history to recognize the value of the novel, just like the bridge on the Drina is elegant, useful, and yet simple. This is an excellent work of literature which transforms lessons about European history into a breathing, living narrative of the individuals who experienced these events first-hand. Legends near the Bridge The tale was written during the proceedings of the Second World War, a stage in which the writer was placed under arrest in his house, in Belgrade, hence it can be insinuated that the writer wrote this fictional tale while he was home sick. This is particularly evident in the way he describes the town of Visegrad as an oriental small town, and makes reference to the hamlets located in the folds of hills, which are with pastures, meadows and plum orchards. The bridge on the Drina depicts to us silently without placing any judgement, how the unique human game referred to as war, is by monstrous and the heinous acts perpetration and how ordinary individuals are by the events. However, afterwards for those individuals who survive the events, their lives must continue. The use of the bridge as a metaphor cannot be overlooked. The author is particularly clever with regard to this. Separately from the obvious (joining the future to the past, bridging conflicting cultures and disconnected cultures), the bridge acts as the core, a patriarch, a remedy, a grave, a point of helplessness, and source of authority, as well as an avenue and blockade. For the audience, the bridge acts as a source of peace and reverence, as a platform to look as the regimes and the years pass. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Nature of Transition from Ottoman Pashaluk to Austrian Crownland In this tale, a Hodja eventually notices that a part of the bridge was destroyed during the First World War when he came across debris at his feet of the bridge. The thoughts that come to his mind are that this could only happen in a dream. However, as he turns away from this unperceivable sight, he catches a glimpse of the great stone in his shop together with the scattered goods; surely if this was a dream then it must be everywhere. In this case, the author makes use of the constancy of the bridge to bright out a slap in the face awareness, which the act of war brings to individuals it touches. This scene comes towards the end of the novel and carries most of the emphasis with it. After the author takes us through the various generations growing, engaging in conflict, and some losing their lives in proximity to this bridge, the audience views the bridge as more than just a centrepiece of the Drina. The bridge precisely becomes the central character in this novel. However, the character of the bridge has disintegrated to the level that it is virtually impossible to observe the developments it was able to withhold as the season caught up and surpassed it. Sincerely, and this might not be the right analogy, but the bridge illustrates a velveteen rabbit moment. The Effects of Modernity on Traditional Societies The bridge on the Drina is a tale about modernization, expenses, and pain that modernization can bring. It is about reverence and customs, and how the culture that gives birth to them is both in the present as much as it is in history. Most significantly, it depicts the fragility, impermanence, and fallibility of man. Surprisingly, all this is through the bridge which was constructed over a span of 5 years and many lives have been lost by its side. The bridge was able to withstand hundreds of years as generations after generations came and faded. However, in spite of the permanence that the bridge holds in relation to persons’ whose whole lives circumvent around and out on it, just like it was a section of the surrounding landscape, defenceless, maturing, and the bridge was built by man.