A Study On Internet Banking In Nepal
This research is the effort for study and analyzing the Internet Banking in Nepal Bank Limited. Internet Banking can be defined as the use of technology to communicate instructions to and receive information from a financial institution where an account is held. Internet Banking includes the systems that enable financial institution customers, individuals or businesses, to access accounts, transact business or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network, including the Internet. Since the launch of Internet the large planet has become a smaller one. It has rendered enormous impacts on business sectors. Remarkable development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has introduced a global revolution in banking industry. The global trend in business arena set some challenge that cannot be fulfilled with the help of the traditional banking system. The survey of current banking system in Nepal reveals the fact that it requires rapid modification and adaptation to keep harmony with the world economy business. It becomes more obvious by observing the increased number of customers in some modern bank while others are losing them. The existing banking system in our country is slow and error-prone. In one hand, fails to meet the customers’ demand and it causes some significant losses both for the banking authority and traders. E-Banking, on the other hand solves the above problems. Furthermore, it opens up some other salient aspects such as increased foreign trade and foreign investment. Most plan allow customers to perform all routine transactions, such as account transfers, balance inquires, bill payments and stop payment requests everything but it’s very easy to set up an account. We can access our account information anytime day or night and we can do it from anywhere. A few online banks update information in real time, while others do it daily. 1.2 Introduction of Origin and Growth of Bank in Nepal The growth of banking in Nepal is not so long. In comparison with other developing or developed country, the institutional development in banking system of Nepal is far behind. Nepal had to wait for a long time to come to this present banking position. The origin of bank in Nepal and its beginning of growth is controversial. Even though the specific date of the beginning of money and banking deal in Nepal is not obvious, it is speculated that during the reign of the King Manadev, the coin “Manank” and “Gunank” during the reign of the King Gunakamadev were in use. After the establishment of Nepal Bank Limited on 30th Karkik, 1994 (1938), modern banking system started in Nepal. Under the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2012 (1956), Nepal Rastra Bank was established in 2013(1957) Baisakh 14th in Nepal. But this act has been repealed and the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2058(2002) has been enacted by the parliament. After its establishment, it issued the Nepali notes on 7th Falgon 2016 for the first time. Gradually, bank develop their services in Nepal according to requirement of customers and to compete market so today we can transact via non cash elements : like Internet Banking, Credit Card, ATM Card and SMS banking etc. 1.3 Nepal’s ICT Background Nations worldwide have recognized development opportunities and challenges of the emerging information age characterized by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). These technologies are driving national development efforts worldwide and a number of countries in both developing and the developed world are exploring ways of facilitating their development process through development, deployment and the exploitation of ICT within their economies and societies. Nepal’s journey into the world of information technology began some three decades back with the use of IBM 1401 for the population census, 1971. Royal Nepal Academy for Science and Technology (RONAST), for the first time, used the internet. Mercantile Private Limited started email services for commercial purpose in June 1994. In 1995 government purchased the machine for further data processing in the Bureau of Statistics and established a separate organization called Electronic Data Processing Center (EDPC) and after 6 years it converted to National Computer Center (NCC). Government has formed High Level Commission for Information Technology (HLCIT), which is playing the role of facilitator between private and public sector in the development of ICT in Nepal. 1.4 Introduction of Internet Banking “Internet banking” refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer (PC) or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include wholesale products for corporate customers as well as retail and fiduciary products for consumers. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. Some examples of wholesale products and services include: Cash management. Wire transfer. Automated clearinghouse (ACH) transactions. Bill presentment and payment. Examples of retail and fiduciary products and services include: Balance inquiry. Funds transfer. Downloading transaction information. Bill presentment and payment. Loan applications. Investment activity. Other value-added services. Other Internet banking services may include providing Internet access as an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The OCC has determined that a national bank subsidiary may provide home banking services through an Internet connection to the bank’s home banking system and, incidental to that service, may also provide Internet access to bank customers using that service. Historically, banks have used information systems technology to process checks (item processing), drive ATM machines (transaction processing), and produce reports (management information systems). In the past, the computer systems that made the information systems operate were rarely noticed by customers. Today, Web sites, electronic mail, and electronic bill presentment and payment systems are an important way for banks to reach their customers. 1.5 Statement of the Problem Establishing Internet Banking infrastructure has been a challenging task for the developing countries like Nepal. In the context of Nepal there are ample of problems in Internet Banking some of them are given below : Computer and Banking Literacy : In aggregate here is low level of IT literacy. Very few people are computer literate in Nepal and very few people understand banking system or banking process even educated people also there. Infrastructure Development : Though banks reach with their services in rural area ISP or NTC services is not available there for internet services and vice versa. Risk Management : In Nepal, Internet Banking is at its infancy right now. However, no Internet Banking frauds have been found yet. Lack of understanding of internet technology may be the reason. But precaution must be taken. In order to mitigate the risks associated with all e-banking businesses, banks should have in place a comprehensive risk management process that assesses risks, control risk exposure and monitors risks. Security : Security of a transaction, authenticity of a deal, identification of a customer etc are important technological and systems issues, which are major sources of concern to e-banking. Customers are afraid from online attack. Various online attacks are also available. 1.6 Objectives of the Study The main objectives of proposed research are to study, analyze and understand the Internet Banking of Nepal Bank Limited. Some of the other objectives are as follows : To identify the problems in existing Internet Banking services of Nepal Are public satisfy or not from Internet banking Services ? If not what will be the effective service delivery mechanism. To identify the prerequisites to get the Internet Banking services The research tell prerequisites to get Internet Banking services (for e.g. Computers, telephones, internet, customer should be account holder of bank) To examine the service delivery of different banks of Nepal The research includes various types of Internet Banking services provided by different banks’ to general public. 1.7 Scope of the Study The study will be mainly focused on three components of the study area : Social aspects : In social aspect the studied is focus on public participation according to their satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, values etc. Technical aspects : This aspects is concerned with the technically how to develop system and technology used on projects. Economic aspects : In the economic analysis part, the study will focus on the possible areas of economic development by using this Internet Banking. 1.8 Limitation of the Study This research is the small effort for study and analyzing the Internet Banking services of Nepal which has limited time so it cannot focus on all areas and may not be able to explore many fields. This research work is done within limited time frame during the MBS dissertation. There are so many constraints while doing the work such as inadequate time, load shedding, and resources etc. To understand methodology of Internet Banking service is very difficult because banks only provide surface level of information because of their security concern. In spite of great effort, there are many limitations of this research work. The major limitations are as follows : In the field of E-banking, there are so many arenas like ATM, Tele Banking, Mobile Banking etc. but this research does not focus on all the e-banking services. Research works mainly focus on Internet Banking. Fund transfer is possible within the branch of bank. It means once cannot transfer amount from one bank to another bank. Banks have their own policy but there is no any standard policy for Internet Banking in Nepal. In the field of Internet Banking security is must but this research doe not cover all the aspects of security. General customers and corporate customers of Internet Banking system have same kinds of facilities. 1.9 Organization of the Study This study is organized and decorated in seven chapters. Each chapter and unit will be on a prescribed format of thesis writing to the partial fulfillment of MBS program. Each unit gives the clear picture or roadmap of the study. Chapter One This chapter deals with “Introduction of The Study”. In this chapter, separated unit for background, significances objective and limitation of the study has mentioned. Chapter Two This chapter focused “Review of Literature”. In this chapter, various relevant such as different books, journals, article and previous thesis mention has mentioned. Chapter Three Third chapter presented “Research Methodology”. In this chapter, research design, sources of the data, method of data collection and analysis has mentioned. Chapter Four This chapter deals with “Analysis of Internet Banking”. This chapter provides the different analysis like strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) analysis and feasibility analysis of Internet banking. Chapter Five Fifth chapter deals with “Internet Banking Security”. Security in Internet Banking comprises both the computer and communication security. Therefore this chapter consist different security principles, cryptographic key management, RAID etc. Chapter Six This chapter focused on “System Analysis and design” to present the current Internet Banking system. This chapter provides requirement analysis, process modeling, data dictionary, hardware and software requirement to execute program. Chapter Seven Seventh chapter presented with “Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation” of the Study. 1.10 Research Design There are two types of research approaches qualitative and quantitative. In the quantitative approach results are based on numbers and statistics that are presented in figures, whereas in the qualitative approach where focus lies on describing an event with the use of words. This study is the result of qualitative research using comparative and analytical methods. The comparative research was conducted in two ways : Firstly, the comparison is carried out by investigating the availability of basic services of Internet Banking in different banks of Nepal. Secondly, the comparison is also carried out by investigating the different features offered by banking institutions in Nepal. For that purpose, reviews of website from banks are conducted. Thus to gain practical knowledge of Internet Banking in the Nepali context, this research is conducted as a qualitative study to explore the perception of Internet Banking among Nepali Banks. Hence, the aim is not to make any simplification but instead establish a closer contact with the objectives of prior research which intend to provide us a deeper understanding of the participants attitudes and perceptions. Finally my intention with this research is to understand Internet Banking first describe and explore, find and analysis detailed information about Internet banking services provided by different banks of Nepal so qualitative approach is the most suitable method for my research. 1.11 Source of Data Both primary as well as secondary data have been collected in order to achieve the real and factual result out of this research. All possible and useful data available have been collected. The major sources of data are as follows : a. Primary Source The primary data are collected from primary sources. The primary sources of data are the opinion survey through questionnaire, field visit and information received from the respondents. Some of the information was also collected from interview with the respondents. b. Secondary Data The secondary data are collected from secondary sources. The secondary sources of data are the information received from books, journals and article concerned with the study for example website of the Nepal Bank Limited, thesis and dissertation submitted at Shanker Dev Campus, Central Library T.U.
Theology Essays – Pneumatology
assignment writing services Theology Essays – Pneumatology. What is the relationship between the Pneumatology contained in the Pauline corpus* and the experience of the writer and his intended readers? What implications does your answer have for the development and application of Christian Pneumatology in the 21st century? Introduction Pneuma comes from the Greek and means wind or spirit and ology is a body of thought on a given subject thus theology, sociology etc.. Pneumatology is the theology of the Holy Spirit as understood in the Christian tradition. References to the Spirit of God are to be found throughout the Old Testament, in the New Testament and in the Pauline body of writings. Moltmann (1992) contends that for many years the Holy Spirit was the ‘Cinderella’ of modern theology but the rise of the ecumenical movement and in particular the second Vatican Council saw growing awareness of the role of the Spirit. The subsequent growth of Pentecostal and Charismatic movements has since generated a renewed interest in this neglected area of theology. This assignment looks at the relationship between Paul’s experiences, the Pneumatology contained within his work, and the intended recipients of his letters. On the basis of the answers to this question conclusions will be drawn as to their implications for the development and application of Christian Pneumatology in the 21st century. Christians were preaching the words of Jesus before Paul came along, first as the Church’s persecutor and then as its foremost advocate. For many Christian thinkers Paul is the foremost Christian theologian, others see his work as detracting from the teachings of Jesus as found in the Gospels. Bultmann (1972) maintains that in order to understand early Christianity one must first understand Paul. Whatever position scholar’s take with regard to Paul’s work he is most certainly not an Apostle who will be ignored. Paul is known for his tirades against enforced Jewish Orthodoxy and his mission to the Gentiles, in fact he is seen by many as the foremost apostle to the Gentiles. Paul’s Theology The body of work that is attributed to Paul documents his experiences and demonstrates the development of his theology on the basis of such experiences (Becker, 1993). Becker maintains that: …the theology of Paul is the theology of experience under the influence of the gospel and of the Spirit connected with it, . . . [so that] if Paul designs his theological statements on the basis of his experience of the gospel, then the content of the gospel must consequently be the measure and criterion of everything — in short, for the interpretation of all reality (Becker, 1993::xi). Paul came from Tarsus and was not a disciple of Jesus he had heard the preaching of the Hellenistic Church and had a dramatic conversion experience on the road to Damascus. Paul was a fervent and pious Jew and his conversion experience led him to question the Torah. This was because Paul was convinced that salvation came through the grace of Christ alone and not through personal righteousness and adherence to the Law (Bultmann, 1972). However, he believed that the Law did show the Jews (and the Gentiles) what righteousness was. Certain of the Jews tried to achieve this through an enforced legalism and Paul said that this was not possible. The Law exposed sin and people’s inability to truly adhere to the Law. This, as Stendahl (1963) points out was because of his concern about what would happen to it with the coming of the Messiah and what would happen to the Jews who were God’s chosen elect. An Eschatological and Anthropological View Bultmann (1972) maintains that Paul’s conversion was not the result of repentance but rather obedient submission to the call of the judgement of God through Christ and it is this that is the basis of his theology. Eschatology or the doctrine of the end times and God’s judgement on the present world is central to Paul’s thinking and the presence of the Holy Spirit demonstrates this feeling of ‘now and not yet’. For Bultmann, Paul’s own understanding of the human situation is the key to understanding Paul’s theology. Thus Bultmann (1972) argues that Paul’s theology is anthropological ie. a doctrine of human beings before the life of faith and under the life of faith. Bultmann (ibid) contends that the pneumatology that is found in the Pauline corpus can be confusing because Paul uses the term pneuma in a number of different ways. This it seems is due to his understanding of humanity as embodied subjects who have both a psyche and a spirit or pneuma.. Bultmann says: When Pauls speaks of the Pneuma of man he does not mean some higher principle within him or some special intellectual or spiritual faculty of his, but simply his self, and the only question is whether the self is regarded in some particular respect when it is called pneuma (Bultmann, 1972:206). Pneumatology and ChristologyIn Paul’s theology the Holy Spirit is almost indistinguishable from Christ and in fact in Paul’s view the two are inseparable to such an extent that the notion of the Holy Spirit as Ruach or the breath of the Father seems to have disappeared from Paul’s theological scene. Thus Gaffin (1998) demonstrates that in Paul, The presence of the Spirit is the presence of Christ. There is no relationship with Christ that is not also fellowship with the Spirit. To belong to Christ is to be possessed by the Spirit. Elsewhere, within the comprehensive sweep of the prayer at the close of Ephesians 3, for “you to be strengthened by [the] Spirit inwardly” is nothing other than for “Christ to dwell in your hearts through faith” (Eph. 3. 16–17) (Gaffin, 1998:10). It is arguably the case that Paul viewed the Spirit in this way because of his own experiences whereby acceptance of Christ means the indwelling of the Divine Spirit and this bears witness to our spirit that we are God’s children (Romans, 8:16). The Spirit therefore is evidence of Christ’s presence in the believer. This is a view that has been adopted by many present day evangelical Christians but would perhaps not have been so popular in the early Church. In the Gospels (and even in some of Paul’s work) the Holy Spirit is related to yet distinguishable from, the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit is a person who is worthy of worship in his/her own right. When Paul had his conversion experience he pledged obedience to Jesus Christ. It is in Paul’s writings that Luther discovered the doctrine of justification by faith In many instances in the Pauline corpus the Holy Spirit is seen almost as a guarantee of salvation because he/she witnesses to the presence of Christ. Scholars maintain that the letter to the Romans was written to address the specific needs of the churches in Rome. This may also have related to Paul’s own experiences and circumstances but the general consensus is that the main purpose of Romans (which has the most references to peumatology) was to edify the Roman church. At that time there were threats to the unity of the Church due to problems between the Jewish Christians and the Gentiles. Hahn (2000) maintains that Paul’s plea for the Church to live in the Spirit rather than according to the flesh was necessary in a Church that whose unit was under threat. Paul speaks to the Church of being in the flesh or in sin, being a slave to sin. The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Christ, is what sets a believer free from sin and gives a person life. Bultmann (1972) says: Man, called to selfhood, tries to live out of his own strength and thus loses his self-his life-and rushes into death. This is the domination of sin. All man’s doing is directed against his true intention-viz, to achieve life (Bultmann, 1972:246). It is the person who has faith who receives life, here again we see the connection between Paul’s pneumatology and his own personal experience of being given new life at the moment of conversion. This is when a person turns from death to life through the ministry of the Spirit. Paul speaks to both Jew and Gentile when he says that human beings are confronted by righteousness through the Law but are unable to achieve it. Only God, through the ministry of the Holy Spirit can make a person righteous so that they can stand before God as a righteous person (Bultmann, 1972). With the righteousness of faith comes the freedom of the Spirit as expressed in the first letter to the Corinthians. For all things are yours…whether the world or life or death or the present or the future, all are yours The Spirit takes on a number of different roles in Paul’s writings and is closely connected to the concepts of eschatology and of soteriology or salvation history. Paul’s pneumatology is a pneumatology of freedom. In Paul’s thinking the Christian is set free from the cares of the world to enter the service of God as he himself had done. Through baptism and the gift of the Spirit a person is freed from sin and death and Galatians (5.25) is encouraged to walk in the Spirit If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit (Bultmann, 1972). It would seem that the whole of Paul’s experience and thus the theology that is found in the Pauline corpus is permeated by his pneumatology. The whole of the Christian life is based on Paul’s idea of freedom in the Spirit thus 2 Corinthians 3.17 tells us that where the Spirit of the Lord is there is freedom. The believer is freed from the Law. The legalism of some of the Jews had made them slaves to the Law-when it was supposed to do the opposite. It is through faith and the gift of the spirit that the believer is adopted as a child of God a process Pauls calls the Spirit of adoption to Sonship. As adopted children of God we choose to walk in the Spirit rather than the flesh. It is the gift of sonship that frees believers from slavish adherence to the Law. Bultmann (1972) writes: Christian freedom is freedom from all This freedom however is only granted in God. Paul’s pneumatology points to a Christian way of life that is marked by or filled with God’s Spirit (Reumann, 1991:79). This stems from Paul’s own experience since devoting his life to the work of God. Other ways in which the Pauline corpus refers to pneumatology are (as his letters to the Church at Corinth demonstrate) in terms of spiritual gifts such as prophecy and speaking in tongues. Here Paul was dealing with the excesses of some Christians and was giving instructions on how the gifts of the Spirit should be used wisely.The Spirit is also seen as the sanctifier of the believer’s life. Although the believer becomes righteous and free from the Law through faith, this is often a future righteousness that depends on the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit. Conclusion.Based on the above brief survey of the Pauline corpus it is arguably the case that Paul had a very distinct pneumatology. However, his tendency to speak of Jesus and the Spirit almost interchangeably could be problematic in a contemporary, religiously diverse society. The early Church in the main, had a theology of the Spirit which did not tie the Spirit to the Son. This was achieved in 381 with the addition of the filioque clause. Originally the Spirit proceeded from the Father (this remains the case in the Orthodox Church) the filioque changed this to the Spirit proceeding from the Father through the Son (Moltmann, 1992). In some respects therefore it is arguably the case that Paul’s theology has a tendency to limit the role of the Holy Spirit, and the fourth Century addition to the Nicene Creed eventually split the Eastern and Western Churches in 1054. Limiting the role of the Spirit in this way, I would argue, is detrimental to the pneumatological freedom that is also found in the Pauline corpus. A pneumatology that speaks of the freedom of the Spirit is arguably a vital part of any movement to renew the Christian faith in the twenty first century. Without this freedom contemporary Christianity could be said to be in danger of distancing itself from its roots and becoming something that should not be confused with the teachings of Christ. Thus Pneumatology in the twenty first century should be developed as one of the major themes relating to liberation in scripture. A pneumatology of freedom not just in the Christian life, but from all forms of injustice and oppression. As the Prophets would have it knowledge of God is demonstrated by the way in which we treat those who are oppressed. Bibliography .Becker, J. 1980 Paul the Apostle: The Triumph of God in Life and Thought Philadelphia Fortress Press Becker, J. 1993 Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles Westminster, John Knox Press. Bultmann, R. 1972 Theology of the New Testament: Volume 1 London, SCM Presshttp://dualravens.com/fullerlife/BiblicalPneuma.htm Gordon Fee and the Quest for a Biblical Pneumatology accessed 11/10/05 Moltmann, J. 1992 The Spirit of Life A Universal Affirmation London, SCM Press Reumann, J 1991 Variety and Unity in New Testament Thought Oxford, Oxford University Press Stendahl, K. 1963 “The Apostle Paul and the Intorspective Conscience of the West” Harvard Theological Review Vol 56 1963 pp 422-434 Gaffin, R. 1998 “Life Giving Spirit: Probing the centre of Paul’s Pneumatology”Jets 41/4 December 1998573-589 http://www.etsjets.org/jets/journal/41/41-4/41-4-pp573-589-JETS.pdf accessed 11/10/05 Hahn, R. Pneumatology in Romans 8:Its Historical and Theological Contexthttp://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyan_theology/theojrnl/21-25/21-05.htm accessed 12/10/05 Theology Essays – Pneumatology
Rasmussen College Human Resource Information System Case Study
Rasmussen College Human Resource Information System Case Study.
Scenario-Continue with the Hello Technology! Corporation scenario to complete your RFP. Hello Technology! Corporation is a medium-sized company in the technology industry. It would like to implement an HRIS and needs your help. The company has 300 employees in three locations in the United States. The company has plans to grow 50% over the next three years. Currently, Hello Technology! Corporation utilizes Excel and Word for keeping track of employee files, payroll, and total compensation. Annually, the company spends $50,000 for the HR Department for the salary of one HR employee, who maintains the employee records. There is an accounts payable clerk who makes $45,000 a year and works on Payroll 2 days per week.Assignment-Assess the need for a human resource information system (HRIS) that will manage employee information and benefits and compensation for Hello Technology! Corporation. Next, research at least two HRIS Vendors and the benefits and opportunities of each as they relate to the needs of Hello Technology! Corporation. Please do not copy/paste information from the vendor websites. Conduct research using resources from library databases (e.g., Business Source Complete via EBSCO, Business via ProQuest, O’Reilly Safari, and eBooks via EBSCO) to assist in conducting a needs analysis and vendor research. Then, create an RFP (request for proposal). Address the following in an RFP:Conduct a needs analysis to uncover the HR problems and/or challenges of the organization that HRIS applications can help solve.What elements should the HRIS contain in order to help the company be more efficient and productive with their employee information, payroll, and benefits and compensation system?Compare and contrast at least two HRIS vendors Include as a side by side table comparison. Then, choose one vendor to use. Explain why you chose this vendor over another. Include the Web address and proper citations for the vendors compared. You must provide evidence and explanation to support your decision.Compare and contrast at least two HRIS vendors. Include as a side by side table comparison. Then, choose one vendor to use. Explain why you chose this vendor over another. Include the Web address and proper citations for the vendors compared. You must provide evidence and explanation to support your decision.Use this spreadsheet as your comparison table for two vendors. (I will attach the spreadsheet in the comments)Format-Your RFP assignment should be 3-4 pages (not including cover and reference pages), in a business professional format, and include correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar usage. Include your completed comparison table spreadsheet as a separate attachment. Use and cite at least 3 credible research sources in APA format. For more information on APA, please visit the APA Guide.
Rasmussen College Human Resource Information System Case Study
U need write in 2 page answer these 2 questions, each for one page , and the target company is 3M company，here is the link of 3M https://www.3m.com/ Q1：WIFO (What’s in it for the organization? benefits for organization/ community / customer / shareholders)- How does being an ethical company benefit the organization as a whole? Q2：What will happen if we fail to act? (an ensure ethical standards)- If the company gives up on their commitments or fails to act or continue to grow their ethical standards, what will happen?
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