Types of Leadership (view video below)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_clro5RXqM&feature=youtu.be Situational Leadership II (SLII) is the most comprehensive, up-to-date, and practical method of effectively managing and developing people, time, and resources in the world. SLII provides leaders with a model and the tools for creating open communication and developing self-reliance in those they manage. It is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and development. As a result, competence is developed, commitment is gained, and talented individuals are retained. SLII is recognized as both a business language and a framework for employee development because it works across cultural, linguistic, and geographical barriers. The foundation lies in teaching leaders to diagnose the needs of an individual or a team and then use the appropriate leadership style to respond to the needs of the person and the situation.For this discussion, review the figure 5.2 in the Dugan text. There are four specific leader styles aligned on the chart. They are directing, coaching, supporting and delegating. These are leader styles. There are also the follower’s developmental levels described as D1 – D4. There is a direct relationship between the followers level of competence and the leader’s style. For each developmental level there is an appropriate style of leadership that should be adopted (i.e. a style that depends on the situation). Select one of the four leadership styles. Choose a specific follower development level (D1 – D4) and give an example of how this leadership style and developmental level would work in real life. In other words, create a “situation” that needs to be led and explain this concept in your discussion. Discussion guidelines
Situational Leadership & Career DEV on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Analysis
Please read the mini case study ” Sugar Subsidies Drive Candy Makers Abroad” on page 617-618 of the textbook 12TH edition and answer Discussion questions 1, 3, 4, and 5. Page limit for the assignment is 2 pages, doubled spaced. Please do not rewrite the question on the submission. [5 points]
Please read the mini case study ” Political and Economic Reform in Myanmar” on page 612-613 of the textbook 12TH edition and answer Discussion questions 2, 3, and 4. Page limit for the assignment is 2 pages, doubled spaced. Please do not rewrite the question on the submission. [5 points]
Super EZ international business case studies
Written Project Instructions:
1) Click on the “Project A” link above. Watch the lecture video.
2) Research a government supplemental food program, (I would like to be SNAP, Food Stamp)
3) Calculate your hypothetical eligibility for that program. Calculate the food “allotment” you would receive from that program for your current household (Which it is two people) for one week.
4) Create a grocery budget in which you try to live on just that food allotment for one week.
5) Go to a grocery store and see what foods you can/ can’t buy on that budget.
6) Write 1-2 pages on your findings, the program you chose. What foods were allowed? What did you learn? What did you have to give up for the week to stay in budget? How has this changed your view of supplemental nutrition programs?
a grocery budget for SNAP, what is and is not allowed
BIO201 Colorado State Week 1 Connection Between Diabetes & Suburban Sprawl Paper
BIO201 Colorado State Week 1 Connection Between Diabetes & Suburban Sprawl Paper.
Hello,I need some help writing a paper on the public health concern, Diabetes. I have to summarize the diabetes video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ttyE7ZnupYThen answer the following questions:Begin by summarizing the episode in 100 words or less.Relate the information from this episode to what you learned in Chapters 2 and 3 of your textbook, Key Concepts in Public Health. What specific public health disciplines mentioned in these chapters of your textbook are related to the information presented in the video and why?Critique the information. Do you feel that the information presented is valid and easy to understand?What information does the episode offer about public health problems? Consider, for example, whether it provides details on how public health can be characterized and measured and whether it describes common hazards and afflictions affecting modern Americans and American communities.What information does the episode offer about the nature of communities? Consider whether it provides details on how communities may be altered to improve public health.What information was missing from the episode? How could the content be improved? What would you like to see in future episodes?The essay has to be between 2-3 pagesTextbook reference: http://sk.sagepub.com.csuglobal.idm.oclc.org/books/key-concepts-in-public-healthThank you!
BIO201 Colorado State Week 1 Connection Between Diabetes & Suburban Sprawl Paper
Human Sexual Responding Process Understanding Essay (Critical Writing)
help me with my homework The most important reason for people to study and understand the process of human sexual response is to understand the physical and emotional changes that take place during intercourse. The emotional changes that occur during intercourse or masturbation must be understood clearly by people looking to experience the sexual response cycle in its entirety. Sexual intercourse should be a memorable experience between a man and a woman, and it is vital for the partners to understand the physical and emotional changes that occur during different stages of sexual response. A man should understand what kind of response to expect from his partner, and the woman should also be able to identify changes in her partner. This understanding enables partners to enjoy intercourse and to have their desires fulfilled by their partners. The sexual response stages include the excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasmic phase, and the resolution phase. Understanding the different phases of sexual response is important for both partners, because it enables them to give each other a good experience. People should have the skill to take their partners through the four phases, and they should understand the transition of their partners, from one phase to the other. The most important thing during sexual intercourse is to ensure that the respective partners work toward taking each other through the four phases of sexual response. It is important to understand the respective responses of partners to determine the amount of time that the partners spend on each phase. It is apparent that every person has a unique sexual response, hence people should understand their partner’s requirements at every stage of human sexual response. Failure to understand this could lead to incompatibility among partners in sexual terms. The goal of lovemaking and its effects satisfying sexual experience For most couples the primary goal in lovemaking is orgasm. While this sounds like a good thing for most couples, sex therapists and researchers believe that it is detrimental to sexual satisfaction. According to the experts in the field of sex, couples should take their respective partners through the four stages of human sexual response. These include the excitement stage, plateau phase, orgasmic phase and the resolution stage. During the excitement stage, couples should concentrate on turning on each other in readiness for sexual intercourse. Time is of the essence at this stage, because different people take different amounts of time to get excited. The plateau stage intensifies the physical and emotional changes that take place in the excitement stage, and it transitions into the orgasmic stage after some time. It is important for couples to try to get to the orgasmic stage together. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The resolution stage is equally important, and it occurs after the orgasmic stage. The physical and emotional changes that take place in the body slowly subside, and the couples relax. This is one of the most important phases of human sexual response because it is associated with high levels of intimacy. Couples should cuddle and talk during this stage after sexual intercourse. Focusing on reaching the orgasmic stage during the lovemaking process means that couples ignore the three important phases of sexual response. Couples may get to the orgasmic stage, but it is not sexually satisfying when other stages are ignored in the process of lovemaking. For instance, most people, especially women, claim that their partners fail to give them quality time to experience the excitement and plateau phase.
Definition and Overview of Classroom Observation
A classroom observation is the purposeful examination of teaching and/or learning events through the systematic processes of data collection and analysis (Bailey, 2001). Classroom observation was also defined as a process by which the observer sits in on one or more classroom sessions, records the instructor’s teaching practices and student actions, and then meets with the instructor to discuss the observations. Therefore, it is a collaborative process. Both the teacher being observed and the observer having significant roles before, during, and after the observation process. Collaborating at each phase of the process can help place both participants at ease so that each benefits from the experience. The main purpose behind the classroom observation is to allow a teacher to get feedback from an objective, experienced observer and to involve in context-specific discussions about teaching with an adviser. Moreover, data will be collected on what the teacher is doing what they should probably be doing; classroom learning environment will be assessed and reported to the stakeholders. Additionally, the teacher’s capability to demonstrate various teaching methods is also observed (Wragg, 1999). The observation should not be an endorsement for promotion and tenure, a judgment of the teacher’s teaching methods, styles and skills, or an assessment of the teacher’s knowledge of disciplinary content. It is purely developmental rather than intimidation and making decisions. Classroom observation has been used for long time to evaluate the quality of teaching provided and the consistency between the curriculum plan and the actual delivery of the material by teachers. Wragg (1999) stated that “the purpose of looking at implementation is to see whether there is a mismatch between intention and strategies”. Classroom observation has constantly been seen as an effortful task from the side of the teachers. Negative attitudes have been expressed from several teachers venting their disappointment about the process by which observation has been implemented. This feeling of unhappiness and dissatisfaction is not a product of today; it is possibly an aggregation of many years of authoritarian, impressionistic, and impartial models of supervisions with teachers feeling of little ownership. Because the observer has a great role in renewing the teacher’s contracts, they had to conform to the supervisor’s viewpoints. This is considered an exceptional limitation of the observation process. At the level of Fujairah- Institute of Nursing (ION), instructors have expressed the issue of inconsistency in the perception of the observation tool among the observers many times. In addition to the way, the classroom observation is conducted. Therefore, these issues needed to be investigated at the IONION .This paper aims to find out any discrepancies in the understanding of the observation tool used by the observers, and to identify the teacher perceptions of the classroom observation method. The results of the study will be reported to the curriculum committee and teachers as well. To pursue the task appropriately, a two phase qualitative study was conducted. In the first phase, the observation instrument revisited to see whether the observers perceive its item similarly or not. In the second phase, a questionnaire was distributed to all ION teachers in an attempt to evaluate the method of observation conducted there. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to answer the following questions: Is there a significant difference in the perception of the same observation items within the instrument used by the different advisors” in the ION? Is there any defect in the observation process? Literature Review: Classroom observation is certainly the most common form of collecting data for teacher appraisal. So as to attain a representative sample of the tutor’s performance in the class, a number of different classroom observations need to be implemented. One classroom observation does not impart adequate data. A common criticism by tutors is that observers do not take the needed time to collect pertinent data and provide them with valuable feedback. Conversely, teacher inspectors want particular vehicle not only for performance data collection but also for communicating it to the instructor. Over the past several years, diverse research indicated that the way teachers behave in the classroom and the instructional approaches they use influence the degree students learn. Using classroom observations, educators and researchers are able to provide feedback that may lead to changes in teaching practices. Hopkins (2002) believes that the motivation behind any school observation does not stop at classroom research but it also extends to the professional development of teachers. It is because of the many years of observations that modern educationalists decided to abandon through time the conventional ‘recitation lesson’, that is the formal presentation of information by the teacher standing at the front of the class, was standard (Wragg, 1999). Clearly, different forms of observations encompass various criteria. These criteria may be comprehensive or specific. Some observation forms may focus on the students’ behavior while others may seek out the response of teachers to such behaviors. According to Hopkins (2002), there are four methods of observation: open, focused, structured, and systematic. Each method needs special instrument. . Observation tools are forms that are to be filled out by the observer. Depending on the observation technique, some forms or instruments may simply be a blank sheet, a worksheet, a scale, checklists, computer software, or a tally sheet. Some observers may be affected by the setting in which the lesson takes place and may focus on some particular feature of the teaching of one specific subject, like science or English. This in turn may influence whether they adopt a quantitative style, which is a type of systematic approach; counting and recording of individual events, or a qualitative method, which is a type of the open observation approach, trying to look behind and beneath the mere frequencies (wragg 1999). Furthermore, there are many observations tools used by teachers on their classes or in peer observation settings (Malamah-Thomas 1987, Wajnryb 1992). Such instruments are powerful developmental tools for teachers and for trainee advisors, allowing both to look at the lesson systematically in conjunction with the feedback from advisors. Therefore, teachers and observers must perceive the instruments similarly to avoid misinterpretations and predispositions of the items within the tools. In addition, the classroom observation is seen as a crucial element of each educational system, researchers have found that teachers were not satisfied with the observation process. The main reasons researchers found were judgmental, evaluative nature of observation, authoritative role of observers and prescriptive nature of feedback (Akbari and Tajik 2007). Wang and Seth (1998) found out that classroom observation has gained a negative reputation in the ELT profession because of its subjective, judgmental, and ill-defined nature. Many instructors resent being observed at short notice by ‘important people’ who judge their performance according to their own, not necessarily appropriate criteria, and make unwelcome ‘suggestions’ for change. It seems as if these inspectors have the final word on whether their performance is good or bad, right or wrong. In many situations, the observers enter the classes to look at the teachers’ performances to decide at the end of the academic year who will continue in his/her job or not. Certainly, this perception places teachers under too much stress, which negatively impacts their performance in the classroom. Randall and Thornton (2001) believed that anxiety levels in the lesson execution phase can become very high and can precipitate failure on the side of the teacher to generate an effective lesson (Fig 2). Figure 2: The effect of anxiety on performance (adapted from Randall and Thornton, 2001) Bennet, (1992, cited in Howard, A 2011) stated that classroom observation for some instructors will certainly be a substantial threat. This is true, ifâ€¦.the purpose of the observation is perceived by the instructor as a mean to judge their quality of teaching and offer suggestions for future enhancement, this will make the experienced teachers much more anxious than a novel capable teacher who has less experience with regular guests to the classroom. This suggest that the observer must play as essential role in relieving teacher’s anxiety and fear by identifying the developmental role of the observation. Regarding the process of the classroom observation in the UAE, Alwan (2001) finds out that the instructors in the UAE are acquainted with the observation; however, it does not take the systematic approach that would increase the achievements for the teachers. Consequently, such ad-hoc appraisal practices can simply yield extensive teacher anxiety, a lack of belief in the validity of the observation, and a delicate discouragement of other institutional initiatives to sustenance teachers’ efforts to deliver courses effectively (Murdoch, 2000). Nevertheless, classroom observation should be intended at enhancing professional growth of the teacher rather than threatening them. It should also focus on the strengths of the lesson. The tutors and through their dealings with the students will recall which areas delivered in a good manner and the ones that require revisiting. It is valuable to point out that the advisors’ role is to explore with the teachers so that they have the chance to reflect on their own teaching with the expectation that this approach will turn into a fundamental part of the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it changes into a reflection in action process that is conducted during the teaching learning process. Schon (1983) explained this reflective process by saying: “Both ordinary people and professional practitioners often think about what they are doing, sometimes even while doing it. Stimulated by surprise, they turn thought back on action and on the knowing which is implicit in actionâ€¦usually reflection on knowing-in-action goes together with reflection on the stuff at hand. (Schon, 1 989)” Therefore, classroom observation is getting more importance than before. The purpose of many of them is intended towards professional development. It is through experiential learning that the tutors will be self-evaluative and hence will be capable of reflecting on their teaching strategy. Heron (cited in Randall and Thornton 2001) said that working from experience the client (the teacher) is prompted to ‘uncover’ incidents, which are important, ‘reflect’ on these incidents and to discover new meanings for these incidents, and then ‘ prepare’ to put the learning from experience and reflection back into a new experience. Finally, it is of merit to mention that teachers teach many lessons of which only few of them are observed. Accordingly, if the observed lessons are considered valuable and eligible to be observed then they must be regarded as worthy to be analyzed appropriately, for little purpose was served if, after a lesson, observers simply exude good will, mumble vaguely or appear to be uncertain why they are there, or what they should talk about (Wragg, 1999). There is now a vast constituency of individuals who need to be sentient of what is included in classroom observation or how it might be directed. These involve teachers, heads, student teachers, inspectors, appraisers, researchers, and curriculum. Masterfully held classroom observation can help both the observer and the teacher being observed, tending to update and improve the professional dexterity of both persons. Badly handled, however, it becomes counter- productive, at its worst arousing anger, opposition and distrust. Methodology: Observation Method Classroom observation is conducted through three phases that were adapted from Day (1993) and Richards and Lockhart (1994) were: pre-observation meeting, observation phase, and post-observation follow-up phase. The researcher will be using the ION designated tool during the observation process. (Fig 1). Pre-conference phase is executed before the classroom observation. The purpose of this meeting to share information that helps both the instructor and observer prepare for the observation and to illuminate the explicit outcomes of the lesson observed. It also aims at clarifying the activities through which these outcomes will be attained. Information exchanged during this meeting includes the overall process of the evaluation, the purpose of the observation, course information, lesson plan, instructional objective(s) , class activities, instructional methods, Whatâ€©youâ€©want theâ€©observerâ€©toâ€©payâ€©attentionâ€©to, Whereâ€©you’dâ€©likeâ€©theâ€©observer toâ€©sit, what will happen during the observation, and observation follow up opportunities. This phase does not take place in the ION. The second stage of the process is the observation phase (Data Collection) or the execution of lesson. The ION observers gather information to be discussed latter with the tutor. These data include instructorâ€©doing/saying, studentsâ€©doing/saying, instructional methods, teacher-students interaction, and flow of the sessionâ€¦etc. Generally, the ASP will use a checklist tool designed for this purpose of classroom observation (Appendix 2). The observers, unlike the traditional supervisors who usually sit at the back and document the classroom events, sit where they can have a good view of the class. Analysis of the collected data and preparing for the post-conference take place immediately, next to the observation, it is suggested that observers code the data checked in their notes. Identify information that links to the following: Organization and presentation of the lesson, level of student concentration, interactions, and participation, the quality of interpersonal relationships between the teacher and students, effectiveness of instruction and how instruction could be improved. The third stage is the post-conference phase or follow-up. Shortly after the observation, the advisors emphasize the positive areas of the observation process such as the strengths of the lesson. The teacher will be asked to evaluate and reflect on his lesson at first. Then, the observers will discuss the collected data with the teacher. It is a descriptive stage where the observers describe the various phases of the lesson. The observers during this phase ask probing questions that guide the teacher through the process. They also provide direct feedback on the areas the teacher has asked for in the pre-observation conference. In doing so, many of the areas for improvement are originally stated by the teachers because they had a chance to reflect on their teaching. In the ION context, the post conference session is short. The teacher is not given the needed time to reflect on his session. In many occasions, the teacher and the observer do agree with each other. Figure 1 Observation Cycle: Adapted from: http://www.commnet.edu/emprel/trng/tm_3_2_clasobs.html (2004). Setting: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) encompass three institutes of Nursing (ION) located in Sharjah, Ras ELkhaimeh and Fujairah Emirates, and they are governed by the Ministry of Health (MOH). According to the policy, the ION has an observation system performed by three persons: the Central Academics Coordinator (CAC), Academic Support Person (ASP) and the Branch Manager (BM). The classroom observation is held two times per semester and as needed. One observation is announced and the other is unannounced. At the level of each ION; the observation responsibility is delegated to the ASP. In case the teacher observation result was not satisfactory, the CAC will be called to reobserve the same teacher within two weeks of the unsatisfactory observation but can also observe those with satisfactory outcomes. The BM does a spot check from time to time on the ongoing of the teaching process. The three observers use the same observation instrument, which is qualitative (open methods) in nature where observation bias can sometimes significantly affect the result. The session Appraisal form is composed of 29 items focusing on two areas of classroom practices: Effective Questioning (eight items), Effective Teaching Practices (21 items). These items are marked as, Accomplished, Partially accomplished, and Not accomplished. The result is either satisfactory or unsatisfactory (Appendix 2). The adopted teaching methodologies are cased-based and lecture-based, depending on the course. Most of the teachers at the ION are well experienced and hold master degree. I have been working as a senior nursing tutor for the last seven years in the ION. It happened more than once a teacher got two or more different feedbacks from the observers. The teachers always blame the observers for their inconsistency in the understanding of the observation items and in the way the observation is conducted. The majority of the tutors wonder whether a difference should be there while using the same observation checklist and similar observation methods. The investigator will try to answer this question and orient the teachers to the findings. To inquire about teacher’s dissatisfaction with the overall observation process, a two phase qualitative study was conducted. In the first phase, the observation instrument revisited to see whether the observers perceive its item similarly or not. In the second phase, a questionnaire was distributed to all ION teachers in an attempt to evaluate the method of observation conducted there. To pursue the task appropriately, the advisors will not be participated in any other job but collecting data. Randall and Thornton (2005) refer to an advisor that has no other than to observe and take notes as a non-participant observer (Gebhard and Oprandy 1999). As the name designates, this kind of observation requires the observer not to engage in any interaction with the individuals being observed. Instead, the observer should concentrate on a particular behavior – a specific criterion (Wragg, 1999, Hopkins 1999, 2002). For an observer, it is very important to avoid preconceptions and afterward approach whatever is to be observed with an open mind (Wragg 1999). Validity and reliability in observation It is essential that observation is as objective as expected and advisors must be mindful of their own interests and predispositions so that the data gained is as valid and reliable as conceivable and not designated to verify a point (CCC 2004). â€¢ Observers customarily continue-the-spot notes to complete an observation schedule so that any extra or uncommon actions can be noted. For example ‘A come into the class and talked to teacher. This interrupted classroom for 3 minutes; ‘Fire alarm rang at 2.24pm so the class was shorter today than usual’. â€¢’Field notes’ are often written post assessment and the advice is to do this as early as possible. Robson (2002) proposes that you should ‘never begin a second class observation before sorting out your records for the first one’ â€¢ Practice in utilizing a schedule before the ‘actual’ observation will assist the observer to settle uncertainties in how to employ it or how to record unforeseen or vague data. â€¢ Reliability of observation will originate from appraiser consistency. Appraisers have to make sure that they make parallel decisions about similar situations on diverse events. They must also take similar decisions about similar events if they see or hear them again; say on video or audio tape. â€¢ Preferably, having more than one appraiser observing the same events, at least in initial practice sessions, so that there can be agreement on what is going on and how it is to be coded. The two observers at the ION were aware of these points to ensure the validity and reliability of the class supervision. Ethical Considerations The ethical considerations were carefully considered before conducting the study. A permission letter was sent to the concerned people to consent them. Anonymity and confidentiality of teachers’ responses guaranteed (Appendix 3). Part I: Procedures and Participants Two observers visited Diploma I class to assess a teacher teaching Nursing Care of Adults 201.One of the observers is the ASP whose tenure is 11 years and the other is a critical friend who holds a master degree in education and has 10 years of teaching experience (table1). Both are familiar with the observation tool. This approach was used to explore inconsistencies in the perception of the observation items within the specified from. They were informed about the process; they should sit at different corners in the back of the class (Fig 5), do not speak to each other, and fill in the appraisal form the way they perceive it with an evidence for each partially or not accomplished item. Data Analysis At the end of the classroom observation the researcher collected the two filled forms and sit with the two observers to discuss the findings. The observers’ findings and teachers’ responses were organized for analysis and interpretation through the use of simple statistic. Tables and graphs were employed to summarize data and to present the findings of the investigation. Results The two forms were collected, and it was found that two items were uneven where each tutor has his own perception. Class Subject Observer 1 Observer 2 Session Time Teaching Method Diploma 1 Nursing Care of Adults/Hyperthyroidism Academic support person, 11 year teachings Experience Critical Friend, more than 10 years teaching 50 minutes Case-based Table 1: Observation setting The mismatched items were two out of 29 items; the two items were located under the Effective Teaching practices Table 2). Finding of the first observer marked as (1) and (2) for the second. Effective Teaching practices Accomplished Partially Accomplished Not Accomplished 26. Asks students to evaluate their own or other responses. 2 1 29. Demonstrate the ability of dealing with problem students 1 2 Table 2: Observer’s findings Observers Justification First observer 26. Asking student to evaluate and reflect on the answers given, getting feedback from classmates should be done frequently in the case based session as this would involve the students in the class and enhance their understanding. This should be observed as a dominant feature in the session and not only once or two. 29. The students were enthusiastic, motivated and participating actively. It was loud voice but not noise, but you have to ask students to lower their voices to hear their classmates “.Raising their hands without calling ‘Sir’â€¦. Is fair enough. Second observer 26. Students were fairly able evaluate their answers, and that was done with two students only. As for the responses of their colleagues; the students were called more than once to reflect on their answers when the teacher asked them: 1) Do you agree with S? Why? 2) Why did M relate the presence of excessive eating to weight loss? Comment on her answer. Although, the teacher tried with them, the students were not able to evaluate their responses. 29. Loud voice from the side of the students will disturb the learning environment preventing the others from hearing the answers. The teacher tried to control students’ noise, particularly when they gave an answer together, but he could not. Abiding by the classroom norms is the responsibility of the teacher. Setting clear guidelines should be made to limit this behavior. At the back of the session appraisal form there is a room left for the appraiser’s comment to reflect and set the areas that need improvement on points that are not covered clearly in the observation form but should be part of the lesson, or he may emphasize certain points seen in the class. The first observer A) Group work: The teacher should give more time (more than 10 minutes) for the group work to allow the students to prepare and discuss the task properly among them as the task given require deep analysis. Moreover, the teacher should ensure that all the students are participating in the discussion within the group. Checking group work output is not necessary to be done with each group, as far one or two groups were investigated, then the other groups could be done if required by the judgment of the tutor”. The Second observer A) Group work: Ten minutes for each task is fair enough as the students should come prepared from their home. The time is given only for discussion and preparing the transparency. Giving more time will waste the teacher time and hinder his ability to cover the course objectives. Group work output was not explored: teacher has to reveal all group findings and seek evaluation or comments from other groups. The first observer B) Teaching strategy The teacher should implement various teaching strategies in the classroom such as role play, watching and commenting on videos to promote students’ understanding, involvement and make the session interesting. The Second observer B) Teaching strategy The session was quite interesting. According to the task discussed in the session, role play or video would not be effective as the demonstrations used by the teacher plus the clinical examples and the real life examples given by some students were satisfactory to cultivate the different concepts in the sessions. Discussion One method for analyzing the observation findings of the two observers is through triangulation.” Triangulation in the classroom research involves checking the perceptions of more than one person to see if one’s own interpretations have any support “Wragg (1999).The total number of the items in the observation checklist is 29, and the debatable points were 2. Then, the agreement was around 93% and disagreement in 7%, which means that the instrument used is reliable. “When the observers agree on > 80% of their observation, this means the information and the data are reliable” Wragg (1999). It is believed that different style dimensions of learning of the observer may have a possible influence on providing feedback to the teacher. (Randall and Thornton 2001). The first observer, the academic support person, conducted more than four observations to the observed teacher, and knows him better than the second colleague. Hence, he built his feedback on his previous knowledge of the learning style of the observed teacher and provided the feedback in a consultative rather than confronting approach, “The students were enthusiastic and participating actively. It was loud voice, but not noise, but you have to remind students to lower their voice to hear their colleagues “. Part II Procedure: The participants filled a qualitative questionnaire of seven questions (Appendix I). The questionnaire was piloted before being administered. A total of eleven questionnaires were administered through face to face contact with the investigator. Ten of them were collected and analyzed. Participants The participants in this study were ten teachers of Nursing in one of IONs. They have been teaching in the ION for more than seven years. Those teachers have been observed by three different observers using the same tool. The teachers are male and females and range in age from 36 to late 54. They majority of them are native Arabic speakers from different countries, and two teachers are westerns. They are of multi-cultural background. Data Analysis The responses to the questionnaire were gathered and then analyzed (table 3). The responses were calculated using simple statistics and presented in charts. Items No. of Teachers Percentage I have been observed two times by the ASP. 8 80% I have been observed three times, two by the ASP and once by the CAC. 2 20% I felt anxious and blocked when the observer visited my class. 10 100% I am dissatisfied with the way I observed. I did not meet with the observer before the session. 10 100% The way the observer enters and sits anywhere in the class, ticking on the observation form. 7 70% The observer did not identify himself to the students, creating unstable setting in the class. 7 70% The late feedback does not reflect the immediate feedback. 8 80 % The observation is not intended at teacher development. 9 90% The feedback is threatening if it is unsatisfactory. 9 90% Classroom observation does not fulfill my educational need. 7 70 Classroom observation has no impact, whether negative or positive. 2 20% Classroom observation partially fulfills my educational need. 1 10% Table 3: Results of the Questionnaire Discussion and recommendations The present part of this study addressed the question of the teachers’ perception of the classroom observation method. Based on the analysis of the first phase of the study; it seems that there is no problem in the observation tool. So, where is the problem? The result of the questionnaire provided to ten teachers revealed that the problem is in the observation process itself. The majority of the tutors (80%) have been observed two times per semester by the ASP (four times/year) whereas the remaining 20 % were observed three times by the ASP and the CAC (table 4). This is considered inconsistent when compared to the other educational institutes where the teacher is observed one or two times per year. This will also put more stress on the teachers. All the teachers (100%) expressed various levels of frustration and anxiety when they are observed. They assured that the observers themselves were a source of apprehension. Teachers added that none of the observers take an action to alleviate their anxiety. These findings were similar to that of Randall and Thornton (2001) who stated that anxiety levels in the lesson phase can become very high and can lead to failure on the part of the teacher to produce an effective lesson. Moreover, Akbari, R., et al (2007), found that teacher observation causes stress in both teachers and learners. All the tutors (100%) expressed their feelings of dissatisfaction with the observation methods as no pre observation conference is conducted neither before the announced nor the unannounced visits. This puts more pressure on the side of the observees. A brief talk with the teacher prior to the session will help in alleviating teachers’ anxiety (Randall and Thornton 2001) and a kind of respect to the teachers’ rights that encourages reflective teaching (Akbari, R., et al 2007). Furthermore, 70% of the teachers considered the way the observer enters and sits anywhere in the class, ticking items on a checklist as invasion of their privacy and distraction of students’ attention. Akbari, R., et al (2007) believed
The Glass-Steagall Act: Past and Future
The Glass-Steagall Act: Past and Future. THE BANKING ACT OF 1933: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PAST AND PRESENT ABSTRACT During the 2016 election, one of the issues discussed by the candidates from Bernie Sanders to Hilary Clinton and even Donald Trump was whether to reenact the Glass-Steagall Act. The Glass-Steagall Act was four provisions within the Banking Act of 1933. The Act was originally created after the fallout of the Great Depression. It was later repealed in 1999 by President Bill Clinton under the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999. The objective of this paper is to survey the Glass-Steagall Act from its inception, dissolution and possible resurrection. It is the author’s aim to present a general historical background and contemporary dialogue over this regulation. The paper strives to assist both the business law and economics educators when instructing students on the Great Recession of 2008-2010. INTRODUCTION In an interview earlier this year, President Donald Trump raised the possibility of resurrecting the Banking Act of 1933. Colloquially termed as the Glass-Steagall Act, it was a law separating consumer lending and investment banking during the Great Depression. (Jacobs, 2017) While a month earlier, United States Senators Elizabeth Warren, John McCain, Maria Cantwell and Angus King introduced a modern version of the Banking Act of 1933 known as the 21st Century Glass-Steagall Act to Congress. (Warren, 2017) All this political interest in an eighty-four year old regulation suggests an opportune moment to examine the creation of the Glass-Steagall Act in the 1930s and its eventual destruction in the 1990s. The rest of this article will proceed as follows. Part I offers the historical context for the establishment of Glass-Steagall Act and its passage during the Great Depression. Part II then offers an overview of the Glass-Steagall Act itself and the financial reform components. Part III describes and examines the reasoning behind its abolishment in the era of deregulation. Finally, Part IV concludes by examining the recent deliberation within the context of financial reforms in the twenty-first century. Part I. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 1920S ECONOMY AND STOCK MARKET The transition back to a peacetime economy following the end of World War I was a difficult adjustment for the United States. The post-World War I recession of 1919-20 even though extremely brief was considered moderately severe. (NBER, 2012) The end of war time production and returning troops contributed to high unemployment and decline in wages with factories becoming idle. This was further exacerbated by resumption of normal European agricultural production, which lower the demand for American production. Farm prices fell at a catastrophic rate. The price of wheat, the staple crop of the Great Plains, fell by almost half while cotton prices in the South, fell by three-quarters. (Romer, 1988) By the beginning of 1921, the United States had successfully transitioned to a peacetime economy especially in the metropolitan centers. (Miller, 2015) The period from 1921 to 1929 would come to be nicknamed “the Roaring Twenties,” a term coined by the famous author, F. Scott Fitzgerald. This capture the sense of prosperity and excitement as America gained dominance in world finance. (Soule, 1948) The United States would become the richest country in the world per capita and the largest total GDP. (Goldberg, 2003)The annual GNP grew at a rate of 4.7 percent from 1922 to 1929. (US DC, 1975) The migration from rural America into major urban centers increased dramatically as farmers, many of whom had taken out loans to increase production, failed to make payments due to limited demand and excess supplies. With agricultural incomes remaining stagnant, farm foreclosures and rural bank failures increased at an alarming rate. While the major metropolitan cities was experiencing a renaissance with the growth of industries such as automotive, film, radio and chemical. New technological innovation like mass production and assembly-line accelerated demand for labor and real wages increase by around 20%. (Goldberg, 2003) Combining the rising wages with the falling cost of new mass produced goods allowed the middle-classes in urban centers to experience luxuries previously unattainable prior to World War I. The best example of this is the automobile. The Model T sold for $850 in 1908, now sold for $290 in 1924, the rate of automobile ownership increased from one car per fifteen Americans to one car per five Americans. (Allen, 1931) The financial needs of these new industries altered the face of American capital markets. In the 1800s, commercial banks were severely limited in their ability to provide large long-term loans due to regulations. These restrictions prohibited National Banks from lending to one customer more than 10 percent of their capital and surplus. The effect of this regulation on banks’ lending capacity was amplified by strict state limits on branch banking that restricted banks’ ability to grow. Corporations turned to financing their capital investments out of retained earnings, bond and stock issues. The market for industrial securities, which first emerged in the nineteenth century, came of age in the 1920s, as both old and new firms issued equities to finance new plant and equipment. (Campbell, 1988) Commercial banks did purchase more bonds, but they could not legally trade or acquire equities. To bypass these regulations, they developed the “affiliate system” which was a process of setting up independent but fully owned affiliates under state charters. This sanctioned them to penetrate all aspects of investment banking and the brokerage business. The number of affiliates grew rapidly from ten in 1922 to one hundred and fourteen by 1931. (White, 1986) These affiliates solicited many new customers and became a major distributors of stock and bonds, empowering them to become underwriters. By 1930, commercial banks’ security affiliates had obtained roughly half the bond originations. By moving into investment banking through their affiliates, commercial banks were thus able to continue servicing the requirements of their corporate customers (White, 1986) While the securities affiliates catered to a broader clientele than most traditional brokerage houses, many small investors might still have shied away from buying securities, lacking sufficient capital to purchase a diversified portfolio of stocks. This obstacle was eliminated by the investment trusts, which served the same function as mutual funds do today. The investment trusts grew from about forty in 1921 to over seven hundred and fifty by 1929. Investment trusts were primarily institutions that sold securities to the public and used the proceeds to invest in stocks and bonds. There were two main types of investment trusts, management trusts and fixed trusts. The management trusts had managers overseeing the portfolio and making business decisions. The fixed trust, on the other hand, the portfolio could not be changed from its initial inception. (West, 1977) The growth of the securities market, assisted by the establishment of investment trusts and securities affiliates, allowed firms to substitute stocks and bonds for commercial bank loans. This development began well before the stock market boom, but the pace of change accelerated in the 1920s with the rapid growth of modern industrial enterprise. During this decade, banks found their traditional role as intermediaries sharply reduced. Commercial loans as a percentage of total earning asset of national banks fell from fifty-eight percent in 1920 to thirty-seven percent in 1929. In response, they sought to increase their fee income by offering new financial services, including trusts and insurance. (West, 1977) Most importantly, they increased their role as brokers between the saving public and industry. Banks were familiar with their borrowers and conditioned to monitor their activities. However, the overall sophistication of investors was weakened by the influx of new people into the market. Even before the boom began, many people who had never bought stock before entered the market. One major group of new investors was women, whom brokers catered to with special programs and even their own rooms to watch the ticker tape. All these new investors lacked experience in buying stock and monitoring firms. , thus creating a favorable condition for the later crash in 1930. During 1921 the Dow Jones Industrial Average was at around 16 points, but by September 3, 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average swelled to a record high of 381.17, reaching the end of an eight year growth period during which its value ballooned by a factor of six. (US DC, 1975) Another contributor to the economic boom was easy credit. When an investor bought stock on margin, his broker usually paid the difference by contracting a broker’s loan from a bank that was collateralized by the stock. Call loans were the most important type of brokers’ loans. These loans had a daily call option and floating interest rate. Of lesser importance were time loans that had fixed maturity and fixed interest rate. (Patterson, 1965) The stock market credit was key element in generating irrational euphoria. This mania led individuals and institutions to believe that all will be better, that they are meant to be richer and to dismiss as intellectually deficient what is in conflict with that conviction. The ability to purchase stock on margin was a great speculative lure. A buyer need only to provide a fraction of the required funds, borrow the rest and enjoy the full capital gain less the interest on the borrowed money. This only further fueled unwise speculation for the public. The Federal Reserve started to pursue a contractionary policy beginning in January 1928, with open market sales and a rise in the discount rate from three and half percent to five percent. In 1928 and 1929, the consumer price index fell and M1 grew only slightly. (Patterson, 1965)These policy was a consequence of its fears about the flow of credit to the stock market. The Federal Reserve had always been concerned about excessive credit for speculation. The Board wanted member banks making loans on securities to be denied access to the discount window in order to force credit away from speculation. By 1929, the brokers’ loan did not slow down but grew rapidly even though member banks’ loans to brokers was in sharp decline. The rapid growth occurred in loans from private investors, corporations and foreign banks in Europe and Japan, which quickly substituted for bank loans. (Patterson, 1965) Brokers’ loans did not contribute to the stock market boom. Instead, the demand for credit to buy stock pulled funds into the market, forcing major reallocation of credit in the money and capital markets. The stock market boom also had a powerful effect on the demand for money due to the demand for transactions balances to buy stocks. This caused money markets to tighten further as the boom progressed, misleading the Federal Reserve as to the actual effect of its policies. As the call rate rose, there was a rapid decline in commercial paper. Commercial banks provided more loans and discounts to firms that had previously relied on the commercial paper market. (Patterson, 1965) The stock market demand for funds and new issues forced major changes in other financial markets. The growth in the new issues of domestic stock increased dramatically, while issues of domestic bonds and notes fell from $3.1 billion in 1927 to $2 billion in 1929 and foreign securities fell even more from $1.3 billion to $673 million. (Patterson, 1965) The stock market started to unravel on Wednesday October 23, 1929 to the close on Tuesday October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange lost over twenty-five percent of its value. In that single week, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (Pierce, 1982) fell from 326.51 to 230.07, a drop of twenty-nine and half percent, while the Standard and Poor’s composite portfolio of ninety stocks (Schwert, 1990) fell from 28.27 to 20.43, a fall of twenty-seven and eight percent. As large as these drops were, they must be placed in the proper perspective. First, at the end of 1929, stock prices were less than twenty percent below their beginning of year level, and well above the level at the beginning of 1928. In addition, much of the October 1929 loss was regained by mid-April of 1930. But, nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the October 1929 crash was just one part of the sustained decline that began on September 3, 1929, when the Dow Jones Industrials closed at 381.17, and continued through the end of February of 1933, when Dow closed at 50.16 which was a cumulative decline of over eighty-five percent. While share prices certainly fell in late October 1929, and trading was disorderly in many respects, the market decline was more gradual and much longer than the term ‘crash’ implies. Finally, it is worth noting that the Dow Jones Industrial Average did not reach the nominal level of the September 1929 peak again until the mid-1950s. In the immediate aftermath of the crash, President Herbert Hoover instructed Congress to investigate the prospect of separating commercial and investment banking. (Kelly, 1985) Senator Carter Glass spearheaded the effort in the Senate to devise new regulations, introducing early draft legislation in 1930, and holding hearings under the authority of the Senate Banking and Currency Committee in early 1931. (Kelly, 1985) In January 1932, Senator Glass introduced a revised bill that for the first time was specifically designed to separate securities affiliates from commercial banks. The financial sector was strongly opposed to the legislation fearing the pending legislation as unfairly restrictive of banking practices, and a threat to the prospects for economic recovery. On April 19, 1932 Senator Glass introduced the final version of this bill. The bill focused on securities affiliates as the key catalyst for the collapse of the financial sector, proposing the outright separation of commercial from investment banking. But President Hoover and much of Congress remained opposed to major financial regulatory reform, delaying further action on the bill. As 1932 wore on, the prospects for Senate Glass’s bill seemed to improve. The public hearings into stock exchange practices revealed the excesses of Wall Street bonuses, income tax evasion, and highly profitable but misrepresented securities sales and other problematic business practices. The bill received a further boost when Senate Glass helped with the drafting of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Democratic Party platform in 1932. He was able to insert a provision calling for the regulation and separation of commercial and investment banking. (Perkins, 1971) Throughout the spring and summer of 1932, banks and influential business groups continued to oppose the bill, meeting with members of Congress and criticizing the bill as harmful to credit, recovery and growth in the midst of the depression to the public. After Franklin D. Roosevelt’s electoral victory, even President Hoover came around to supporting a version of the bill realizing financial regulation of some kind was now inevitable. President Hoover with the help of a Republican Senate hoped to obtain passage of a more watered down version of the bill before Franklin D. Roosevelt and the newly elected Democratic Congress could be sworn in. (Perkins, 1971) They were unsuccessful in achieving passage in the Democratic House, where debate was already beginning on the prospect for deposit insurance called the Steagall’s deposit insurance bill. With the arrival of a new Congress and a new administration in March 1933, the Glass bill moved very quickly toward passage. Much of the “Hundred Days” session of Congress centered on bolstering the economy and staving off further financial collapse. Eventually, the Glass bill and Steagall’s deposit insurance bill would merge and secure bipartisan support for passage in the House. (Kelly, 1985) Part II. AN OVERVIEW OF THE GLASS-STEAGALL ACT The Glass-Steagall Act consisted of four provisions: sixteen, twenty, twenty-one, thirty-two, which taken together mandated the separation of commercial and investment banking. Provisions sixteen and twenty prevented any bank that accepts deposits from directly engaging in most securities activities except for those involving municipal general obligation bonds, United States government bonds, private placements of commercial paper and real estate bonds. Provisions twenty-one and thirty-two address indirect securities activities through bank subsidiaries or affiliates and apply to banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Provision twenty prohibits these banks from affiliating with any organization “engaged principally” in underwriting securities, and Provision thirty-two prohibits director, officer or employee interlocks between these banks and firms “primarily engaged” in securities activities. The banking act also expanded permission for national banks to engage in “branch banking” by opening subsidiary branches in different localities and expanded the regulatory powers of the Federal Reserve. It will also create a deposit insurance system by establishing what is now known as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. (12 U.S.C. §24) As a substantive policy, the Glass-Steagall Act’s separation of commercial and investment banking was seen as crucial to preventing abuse by financial firms in selling securities. A commercial bank might promote the securities it underwrites and misrepresent the quality of these securities to its depositors instead of offering them disinterested investment advice. Or the bank might induce a troubled loan customer to issue new securities to repay the loan. If investors in these securities are naïve, they are penalized by purchasing poor quality securities believing they are good investments. If, however, investors are not naïve, they know such a conflict of interest might exist and will, therefore, adjust down the price they are willing to pay for such securities. In this case, the issuing firms that use commercial bank underwriters bear the cost by receiving less funding than they would like, so there is underinvestment. The economy is worse off, since some good investments go unfunded. Part III. The ABOLISHMENT OF THE GLASS-STEAGALL ACT During the 1980s and 1990s, federal banking agencies and courts adopted creative statutory interpretations that enabled banks to engage in stock markets activities and allowed nonbank financial institutions to offer substitutes for deposits. The collective impact of those rulings eroded Glass-Steagall barriers by permitting commercial banks to behave more like securities firms and allowing nonbanking financial institutions to behave more like banks. (Markham, 2000) Federal agencies and courts was able to undercut Glass-Steagall in three significant ways. First, nonbank financial institutions were allowed to fund their operations by offering short-term financial instruments that were redeemable at par and served as functional substitutes for deposits. Those instruments included money market mutual funds, commercial paper, and securities repurchase agreements. The largest commercial banks also began to rely significantly on these type of instruments after they were allowed to reestablish securities affiliates beginning in 1987. (Markham, 2000) Second, banks received permission to convert their consumer and commercial loans into asset-backed securities through the process of securitization. Third, banks gained authority to become dealers in over-the-counter derivatives, which provided synthetic substitutes for securities, exchange-traded options and futures. (Whitehead, 2010) The National banks were not satisfied with the limited victories they achieved by opening loopholes in Glass-Steagall. They lobbied and launched a prolonged campaign in the 1980s and 1990s to repeal Glass-Steagall’s provisions. In 1991, the U.S. Treasury Department issued a landmark report, which called for the removal of state banking restrictions on interstate banking as well as the repeal of Glass-Steagall. Congress adopted Treasury’s plan by enacting the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act, which allow nationwide banking and branching. In 1998, with the merger between Travelers, a large insurance and securities conglomerate, and Citicorp, the largest U.S. bank to create Citigroup created the first “universal bank” to operate in United States since 1930s. (Whitehead, 2010) Thus exerting extreme pressure on Congress to repeal the Glass-Steagall’s anti-affiliation rule. Citigroup and other large financial institutions began a massive lobbying campaign that finally persuaded Congress and President Bill Clinton to adopt the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999. This act authorized the creation of financial holding companies that could own banks, securities firms and insurance companies and finally repealed Glass-Steagall Act. (Sissoko, 2017) Part IV. GLASS-STEAGALL ACT IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY In the fall of 2008, the United States experienced a sudden financial crisis that plunged the financial sector into the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. The large banks originated subprime mortgage and sold them to their depositors as securities. As home prices declined, mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures increased causing a devaluation of subprime mortgaged securities. (Taub, 2014) In the aftermath, President Barack Obama introduced a series of regulatory proposals to address the Great Recession of 2008-2010. Discussion about Glass-Steagall started to take shape both in public and private sectors. (Wack, 2012) This crystalized into reality during the 2016 Presidential election with both the Democrat and Republican platforms signaling possible reinstatement of Glass-Steagall. In 2013, Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren and Republican Senator John McCain proposed a bipartisan bill, the 21st Century Glass-Steagall Act, which would reinstate the Glass-Steagall Act. (Warren, 2017) After winning the 2016 election, the Trump administration is open to implementing legislation that would function to reinstate the provisions of Glass-Steagall. But in a hearing before the Senate Banking Committee on May 18, 2017, Treasury Secretary Mnuchin clashed with Senator Warren, saying that the Trump administration does not support a full separation of banks and investment banks. (Bryan, 2017) In conclusion, in light of the lively debate in Washington and further developments in this area are likely to continue. The financial services industry faces the real possibility of a bipartisan effort to pursue a number of possible approaches to reinstating the potions of the Glass-Steagall Act that separated commercial and investment banking. Such legislation could have a profound impact not only on banks but potentially on many other types of business within the financial industry. * WeindorfThe Glass-Steagall Act: Past and Future
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