Shimon Peres 48th United Nations General Assembly Address delivered 28 September 1993, New York, NY Mr. President, we feel strongly that the time has come for all of us — communities, nations, peoples, families — to finally lay down the last collective wreath on the tombs of the fallen combatants and on the monuments of our beloved. It is the right way to honor their memories and to answer the needs of the newly-born. We have to lay the foundations for a new Middle East. The peace agreement between us and the Palestinians is not just an accord signed by political leaders. It is an ongoing profound commitment to the next generation — Arabs and Israelis, Christians, Moslems, Jews, all other faiths. We know it is not enough to declare an end to war. We have to try to eradicate the roots of all hostilities. If we shall only be trying to bring down violence, but ignore misery, we may discover that we have traded one menace for another peril. Territorial disputes may have been the reason for wars among nations Poverty may become again the seed of violence among peoples. While signing the documents on the lawn of the White House, I could almost sense the breeze of a fresh spring and my imagination began to wander to the skies of our land that may have become brighter to the eyes of all people agreeing and opposing. On the lawn you could almost hear the heavy tread of boots leaving the stage after a hundred years of hostility. You could have listened to the gentle tiptoeing of new steps making a debut in the awaiting world for peace. Yet, we couldn’t depart from reality. I know that the solution to the Palestinian issue may be the key to a new beginning, but it is no way the answer to the many needs awaiting us upon returning home. The last decade was comprised of great changes. It saw the finale of East-West confrontation. It opened the gradual disappearance of the North-South polarization. The great continent of Asia, the picturesque continent of South America, introduced the dynamics of an economic making of their own. The dramatic event in South Africa is a declaration to the same effect. So, contrary to all assumptions it has been demonstrated that neither geography nor race is a harassment or an advantage to an economic promise. We witnessed the end of some wars only to discover that the warriors did not reach their own promised land. Some colonized people gained their independence, but they hardly enjoyed its fruits. The dangers may have been over but their hopes evaporated. We have learned that the end of a war should be the beginning of a new genesis which will be the end belligerency, and will put an end to the psychological prejudices. No nation, rich or poor, is able nowadays to attain security, unless the region in which they live becomes secure. The scope of the regional security must exceed the range of ballistic missiles which may hit each and all of us. We are striving to achieve a comprehensive peace. No wound must remain unhealed. Geographically speaking, we live side by side with the Jordanian Kingdom; and what is so obvious geographically, must become clear politically. We have agreed already with the Hashemite Kingdom on many complicated issues and there is no doubt that we can complete the story fully, that we can offer the people of both sides of the river full peace, that the Dead Sea can become a spring of new life, that old waters of the Jordan River can be a source of prosperity flowing from side to side. We hope — as a matter of fact we are determined — to make peace with Syria. Yet we ask the Syrian leadership, if it has chosen peace, why does it refuse to meet openly? If Syria is aiming at the Egyptian fruits of peace, it must follow the process that led to it. Both of us have to look ahead and realize that the threats of war are no more than an illusion that…one can return to its unbearable past. We shall not give up our negotiations with our Lebanese neighbors. We do not have any territorial claims, nor any political pretensions concerning Lebanon. We pray, together with many Lebanese, that their country will no longer be a backyard for troublemakers. It is for Lebanon to make a choice between the Hezbollah that operates from its territory and then takes orders from another government, or to insist on having one army, one policy, and a real offer of tranquility to its people and security to its neighbors. Lebanon does not need a license to regain its independence, and Lebanon should not postpone its return to her balanced, traditional policy. Mr. President, I am sure that if there is a new order — I am not sure if there is a new order in the world, but all of us feel that there is a new world awaiting an order. We’re encouraged by the new attempt of the United Nations and its Secretary General to answer the social and economic call of the present era. The United Nations was created as a political answer. Today it must face social and economic questions. The Middle East, which has been an important agenda of the United Nations’ history, must become prosperous, not only peaceful. To construct a modern Middle East we need wisdom not less than financial support. We have to rid ourselves of the costly follies of the past and adopt the principles of modern economy. Who will and who should pay the cost of oversized armies? Who will and who should bear the price of the price of an arms race which has reached the level of 50 billion dollars annually? Who will and who should pay for the inefficiencies of old systems? Who will and who should compensate for outmoded censorship of mail, of trade, of travel? And who will comply with the state where suspicion intercepts the enterprising spirit of the people. We can and we should turn to the promise of scientific development, of market economy, of comprehensive education. We must base our industry, our agriculture, our services on the height of the current technologies. We have to invest in our schools. Israel, a country of immigration, is blessed with many scientists and engineers. We shall gladly make this wealth — this human wealth an available contribution. I know that there is a suspicion that when referring to a common market in the Middle East, or announcing a[n] Israeli contribution, it may be perceived as an attempt to win preference or to establish domination. Ladies and gentlemen, may I say sincerely and loudly that we did not give up territorial control to engage ourselves in economic superiority. The age of domination, political or economic, is dead. The time of cooperation is open. As a Jew, may I say that the virtue, the essence of our history since the times of Abraham and the commandments of Moses, have been an uncompromising opposition to any form of occupation, of domination, of discrimination. For us, Israel is not just a territorial homeland, but a permanent moral commitment as well. There are other questions concerning the building of a common market in the Middle East as to how to attain this when governments are so varied and when economies are so different. The differences in government and economies should not prevent us from doing together what can be done together — combating the desert and offering fertility to an arid land. The FAO declared that the Middle East must double its agricultural production in the twenty five years to come. The population of the region in the same period of time will double itself anyway. The region is cut by many and large deserts. Its water resources are stingy and scarce. Yet, we know that in a similar period of time, in 25 years between 1950 and 75, Israel was able to increase its agriculture production twelve-fold — unprecedented in history. And during the last decade, 95 percent of the growth of our agriculture resulted from research, planning, training, and organizing. High technology permits nations to attain real independence, and to experience genuine freedom, political as well as economic. There is nothing new about the scarcity of water in our midst. Jacob and Esau drank from the same wells even when their path[s] were separated. But then, unlike today, they couldn’t desalinate the sea water. They couldn’t computerize irrigation. They couldn’t enjoy the potential of biotechnology. We are meeting again with an entirely different opportunity. Greening the land can be accompanied by creating many new jobs for all people in the area. The most promising opportunity may be the development of tourism. No other branch of modern industry assures an immediate growth of the Middle East like this one. Our area is blessed by nature and by history — a history which is still very much alive. The eternity of Jerusalem, the magnificence of the pyramids, the symbols of Luxor, the hanging gardens of Babylon, the pillars of wisdom in Baalbek, the red palaces of Petra, the inimitable charm of Marakesh, the old winds which still blow in Carthage, not ignoring the beaches of Gaza and the breathing of the perfume of the Jericho fruits. We have to open roads to those wonders and keep them safe and hospitable. Tourism depends on tranquility. Tourism enhance[s] tranquility. And it makes friendship into a vested interest. Thirdly, we have to build an infrastructure with modern means so as to dodge the chasms of the past. Modern transportation and revolutionary communications — crossing the air, covering the grounds, connecting the seas — will turn geographic proximities into an economic advantage. We should not ask taxpayers of other countries to finance follies of our own. We have to correct them ourselves. We do not have the moral right to ask the financing of unnecessary wars or wasteful systems. If the thumping of hammers will replace the thunder of the guns, many of the nations will be more than willing to extend a helping hand. They will invest in a better future. They will support the replacement of unwarranted confrontation with much-needed economic competition. Markets may serve the needs of the people not less than the flags are signifying their destinies. The time has come to build a Middle East for the people, not just for the rulers. Mr. President, it wasn’t simple to open the locked doors to peace. In the name of God, let them not be closed again so that peace will be comprehensive, embracing all issues, all countries, all generations. We suggest that we’ll all negotiate together as equals. We offer a common ground made of mutual respect and mutual compromises. Thirteen years ago have passed since we made peace with Egypt. We are grateful to Egypt and its President for expanding understanding, identified and hidden. In a world in which so many insoluble problems reside, the Palestinians and us have finally shown that in fact there are no insoluble problems — only people who tend to believe that many problems are insoluble. We have negotiated one of the most complicated issues of the last hundred years. We are grateful to the United States for its support and leadership. We are grateful to both President Clinton and Secretary Christopher for their crucial role. We appreciate the Egyptian role and the Norwegian encouragement, the European involvement and serious contribution [for] the Asian support and blessing. May we now have the right to say to other people in conflict: “Don’t give up. Do not surrender to old obsessions and do not take fresh disappointments at face value.” What we did others can do as well. Mr. President, we are determined to make the agreement with the Palestinians into a permanent success. Israel would consider an economic success of the Palestinians as though it were its own; and I believe that a newly-achieved security will serve the aspirations of the Israelis and the necessities of the Palestinians. Gaza, after 7,000 years of suffering, can emancipate itself from want. Jericho, without her fallen walls, can see her gardens blossom again. As the 20th century comes to a close, we have learned from the United States and Russia that there are no military answers to the new military dangers — only political solutions. Successful economies are no longer a monopoly of the rich and the mighty. They represent an open invitation to every nation ready to adopt the combination of science and open-mindedness. We see at the end of this century that politics can achieve more by goodwill than by power, and that the young generation watching their televisions, compare their lot with the fortunes or misfortunes of others. They see freedom, they watch peace, they view prosperity all in real time. They know that they can attain more if they will work harder. If we want to represent their hopes, we have to combine wise policies and regional security and market economies. Historically we were born equal and equally we can give birth to a new age. Behold days are coming, says the Lord, when the ploughman shall overtake the reaper and the trader of grapes, him who sows the seeds and the mountains shall drop sweet wine and all the hills shall melt.1 So said the prophet. Thank you, Mr. President. Book/CDs by Michael E. Eidenmuller, Published by McGraw-Hill (2008) 1 Amos 9:13 Audio Source: C-SPAN.org U.S. Copyright Status: Text and Audio = Uncertain. Mr. President, Mr. Secretary General: Congratulations upon your unanimous election to preside over the 48th General Assembly of the United Nations.
ANTH 201 – Nature of Culture Ethnography Assignment(Inter-racial couples and norms) · Complete a five (5) page research paper looking at a group of people who you are interested in studying · Your paper should include a brief background of the group and
ANTH 201 – Nature of Culture Ethnography Assignment(Inter-racial couples and norms) · Complete a five (5) page research paper looking at a group of people who you are interested in studying · Your paper should include a brief background of the group and.
ANTH 201 – Nature of Culture Ethnography Assignment
· Complete a five (5) page research paper looking at a group of people who you are interested in studying
· Your paper should include a brief background of the group and why you chose it
· This will require 20 hours of external observation outside of the classroom (think maybe 3 hours per week)
· The paper should be in APA format with appropriate APA citations
· Email or tell me which group you plan to study for approval PRIOR to beginning your project
A Simple Guide to Ethnography Copyright © 2013 – David W. Guth
Ethnography is unobtrusive research through observation and limited interaction. The researcher plays the Role of an independent, neutral and – in the case of immersion – an invisible observer. The key is to make detailed observations of the environment with minimal interaction. You do not want to influence the data you collect by interacting with the subjects of your observation. Ethnographic research can be very complex and involve a scientific process of data collection and coding. However, for the purposes of undergraduate-level research, a more simplistic approach is often all that is necessary. These are some basic steps in conducting ethnographic research: Start with a game plan. Before you begin this process, have a good sense of the kind of data you want to collect. That’s why a good foundation of secondary research is very helpful in this process. Knowing the nature of the challenge you face can dictate the kind of data you want to collect. For example, if your challenge is to attract more tourists to a community, then you should focus on how visitor-friendly the community is in terms of signage, parking, accommodations, etc.
Start with an open-mind and fresh eyes. Objectivity is mandated. Don’t begin observing a situation with preconceived notions. They can color your observations and keep you from getting to the truth. For example. an observer from a big city may assume that people in rural communities are jealous of his or her lifestyle. The researcher may be surprised to discover that such an assumption may be completely opposite from the truth. Forget what the brand is or what the client wants it to be. Try to figure out what it really is.
Remember that you are a researcher and not a spy. All researchers — especially those who represent this university — are expected to engage in ethical conduct. It is not necessary to lie
to someone who may be curious about what you are doing. It is all right to tell someone who you are, who you represent and the reason you are observing. The worst-case scenario is that the person may not wish to talk to you or will ask you to leave. If that’s the case, disengage with courtesy. However, more often than not, such a disclosure may open a useful line of conversation that provides meaningful information.
Be super-vigilant. Don’t try to decide what is and is not important while you are in the
field. Take it all in. The time for deciding which data are meaningful and which are not comes later during analysis. Sometimes the smallest, most innocuous observation can become an important key in addressing your client’s needs. Ask yourself: What does it look like?: What does it smell like?; What does it sound like?; What does it taste like?; What does it feel like?
To put it another way, pay attention to all of your senses. For example, Tacoma, Washington, is known for the pungent smell emanating from its local paper mills. Outsiders call it the “Tacoma Aroma,” an image the local Chamber of Commerce would just as soon forget. Individual observations may seem meaningless. However, in combination with other observations, may serve like individual puzzle pieces completing a picture.
Take notes. Have a note pad or a small tape recorder with you. If it is practical, a camera can be very useful. A good ethnographic observation takes in a lot of detail. Don’t rely on your memory. If you are in a situation where a note pad or recorder are not practical, possible or may have a negative effect on interaction, try to capture on paper or on a recorder what you have observed and heard as soon as possible after the fact.
Engage in meaningful small-talk. Some forms of ethnography involve informal interviews. These may be “off-the-cuff” conversations researchers have with people they meet, such as small talk with a server in a restaurant. Meeting and talking with people can be a source of valuable
data. Remember the first point — you have a game plan and are looking for certain kinds of information. Keep the conversation informal and light. If you want to take notes or record the conversation, ask first – but keep in mind that doing so may influence the conversation and remove its spontaneity. The key is to make people you encounter comfortable. They are more likely to trust you as a casual friend than as a formal interrogator. And, again, never lie about who you are and what you are doing.
Write your ethnographic descriptions in a neutral, third-person voice. When it comes time to commit your research to paper, deliver just the facts. Save any opinions you might have for the analysis (which is addressed in the next point). Stay away from the first-person “I” and “we,” as well as the second-person “you.” The observer writes the description as if he or she is on the outside looking in. If you use people’s names, always use the full name (if known) in first reference and the family (last) name in second and subsequent references. Calling a person by his or her first name is too causal and can be considered, by some, as disrespectful.
Analyze, don’t recommend. It is permissible to make suggestions about future avenues of research and possible tactics/strategies to pursue. But remember that recommendations are not made during the research stage. Those come in the planning process and in conjunction with a comprehensive examination of goals, objectives and tactics. All observations and
suggestions should be supported by evidence. For example, it is not enough to say a town’s downtown area is unattractive. Cite specific reasons and standards by which you make such a judgment.
Write your report as if you expect those you have observed will read it. It is all right to have passion for your work. But don’t let that passion spill over into this narrative. This is research and, therefore, not the place for it. Your tone should be neutral, not strident. Frame your comments in positive terms. It is permissible to make criticisms. However, if you do, remember the Mary Poppins Rule: “A spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down.”
Ethnography is considered primary research in that it is original research created by the observer. It is also qualitative, informal research, which means it is not necessarily representative of that which is being studied. (For example, activity within a community may be different on a weekend than it is on a weekday.) Upon its completion, ethnographic research may raise questions and suggest solutions that merit further research. Ethnography should not be the only research you conduct but should be part of a more comprehensive research strategy.
Essay Help “>Essay Help