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Silicon Carbide: Structure, Uses and History

2.1 Silicon Carbide 2.1.1 Historic Overview Silicon carbide as a material that precedes our solar system, travelling through interstellar space for billions of years, generated inside the fiery nuclear hearts of carbon rich red giant stars and in the remnants of supernovae (Davis, 2011). As a synthesized material it was first discovered by the Swedish scientist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824 during his pursuit to synthesize diamonds. Sixty years later, Eugene and Alfred Cowles, invented the electric smelting furnace in 1885 (Cowles and Cowles, 1885). Edward Goodrich Acheson based on Cowles invention, created the first process to produce SiC (silicon carbide) while experimenting to find an alternative suitable mineral to substitute diamond as an abrasive and cutting material. The synthetic mineral created by the process was characterized by great refractability and hardness (Saddow and Agarwal, 2004). During the production of SiC crystals, Acheson found hexagonal crystals inside his patented reactor and sent a sample to Professor B.W. Frazier were it was discovered that although the crystals were all made from the same substance their crystalline structure differed (Acheson, 1893, p.287). Later, in 1905 Henri Moissan discovered natural SiC crystal inside a meteorite thus the mineralogist community named the mineral moissanite (Saddow and Agarwal, 2004). In 1907, was the year were the first Light Emitting Diode (LED) was produced by H.J. Round, when by placing contacts on a SiC crystal and applying 10V, yellow, green and orange luminescence was observed at the cathode (Brezeanu, 2005). Decades later, a renewal of interest surrounding SiC emmerged when the seeded sublimation growth invented by Tairov and Tsvetkov (1978) made the creation of SiC wafers a reality, thus giving the material the opportunity to be studied for electronic applications. Three years later, Matsunami, Nishino and Ono (1981) showed that the creation of a single crystal of SiC on a Si substrate was feasible increasing the number and variety of possible applications even more. A huge milestone occurred in 1987 when through the use of “step controlled epitaxy”, high quality epitaxy of SiC could be made at low temperature on off-axis substrates (Kuroda et al., 1987). Based on this breakthrough Cree Inc. was founded in 1989, and manufactured the first commercial blue LEDs based on SiC along with the production of SiC wafers. 2.2.2 Crystal structure polytypes and characteristics 4. Examples of applications of CDC (Carbide derived Carbon) The multiple nanostructures that CDC presents, makes it a strong candidate to be implemented in numerous potential applications. In their paper, Presser, Heon and Gogotsi (2011) delineate the major research fields for future applications that CDC is currently attracting. In particular, these fields are: (1) The creation of Graphene based electronic devices (2) CDC as a new electrode material for supercapacitors (3) The use of CDC in fuel cells as a gas storage (e.g. hydrogen, methane) (4) CDC application in tribological coatings (5) Pt catalyst on CDC support (6) Protein sorption using CDC . Apart from the aforementioned fields another application area under research is to use CDC for CDI (capacitive deionization) of water or for desalination. The following chapters will give an extensive view of the research done on these fields although the main focus is the . 4.1 Graphene based electronic devices In 2003, (Dimitrijev and Jamet) published a paper were they stated that “Although SiC offers substantial advantages over Si, in terms of physical properties and thermal stability, it cannot compete Si devices in the areas of low cost, functional density, and moderate temperature applications. However, SiC has created its own applications niche where its unique material properties – high electric breakdown field, high thermal conductivity, and high saturated electron drift velocity – give this material significant advantages”. Since then, major manufacturers of SiC wafers such as Cree Inc., broke the 500$ barrier per wafer and made SiC accessible for researchers and the industry for optoelectronic devices (EE-Times, 1999) along with the introduction of 150 mm 4H SiC wafer in 2012 (Cree Inc., 2012). The previous breakthroughs made SiC a cheap precursor for the growth of epitaxial graphene. Grapse gia to pos to ftiaxnoume apo to prohgoumeno kefalaio. The intermediate product of Si sublimation from SiC is CDC were further process gives monolayer or multilayers of graphene. An application under research and a proposed manufacturing method, is the creation of flexible transparent electrodes for screens due to the flexibility, high electrical conductivity and strength of the material (Bae et al., 2010). Studies have shown that CDC is a powerful selective sorbent for a number of molecules due to the variety of sizes its porosity exhibits (Nikitin and Gogotsi, 2004, p. 533) and is suitable for applications such as the removal of toxins or cytokines from human blood (Yushin et al., 2006). Another field of application is the removal of toxic compounds from water or the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water. Particularly, according to (Zou et al., 2008) the ordered mesoporosity of CDC used as an electrode material for electrosorptive deionization is a more effective way of removing salt from water, when compared with the salt-removing capability of activated carbon. The explanation is that activated carbon materials contain randomly arranged mesopores and micropores were ordered mesoporous carbon contains predominately ordered mesopores that increase the capacity to desalinate water. Another example is the usage of CDC as catalyst supports for fuel cells (Jerome, 2005) References Acheson, E.G. (1893) ‘Carborundum: Its history, manufacture and uses’, Journal of the Franklin Institute, 136(4), pp. 279 289. Bae, S., Kim, H., Lee, Y., Xu, X., Park, J.S., Zheng, Y., Balakrishnan, J., Lei, T., Kim, H.R., Song, Y.I., Kim, Y.J., Kim, K.S., Ozyilmaz, B., Ahn, J.H., Hong, B.H. and Iijima, S. (2010) ‘Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes’, Nature nanotechnology, 5(8), pp. 574-578. Brezeanu, G. (2005) Silicon carbide (SiC): a short history. an analytical approach for SiC power device design. Available at: (Accessed: 7/31/2014 2014). Cowles, A.H. and Cowles, E.H. (1885) Electric Smelting Furnace. U.S. Patent 319945. Cree Inc. (2012) Cree News: Cree Introduces 150-mm 4HN Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Wafers. Available at: (Accessed: 7/28/2014 2014). Davis, A.M. (2011) ‘Stardust in meteorites’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(48), pp. 19142-19146. Dimitrijev, S. and Jamet, P. (2003) ‘Advances in SiC power MOSFET technology’, Microelectronics Reliability, 43(2), pp. 225 233. EE-Times (1999) Cree Research’s SiC wafers break $500-price barrier for opto applications | EE Times. Available at: (Accessed: 7/28/2014 2014). Jerome, A. (2005) MIXED REACTANT MOLECULAR SCREEN FUEL CELL. US 2005/0058875 A1. Available at: (Accessed: 21/07/2014). Kuroda, N., Shibahara, K., Yoo, W.S., Nishino, S. and Matsunami, H. (1987) ‘Extended Abstracts of the 19th Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials’, Tokyo, Japan, 1987. , 227. Matsunami, H., Nishino, S. and Ono, H. (1981) ‘Heteroepitaxial growth of cubic silicon carbide on foreign substrates’, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 28(10), pp. 1235 1236. Nikitin, A. and Gogotsi, Y. (2004) Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 7. Valencia, CA: American Scientific Publishers. Presser, V., Heon, M. and Gogotsi, Y. (2011) ‘Carbide-Derived Carbons – From Porous Networks to Nanotubes and Graphene’, Advanced Functional Materials, 21(5), pp. 810-833. Saddow, S.E. and Agarwal, A. (eds.) (2004) Advances in Silicon Carbide Processing an Applications. Boston: Artech House Inc. Tairov, Y.M. and Tsvetkov, V.F. (1978) ‘Investigation of growth processes of ingots of silicon carbide single crystals’, Journal of Crystal Growth, 43(2), pp. 209 212. Yushin, G., Hoffman, E.N., Barsoum, M.W., Gogotsi, Y., Howell, C.A., Sandeman, S.R., Phillips, G.J., Lloyd, A.W. and Mikhalovsky, S.V. (2006) ‘Mesoporous carbide-derived carbon with porosity tuned for efficient adsorption of cytokines’, Biomaterials, 27(34), pp. 5755 5762. Zou, L., Li, L., Song, H. and Morris, G. (2008) ‘Using mesoporous carbon electrodes for brackish water desalination’, Water research, 42(8-9), pp. 2340-2348.
Communication is the act or process of using words, sounds, or behaviours to express ideas, thoughts feelings, or exchange information (Merriam – Webster, 2014). People with learning disabilities die younger than other people (Heslop et al, 2013). The Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities (Michael, 2008) followed the Mencap report Death by Indifference (2007). The report concluded that there are inherent risks in the care system that result in high levels of health needs not being met. The inquiry found that people with learning disabilities appear to receive less effective care and that there are many shortcomings in the way treatment is delivered, with avoidable suffering caused by untreated ill health. Effective communication is essential in ensuring high quality health care (Balandin
Chapter 67 The Patient with a Cardiovascular Disease Discussion. I don’t understand this Health & Medical question and need help to study.

Chapter 67 The Patient with a Cardiovascular Disease Discussion

You have a new patient today! He is a 63 year old African-American male. He has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure and takes Hydrochlorothiazide 25mg and Losartan 50mg once a day. His intraoral dental examination reveals a plaque score of 70%. How would you address oral hygiene instruction in relation to plaque removal, the link to heart disease and the increased risk for African-Americans?

Remember: All posts and responses should contain proper grammar, be free of spelling errors, be substantial, and reflect critical thinking.
Chapter 67 The Patient with a Cardiovascular Disease Discussion

Ethics. Paper details   The discussion questions have been designed so that a response of approximately 500 words is typically needed to fully address the subject. Students should provide supporting materials (references/citations) to demonstrate/acknowledge the source of the information utilized to formulate the response. Discussion Question: 1. Why do upper socioeconomic status and lower socioeconomic status class individuals behave unethically? 2. What role does the police subculture play if any in fueling law enforcement misconduct? Defend your position.Ethics

Alcohol Abuse Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The Aversive Effect of Alcohol Betty Ford, the wife of former President Gerald Ford, suffered from alcoholism and was addicted to painkillers. She raised public awareness of addiction by confessing her longtime battle with alcoholism in the 1970s. When she recovered, she established the Betty Ford Center to help others overcome substance and alcohol abuse. Perhaps Ford’s greatest legacy was the honesty she brought to the American idea of alcoholism. Alcohol addiction can happen to anyone. There are no stereotypical symptoms of alcoholism. Even being the first lady of the United States does not make you immune to alcoholism. Abuse and addiction are two major issues in America. It affects the mind and bodies of “users” in harsh ways. Substance abuse is a pattern of repeated drug or alcohol use that interferes with health, work, and social relationships. The road to addiction is a long and winding road. Alcohol deeply affects our mentality, the ability to think clearly, and the personality of the people that use it. Numerous treatment options are available to help achieve the goal of ending addiction. Ethyl alcohol most commonly known as ethanol is the active ingredient in beer, wine, and liquor, also colloquially known as alcohol. The process known as fermentation produces alcohol. When yeast is fermented, sugar breaks down into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Carbon dioxide exits the process through gas bubbles and leaves behind a combination of water and ethanol. Numerous factors can cause or lead to alcoholism. High levels of stress cause a big impact mainly because people use alcohol to reduce their stress. Experimenting with alcohol at an early age can also lead you to trouble in your later life. While drinking early on can increase the likelihood of alcohol abuse, alcoholism can affect any age group. Mental health issues can increase alcoholism. It is easy for a person feeling depressed or anxious to turn to alcohol, which to them, seems to ease their feelings, while in reality it makes things worse. Another factor that leads to alcoholism may be family history. If a parent or close relative is alcoholic, your risk increases. Part is due to genetics, but the other part has to do with the surrounding environment Research has shown a close link with alcoholism and biological factors, mainly genetics and physiology. For some, alcohol gives off feelings of pleasure, encouraging the brain to repeat the behavior of drinking. Repetitive behavior causes a person to become more vulnerable. (Campus) While the road to addiction is different for every person, there are four common stages of addiction. The first being experimentation which is the voluntary use of a substance without experiencing any consequences. The experimenting usually occurs several times mainly because it is used for the purpose of “fun”. The second stage is regular use, which is when the risk for abuse increases and the start of risky behavior occurs. The third stage is known as the risky use or abuse stage. It is described as continued use of drugs or alcohol despite consequences. The beginning signs of addiction appear. The fourth and final stage is labeled drug addiction and dependency. Withdrawal symptoms occur and the compulsive use of the drug despite any consequences against relationships, physical or mental health, finances, and continuing work. (Palmera) Symptoms of alcoholism include blacking out, dizziness, aggression, compulsive behavior, anxiety, guilt, nausea, fear, problems with coordination, and slurred speech. (AshwoodRecovery) Frequent risk factors of alcohol use disorder are more than five drinks a day, parent with alcohol use disorder, mental health problems, peer pressure, low self-esteem, and high stress levels. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences. There is no simple cure for addiction. However, effective treatment can help you become and stay sober. Many treatment options are available for alcoholism. The main one being behavioral training, which is changing drinking behavior through counseling. Behavioral training consists of multiple types of therapies. Cognitive-behavioral therapy addresses harmful thought patterns, which helps clients recognize their ability to practice alternative ways of thinking, regulate distressing emotions and harmful behaviors. (AAC) Motivational enhancement therapy helps individuals resolve their ambivalence about their drug use. It aims to evoke rapid and internally motivated change rather than guide the patient through recovery. Motivational enhancement therapy consists of an initial assessment battery session, followed by two to four individual sessions with a therapist. (NIH) Another type of treatment is holding brief interventions. Brief interventions are evidence-based practices designed to motivate individuals at risk of substance abuse and related health problems. It helps change their behavior by guiding them to understand how their abuse puts them at risk and how to reduce or give up their substance use. (SAMHSA) Alcohol and substance use disorders can severely undermine the foundation of healthy relationships. Spousal relationships often are the first to suffer when some is struggling with alcohol or drug dependence. Marital and family counseling is very common in these situations. Marital and family counseling is a type of psychotherapy that helps couples of all types recognize and resolve conflicts and improve their relationships. When your spouse is addicted to a substance, you have to deal with irrational behavior, them getting sick, lies, cheating and other unacceptable behaviors. The majority of the time it is extremely difficult for the non-addicted spouse for the fact that they are legally bound to the other person. (Dombeck) Two patient treatment options are available. Inpatient treatment programs require the patient to live at the facility for the duration, typically thirty, sixty, or ninety days of treatment. The process begins with detoxification. Withdrawal symptoms are managed in a safe environment by qualified medical staff. Outpatient treatment gives the patient more freedom to work and be home with you family. Though more freedom is granted, a person is at more risk for relapse. Lastly, the most common type of treatment for alcohol dependency is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Alcoholics Anonymous is a twelve step, nonprofit organization. It is an international mutual aid fellowship whose stated purpose is to enable its members to “stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety”. AA was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. (AlcoholicsAnonymous) Being a member of Alcoholics Anonymous means listening to members share their experiences and to give service or sponsorship. Even though there are many treatment options for all individuals, people with a less serious addiction may attempt to diminish their addiction through everyday activities such as exercising, working out, running, going for walks, meditating, reading, volunteering, or finding a new hobby to take up your time. (AA) Most treatments work for the majority of alcoholics, though some of the time, people may not be ready or able to begin or finish their treatment. There is no exact success rate given but a few common statistics are known. In 2015, only 4.4% of people twelve years and older, agreed to receive treatment for their addiction. Alcoholics Anonymous has more than 115,000 groups worldwide. 32% of those people were introduced by another group member and an additional 32% of people were recommended by a treatment facility. 59% of people who join Alcoholics Anonymous have already received prior treatment and 40% drop out of group within the first year. An article in the New York Times stated that around 75% of people who begin and finish a treatment plan stay abstinent throughout their lifetime. (AmericanAddictionCenters) If alcohol is not consumed responsibly, there may be some serious consequences. Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body’s most important system, the endocrine system. The endocrine system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems. The system is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. Along with altering the endocrine system, alcohol also alters the levels of neurotransmitters which transmit behavioral, physical, activity, and emotion signals throughout the body. (Rachdaoui) Addictive substances such as alcohol tend to overstimulate the brain’s reward system by flooding it with excess levels of dopamine. The brain adjusts to the imbalance by reducing brain cells. Because of this, alcoholics could be at risk of dementia, stroke, depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, social problems, and many forms of cancer. Suicidal behavior is an extreme medical and social problem with alcoholics. Numerous amounts of evidence suggest that alcohol and drug abuse is associated with suicidal ideation, attempts, and suicides. After depression, alcoholism is the psychiatric condition most associated with suicide attempts and completed suicides. Alcohol and drugs are involved in around fifty percent of attempts. About twenty-five percent of completed suicides occur among individuals with alcoholism. (Vilens) A major study in 2017 by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, reported that the rate of female alcohol dependence in the United States increased drastically between 2002 and 2013. Experts suggest that the drastic rise stems from the high amount of anxiety and stress over balancing work and life situations. (Johnston) Today’s youth seems to have an extremely difficult time dealing with alcohol and other substances. Alcohol is the most common drug choice among young people. Teenagers get hooked on alcohol just for the “fun of it”. Alcohol slows down the brains of young people more quickly than the brains of legal age drinkers. It causes shrinkage in the brain causing numerous brain cells to die. Children’s brains tend to develop much slower than the average adult because children of ages 12-18 have yet to learn many life and developmental skills. Countless arguments have been discussed around of people questioning if some parts of consuming alcohol are good for you. Consuming alcohol, without a doubt, is a dangerous path to go on in general. People believe that if done responsibly, alcohol can add a few years onto your life. Although studies have shown that alcohol shortens your life by two or three years. Another claim is that alcohol attacks cancer cells which is untrue. Drinking alcohol can increase the risk of developing cancer due to damages to the body tissue, improper absorption, and failure to produce estrogen. Lastly, another belief is that alcohol lowers cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is found in every substance of the body. Human bodies need cholesterol to produce hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help digest food. Although it is commonly known that irresponsible drinking does damage to the liver, cholesterol is mainly produced in the liver. I had a conversation with a close family member of mine to learn more in depth of his struggles with alcoholism. “I was addicted but did not need alcohol every day, most people do not believe that not needing your substance everyday can still be an addiction. I would start drinking on Fridays after work and typically not stop until around Sunday at midnight. The majority of the time I would drink until I would pass out. It would happen a couple times each day if I had nothing to do that day. Sometimes I woke up covered in vomit, then I would wash up, mix another drink and keep going no matter the time of day. It was such a terrible way to live, but I did not know how to stop. The way I quit was the best yet the worst way to quit. I went to jail and that was the longest time I had been without alcohol since I was eighteen. When I got out of jail, I was arranged to see a court ordered counselor for thirty-two hours’ worth of meetings. Through those meetings, I learned how real my problem was. I knew I needed to change things, or I would fall into the same drinking cycle. The friends I had were not real friends, they were alcoholics just like I was. We enabled each other, made each other think our behavior was normal. Now, being sober, I focus more on what matters most. I try to spend more time with my family and work on my hobbies like hunting, fishing, camping, and working around the yard. Doing all these things helps me spend my time doing better and healthier things while not thinking about drinking. So, even if someone is an alcoholic, they can quit and overcome their substance abuse.” Substance abuse is a continuous pattern of daily destruction to a person body. Abusing alcohol interferes with work, health, and relationships. A person’s road to addiction is long and winding and takes a toll on your mental health. Substances, like alcohol, deeply affects our mental health, the ability to think clearly, and the personality of the people that use it. Numerous treatment options are known and available to help a person overcome their lengthy battle with addiction. Works Cited AA. Information on Alcoholics Anonymous. 2018. . AAC. Cognitive Behavoral Therapy (CBT). 29 December 2016. . —. Inpatient Treatment. 2018. . AlcoholicsAnonymous. 2018. . AmericanAddictionCenters. Alcoholism Addicition Treatment. 30 October 2018. . AshwoodRecovery. 4 Differences: Substance Abuse vs. Addiction. 27 June 2017. . Campus, Talbott. 5 Most Common Causs of Alcoholism. 2018. . Dombeck, Mark. Marital Therapy Process. 2018. . Johnston, Ann Dowsett. Our Drinking Problem. May 2018. . NIH. Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment. January 2018. . Palmera, Casa. The Four Stages of Drug Addiction. 1 October 2009. . Rachdaoui, Nadia. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine system. 2017. . SAMHSA. Brief Interventions. 2018. . Vilens, Alexander. Suicidal Behavior in Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Dependence. 2010. . Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

CS 360 Southern New Hampshire University Developing a Mobile Application Project

i need help writing an essay CS 360 Southern New Hampshire University Developing a Mobile Application Project.

CompetencyIn this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency:Apply user-centered design principles and industry standards in the development of a mobile applicationScenarioCongratulations! Your App Development Proposal has received approval after being shared with both your client and the mobile application development team at Mobile2App. It is now time to construct a UI based on your original proposal. You must supply the client with a complete UI design that is easy to understand and demonstrates a creative theme and layout for the finished application.DirectionsOpen the Android Studio Layout Editor to begin creating the UI for your app. Be sure to use the Install Android Studio resource and the Build a Simple User Interface resource, both linked in the Supporting Materials section, to get started with this software. Throughout this project, continue to reference the App Development Proposal you completed in Project One while paying particular attention to the section on UI Design. Also be sure to let the Android Design and Quality Guidelines document, which is linked in the Supporting Materials section, guide your decisions.Your completed UI should include all of the screens needed for your app to operate but the UI will not yet be functional. You will only be creating the UI components for this project as the supporting code will be completed in Project Three.Create UI with appropriate design elements to support a user logging in (1 screen). Your UI must include a login screen, that contains the following:Fields for the user to provide a username and passwordNote that the password element should be configured in a way that obscures any text that is typed into the field. This means the text will need to be visually converted into dots.A button for the user to submit their username and passwordA button for the user to create a new login if it is their first time using the applicationNote that to simplify the account creation process, you can use the same login screen for this purpose. Create a button that will add the username and password into the database if it does not already exist.Any other fields or elements that are necessary to make your application visually appealing, intuitive, and usableCreate UI with appropriate design elements to display database information as a grid (1 screen). Your UI must include a data display screen, that contains the following:A grid for displaying dataLogical labels and headers for the data that will be displayedA button for adding data to the gridA button on each row for deleting that row of data from the gridA mechanism that allows a user to change the value associated with each grid item (e.g. the number of a specific item in an inventory or the date of an event)Any fields needed to add data to your grid, though this can be on a new screen if you feel the layout is better for your appCreate UI with appropriate design elements to prompt a user for permission to communicate with the text messaging app and display information based on permission (1 screen). Your UI will need to include a button, or alternate mechanism, that would cause the app to ask a user for permissions so it can communicate with SMS messaging. A user that grants permission will then receive automated system notifications based on which option you chose in Project One. These notifications would be low inventory, an upcoming event, or reaching a goal weight. If the user denies access to the permissions needed for the app to interact with SMS, then your app should still continue to function overall but should not provide any notifications.Develop visual hierarchy and consistency between UI elements on different screens. The layout for each screen should follow an intuitive visual flow, have a consistent theme, and be creative but still easy to understand. Ask yourself the following to help determine if your visual hierarchy is successful:Does my focus order match with the steps a user would follow when completing a task?Does my grouping organize content in a way that makes sense for the user?Do my transitions have consistency between screens and tasks?What to SubmitTo complete this project, you must submit the following:App UI DesignYour final design should be submitted as a ZIP file including the full contents of your Android Studio project. Remember to title the file with your name and the app option you previously selected.Supporting MaterialsThe following resource(s) may help support your work on the project:Install Android StudioUse this guide to download and install Android Studio depending on the operating system you will be using.Build a Simple User InterfaceFollow these instructions to access the Android Studio Layout Editor from Android Studio to begin building the user interface.Android Developers – Design for AndroidYour app will need to meet specific requirements so it will look and behave in a way that is consistent with the Android platform. This website details the material design guidelines for visual and navigation patterns along with the quality guidelines for compatibility, performance, security, and more.Material Design AccessibilityThese visual hierarchy guidelines set forth by Material Design will serve as a useful reference when creating focus order, grouping, and transitions.
CS 360 Southern New Hampshire University Developing a Mobile Application Project

The Choice Between Presidentialism And Parliamentarism Politics Essay

As the third wave of democracy identified by Samuel Huntington has been spotted to its highlight after the fall of Berlin wall, now scholars put their concerns towards the consolidation of democracy. There is a revival of studies investigating how the settings of political institutions affect the stability and quality of democracy. One of the hotly-debated issues would be the choice between presidentialism and parliamentarism. These two political systems are the most dominant yet fundamental constitutional frameworks of a democratic regime. In this essay, it will try to look into the issue by the following order. First, it will give a definition of presidential systems and parliamentary systems. Then it will examine the characteristics of a new democracy and analyze the virtues of the two systems After, it will come to a conclusion that parliamentary systems tend to do better. Finally, it is acknowledged that countries have different historical and culture contexts. It is an over-generalization to say that parliamentary system fits all. The fundamental difference between a parliamentary system and a presidential system is the relationship between the executive and the legislative. In a parliamentary system, the two branches are mutually dependent. The prime minister is elected by the majority of the parliament and therefore the power of his/her cabinet comes from the support of legislators. In case the cabinet loses this support, it may fall from the vote of no confidence in the parliament. The survival of the prime minister depends on the ongoing confidence of parliament members. Under this circumstance, the executive collaborate closely with the legislature. There is more likely a fusion of powers. In a presidential system, there are two political agents selected each has a fixed electoral mandate, namely the president and the legislature. Both can claim legitimacy of representing the people without any interdependence. The executive and legislature check and balance the power of each other. There is a distinct separation of power. In parliamentary systems, presidents are not only the head of government who hold strong executive powers. They are also the head of state who perform ceremonial functions. In contrast, the head of state and the head of government are differentiated in parliamentary systems. For example, in constitutional monarchies such as the U.K. or Japan, the head of state is the Queen or the Emperor whereas in parliamentary republics such as Germany president is elected to be the head of state separately with the chancellor who is the head of government. There is fixed term of a president in the presidential system. It is difficult to impeach the president during his/her term. In Linz’s famous work ‘The Perils of Presidentialism’, he states that such an arrangement brings stability to the executive’s power but at the same time brings great rigidity. In parliamentary systems, when the prime minister loses the support from the parliament. The cabinet may be impeached by a vote of no confidence from the majority. Also the prime minster has the power to dissolve parliament and call for election earlier. The visibility of the policy making in each system is quite distinct from each other. According to Eaton (2000), such a distinction arises from the different political sites where policy formulating takes place in the two systems. In parliamentary system, policy bargain takes place in private meetings of party leaders, caucuses within a party or informal dealings of parliament members. Whereas in presidential systems, as Eaton (2000) points out ‘Public and often publicized conflict over legislation is more common in presidential systems, where a bill must work its way through the separately elected chambers to a separately elected president.’ (p.363) Indeed the nature of fusion of power in a parliamentary system makes it rather difficult to spot out where the policy is formulated exactly. In contrast, the distinct separation of power in a presidential system makes more rooms and capacities for policy transparency. Before proceeding to detailed evaluation of which system works better in new democracies, it is necessary to examine the characteristics of a new democracy. Although each country has its own historical, cultural background and demography, similarities can be found out. First of all, the liberal and republican substance is extremely weak. According to Larry Diamond (1999), many new democracies have only elections formalized but without the substantial components of a liberal democracy such as citizens’ rights and equal access of public agencies. Secondly, new democracies have often gone through vigorous political transition. There are often deep-rooted conflicts between the governing elites before the transition and the mass population or other conflicts due to historical reasons. During the era of Franco’s dictatorship, the liberals in Spain were suppressed by the regime. There are deep cleavages between the two side originated from the Spanish Civil War. After the fall of the authoritarian regime in Spain, the followers of Francisco Franco stills remain influential. There was still a great tension after the democracy regime was set up. Also, there are often deep ethnic cleavages in of democracies in the third wave such as many countries in Africa. Third, the political cultures of unconsolidated democracies share many similarities. Larry Diamond (1998) identifies that in general, people in new democracies do not get used to embrace democracy as the only legitimate political systems. With regarding on the question whether which system fits better in new democracies, this essay will try to argue with two dependent variables, consolidation of democracy and effective governance. There are higher chances of full-blown regime crises which is unfavorable to the consolidation of democracy in presidentialism than in parliamentarism. Linz(1990) argues that ‘Presidentialism is ineluctably problematic because it operates according to the rule of “winner-take-all–an arrangement that tends to make democratic politics a zero-sum game.’ (p.36) The zero-sum game nature may deepen the fragmentation and polarization between parties. In presidential systems, if a candidate loses in the election, it means that his part have to wait for several years without any executive powers. The rivalry arises during the election because of that fact that parties treat it as a zero-sum game exacerbates the problem. However in parliamentary systems, coalitions are common, parties who lose the election may still get a slice of power if they have significant clout. Also, coalitions promote and enhance the collaborations and communications between parties. Parties with huge ideological differences may form a cabinet and derive consensus rather than being in rivalry. As new democracies often emerges from a history of conflicts, political turmoil or colonialization, the distrusts and even tensions between different interest or ethnic groups are deep in many occasions. The more the tensions between parties representing different groups, the more likely that the distrust among different interest groups deepens. This kind of distrust may eventually evolve into disappointments to the democratic system to represent their voice among the interest groups who lose the election. The rigidity of the term of president in presidential systems makes this problem more complex. It is very difficult to impeach an unpopular president. Such kind of rigidity may eventually cause the frustration of the opposite party or people and they may seek to impeach the president through non-democratic means. An example would be Taiwan. In 2006, as many people are frustrated by the failure to impeach Chen Shui-bian, they turned to the streets to protest. This causes great turmoil to a new democracy like Taiwan and shakes the confidence of people towards democratic regimes. In parliamentary systems, the cabinet has to fall if the majority of the parliament agrees with the vote of no confidence. It may well be argued that by this way the government is weak and instable. However such kind of instability and the ease of dissolve of the government may avoid a greater crisis with higher risks of downfall of democracy. In the process of consolidating democracy, one of the crucial elements will be the legitimacy of the democratic regime. There is a problem of dual legitimacy as Linz verifies in presidential systems. Both the assembly and the president can claim themselves representing the whole people. This is particular obvious when the opposition holds the majority of the assembly. This dual legitimacy often causes gridlocks between the executive and the legislative branch. In case there is a conflict between the two and both claim to be representing the people, new democracies often lack a neutral moderator to resolve the dispute. In U.S., the Supreme Court play such a role. However this is not common in emerging democracies. In some cases, such as Argentina or other Latin American countries, military intervention may be used to solve the deadlock which often overrules the democratic regimes or cause great harm to it. In parliamentary systems, the role of moderator can be acted by the head of state which is differentiated from the head of government. Often such a dispute can be resolved without bringing damages to the political institution. In the architecture of presidential systems, the president enjoys a strong executive power. Also, he/she has a fixed term which gives him/her a great amount of time to carry out reforms he/she desires. Theoretically, all these give him great capacity to make a detailed and comprehensive set of policies to bring about substantial to a country. He/she can carry out unfavorable but necessary reforms and need not to be afraid that he will be impeached by this. As a result, political and economic reforms are easier to be carried out in presidential systems which often a new democracy urgently needs. Nevertheless, the above mechanism works on a presumption that the president holds the majority of the assembly. By principles of separation of power, although the president processes strong executive power, he/she is at the same time under the scrutiny of the assembly. When the opposition holds a majority in the assembly, there is a deadlock between the two branches. In this situation, it is very hard to get any legislation passed by the president, whereas the oppositions have limited agenda-setting powers to propose bills. In practical, few candidates in new democracies can win by winning over 50% of popular vote. Their parties are often unable to win the majority of the assembly. While in parliamentary systems coalition governments are often unstable. The cabinet is vulnerable as once the parliament has lost confidence to it, it may have to be dissolved. In Italy, after 1945, there are altogether 40 cabinets. Many of the cabinets only last for less than one year. Such short and unstable period of term causes the cabinet very difficult to make detailed plans of public administration. The frequent change of the cabinet may also cause vigorous shifts in policies. On another dimension, coalitions between parties are common in parliamentary systems. Sometimes it involves a grand coalition of parties from the left to the right. In a practical sense, it is very difficult for parties with huge ideological differences to formulate a coherent set of policies. However, coalitions usually include small parties which represent minority groups. Hence the voice of minority groups can be represented and taken into account of policy formulation. This is particular important with reference to the divergent background of new democracies. A higher visibility of policy formulating is generally considered as desirable since it can enhance public’s scrutiny and therefore the accountability of the government. In presidential systems, it is argued that it has a higher transparency in policy formulating. Cowhey argues in his book Structure and Policy that the struggle between the legislative and the president causes “more systematic disclosure of information about policymaking. ” This is desirable for the consolidation of democracy as transparency is coherent with the values of democracy. Hence the promotion of transparency through debates between the legislative and executive help shapes political culture more adherent to democratic values. Also, the public can gain more confidence of democracy if they are informed with the decision-making process and know their representatives are voicing their interests. However such a transparency may be not a positive factor in some circumstances. Disputes and dissents are often more explicit when the debate and political bargains take place mainly in public meetings. Since these kind of public meetings are highly publicized, president or legislators are reluctant to make compromise which may be regarded as a breach of their promises or political standpoint by their electorate. Therefore, disputes in policy issues which originally can be resolved with collaboration and compromises may eventually evolve into bigger crises and deadlocks. This may bring turmoil to the democratic regime and exacerbate clevages between different interest groups. This is particularly dangerous in new democracies as parties are less disciplined and the lack of moderator in resolving disputes. In parliamentary systems, dissents can be resolved in sub-cabinet meetings between party leaders without exposure to the public. Through lobbying in a somewhat private manner, consensus is more easily reached out before the bills are passed to the parliament and hence reduce tensions arise from the vigorous debates often observed in a presidential system. The effective governance can also be enhanced by avoiding partisan politics which may hinder the efficiency of legislations. It is impossible to say that a particular form of system fits all. Each country has its own distinct historical or socio-economical background. There are different political consequences aroused from the characteristics of the two systems. For example, Horowitz(1990) points out that in Nigeria and Sri Lanka’s presidential systems was observed to have a certain degree of success. Also there should be different weightings to dependent variables. In some countries in Latin America such as Chile, there is a swing between democracy and autocracy. Therefore priorities should be given to sustain the legitimacy of democratic regime. In countries like Uganda which have just recovered from severe ethnic conflicts, priorities should be given to reduce tensions between different ethnics. It should be noted that there are great variances even within presidential systems or parliament systems. As Shugart and Carey (1992) points out ‘There are myriad ways to design constitutions that vary the relationship of the voters’ two agents as well as the electorate.’ (p.1) In some countries a hybrid of a presidential system and a parliamentary system is adopted. For example the fifth French republic and Finland adopt a semi-presidential system. Since it is impossible to deal with all the variances, it is this essay’s limit to focus on the ideal types of the two systems with more frequent tendencies. However when we carry out a detail case analysis on a country, we need to examine the impact of variances closely. Also, we need to consider other institutional factors that matter. For example, the variance of electorate system combining with presidential or parliamentary systems brings different consequences. In general, parliamentary systems

Montana Week 11 Policing in the United States and Saudi Arabia Discussion

Montana Week 11 Policing in the United States and Saudi Arabia Discussion.

Part 1: The Event and the ResultsAnalyze the event including before and after by examining the viewpoints of all people involved including the suspect George Floyd, the police officers, witnesses and the community, the police leadership, and government officials.1) What role or roles were the police officers performing? Did they follow the correct protocols? Refer to Chapter 5 of the textbook for background information on this. (CILOs 1.1, 3.1)2) Describe the approach or model of police performance used. Refer to Chapter 12 of the textbook for background information on this. (CILO 2.1)3) Describe the tensions between the stakeholders (CILO 3.1) and suggest a plan to improve the relations among them (CILO 3.2)4) How you would apply international best practice to this case in the USA? (CILO4.1)Part 2: Lessons for Saudi ArabiaNext, discuss policing in Saudi Arabia.1) How are police roles different here and why? (CILO 1.1)2) Is the same model of police behavior used here? (CILO 2.1)3) Discuss how lessons learned from this case apply to police work in Saudi Arabia. (CILO 4.2)4) Could models of police behavior used in Saudi be used in the USA to improve police work?
Montana Week 11 Policing in the United States and Saudi Arabia Discussion