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Sexual Risk Behaviors of Female Adolescents

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Sexual risk behaviors of female adolescents “Although all sexually active persons are at risk for negative sexual outcomes, or sexual risk, adolescents are a group at great risk” (Hutchinson, 1999. p.238). Adolescents account for one-fourth of all STDs (American Social Health Association [ASHA], 1998) and a significant proportion of new HIV infections (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1999, cited in Hutchinson, 2002.p.238). These sexual risk behaviors include any activity that brings a person in contact with blood, semen and vaginal secretion of an infected individual, thereby exposing the other person (Biglan,et al., 1990). Also, engaging in sexual activity with somebody whose HIV status is unknown and having multiple sexual partners also predisposes one to risk (Biglan et al., 1990). “Teenage girls are more likely to be unmarried, have multiple sexual partners, and have unprotected sex compared to adult women” (CDC, 2000; Panchaud et al., 2000 cited by Hutchinson, 2002, p.238). Some adolescents have multiple sexual partners, yet, do not recognize the fact that they are at risk for STDs including HIV, and do not use condoms (Hutchinson, 2002). Many of the adolescents who engage in this do not see serial monogamy as having multiple sexual partners, and so may not view their sexual behavior as “risky” (Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1994.cited in Hutchinson, 2002.p.239). Due to biological vulnerability of female adolescent, they exhibit some of the highest STD rates of any age group (CDC, 2000). Women face more severe long term outcome from STD infections than men. Women with STDs who are undiagnosed and untreated may develop pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, congenital infections in infants born to infected women, increased risk for ectopic pregnancy (Hutchinson
Globalization Theory on Welfare Provision. Globalization theory implies that the nation has little autonomy in organizing its welfare provision. Evaluate this statement, referring to at least two welfare regimes. At first glance this statement appears to be true when applied to the welfare states of both Germany and Sweden. For nearly a century the Swedish welfare system was the world’s pre-eminent example of the ‘social-democratic’ model of welfare provision; likewise Germany’s welfare regime was a classic instance of the ‘Conservative’ model. Yet in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s both models were aggressively assailed by serious economic difficulties. These difficulties have been attributed to the effects of globalization and they have been cited as evidence that idiosyncratic and distinctive national welfare schemes cannot resist world economic and social forces. Economic evidence appears to uphold this statement. Sweden’s unemployment figures rose for instance from less that 1% in the late 1980’s to over 12.5% in 1993. In Germany workers contributed 26% of their income to welfare in 1970 and over 40% by 1990. Faced with such figures Swedish and German governments have felt massive pressure to cut back on systems of benefits that their accustomed citizens have deemed essential for more than fifty years. Authors such as Esping Anderson argue however that – at least in the case of Sweden and other ‘social-democracies’ – the present economic difficulties of these systems are temporary phenomenon made more severe by a combination of unfortunate events in the world economy in the 1990’s. These pressures are ephemeral and when they pass away it will be possible to maintain the universal level of welfare guaranteed by the social-democratic model. Less optimism can be expressed for the German model which faces the enormous difficulties with its ageing population, rising tax-burdens and assimilation of East Germany. The term ‘globalization’ has become something of a bloated monster with many different heads each meaning for the people who use them slightly or considerably different things from the others. Even a casual glance at the literature will show that the term is associated with the spread of each of the following: internationalization, liberalization, universalization, westernization, modernization or deterritorialization (Held, 1999). There is little space in this essay to discuss these terms in depth, and so it is best here to give a consensus definition that draws from each of them. When referred to welfare regimes globalization signifies an economic and social compression and condensing of the world whereby financial and social interaction between states is intensified. The World Bank for example defines globalization as the “Freedom and ability of individuals and firms to initiate voluntary economic transactions with residents of other countries”[1]. Globalization means that there is a greater flow of commodities and influence across the borders of countries. Economically, this means that free trade, migration, capital and technology have a far greater power to influence individual states and nations than they had before. National economies and institutions (such as welfare systems) are more susceptible to international pressures and are often forced to conform or modify themselves so as to be competitive with these general trends. In social terms, globalization imposes upon individual nations the need to conform to international attitudes, for instance, towards the rights of women. Acceptance of such impositions often requires profound changes to the structure of traditional national institutions or ways of life. Authors on globalization have been equally vociferous in their support and condemnation of the movement. Noam Chomsky, for instance, is publicly critical of the tendency of globalization to remove freedom and choice from the individual and to transfer it to transnational corporations. Chomsky argues that global organizations such as the Bretton Wood institutions, the IMF and the World Bank, have promoted the ‘Washington Consensus’ whereby poor countries have to reduce welfare provisions to meet debt payments to richer nations (Chomsky, 1999). Accordingly, the WTO, GATT and NAFTA are agencies that seek to acquire privileges for elites rather than those of the third-world. In contrast, those who promote globalization, such as the leaders of the institutions listed above, argue that globalization means a golden opportunity to build a platform for worldwide and universal democracy, healthcare, pension provision and all of the other basic rights expected by citizens of Western welfare regimes. Esping Anderson’s The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Esping-Anderson, 1990) is a seminal text in the literature of welfare states. As its title suggest, Esping’s book divides the various kinds of welfare regimes in developed nations into three types: Liberal, Conservative (Corporate), and Social Democratic. Examples of countries with Liberal welfare regimes are the United States, Canada and Australia. These systems support means-measured-assistance that issue benefits for mainly the poor or those incapable of self-assistance. Government intervention in the welfare system is limited since government institutions are seen as unsuited for the dispersal of benefits; private welfare initiatives are as such much encouraged. The liberal model is predominantly individualistic and market-orientated. Examples of the Conservative type include Germany, France and Italy. In this model welfare benefits are related to social position and employment status. This model depends heavily upon the work of the Church which is intimately linked to the distribution of welfare – particularly provision for the poor. So too the family is a vital source welfare. Sweden, Denmark and Norway are examples of countries that practice the Social Democratic model of welfare provision. Referred to also as the ‘Scandinavian Model’ or the ‘Swedish Model’, this type of provision demands the intimate public involvement of its citizens in the economy and society of the nation. In such models the welfare state is an umbrella that protects the whole nation. For instance, education is universally free (or very cheap) and of such a uniformly excellent level that it is unnecessary to maintain private schools. Healthcare, childcare allowances and old-age pensions are available to all citizens. The philosophy of the social democratic model is that its institutions should be egalitarian whereby the standard of living for the whole nation is leveled as much as possible. Esping’s model has been highly influential upon the thought of scholars writing about the welfare state and upon practitioners within it. Esping’s work is also significant because he suggests that the social-democratic model may be able to weather the difficulties it has undergone by globalization since the early 1990’s. These ideas are now discussed with reference to the particular welfare regimes of Sweden and Germany. The German welfare regime is a classic example of the conservative model of welfare provision. Originating with Chancellor Otto von Bismarck during the 1880’s the German welfare regime gradually established compulsory insurance schemes for healthcare, accidents, disability and old-age. After Bismarck the German welfare state was further expanded during the years of the Weimar Republic and the Nazi dictatorship. In 1957 Chancellor Adenauer passed the Pension Reform Law which aimed to distribute on an egalitarian basis the wealth of the ‘economic miracle’ that Germany was experiencing at the time. This was a momentous and controversial decision that would lead to successive German chancellor’s competing to offer better and better – and more unrealistic and more unrealistic! – welfare provisions and retirement packages to German workers. Adenauer replaced Bismarck’s limited system of helping only the elderly or desperately poor with pension schemes linked to wages referred to as ‘pay-as-you-go’ (Beck, 1995). These schemes were highly successful during the boom times of the 1950’s and 1960’s and up until the 1970’s. The 1980’s and 1990’s however saw the beginning of a series of serious economic challenges to the German welfare model: the German economy began to slow, the re-unification of East Germany meant huge extra burdens for the system and the German population was ageing quickly. In these years pension contributions for German workers went up from 26% in 1970 to 40% in 1990 (Crew, 1998). German politicians failed to see and so prepare for these events. Chancellors Helmut Schmidt and Helmut Kohl sought to improve things by extravagant pensions promises that they knew they could not could not fulfill. Chancellor Kohl for instance famously claimed in his 1990 Unity Campaign that ‘When I say that we will not increase taxes, it means we will not increase taxes’ (Bleses, 2004). Within a year gasoline, tobacco and insurance taxes had been raised as well as the solidarity surcharge added. Globalization became a major problem for the German welfare system in the early 1990’s when the world-recession hit Germany’s economy hard and made it difficult for her to sustain her generous welfare provision. Germany initially responded to the pressures of globalization by raising taxes steeply. Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder’s has recently sought to introduce comprehensive reforms of the welfare system – Hartz 1V[2] for instance — to respond to globalization. German trade unions are intractably opposed to such reforms and have staged huge street protests against them. The ‘Swedish model’ of welfare provision is a classic example of the social-democratic type. The history of the Swedish model is closely bound to the aims of the Swedish Social Democratic Party which was founded in 1889. The SDP was set up by industrial workers who aimed to guarantee every Swedish worker (and later every Swede) medical insurance, pensions in old-age, redundancy protection and various other benefits that guarded them against poverty and hunger. The SDP based the Swedish welfare system upon very high taxation (as it remains today) and Swedes pay up to 60% of their total income to the government. 90% of businesses in Sweden are privately owned and pay large corporate taxes to the government also. The SDP’s interpretation of the welfare state was based upon high taxation and was referred to as the ‘People’s Home’. The SDP became the dominant political force in Sweden in the 1930’s (lasting in power for sixty years) and in 1937 the Riksdag (Swedish parliament) passed a pensions scheme for the elderly that continues to the present. After World War II the SDP extensively enlarged the welfare regime. This extension included mandatory health insurance, dental insurance, child-care subsidies, five-week vacation periods and so on. Thus by the 1970’s the dream of the ‘People’s Home’ had been substantially realized. Nearly sixty years of near blissful conditions in Sweden’s welfare system were seriously threatened in the 1990’s by a series of economic difficulties which were attributed to globalization and adduced as evidence that individual national monetary policies cannot survive the effects of globalization (Rydenfelt, 1981). Sweden is the classic example of the social-democratic model ‘third-way’ between conservatism and laissez-faire and so if Sweden fails to protect its distinctive system then all others of this type are likely to fail also. Globalization is seen to have forced Sweden to reduce full-employment provisions and to slash benefits in its welfare regime. The electoral defeat of the SDP for the first time in sixty years was seen as further evidence of the ability of globalization to affect well-rooted national institutions. Evidence for the crisis caused by globalization appears convincing. Between 1990-1995 national growth was viscous at 0.4% GDP, unemployment soared from 1.6% in 1990 to 12.5% in 1993. Government expenditure measured in GDP climbed from 60% in 1989 to 74.1% in 1993 (Crew, 1993). These events had three principal causes. Firstly, the volatility of Swedish currency internationally in expectation of the finalization of the European Single Market and also the act of Sweden’s joining the EU. Second, the far-stretched depression of the early 1990’s that reached globally. Thirdly, the difficulties of maintaining the level of the Krona next to the Deutschmark after competitive devaluations were ditched in the 1980’s. This evidence can be interpreted in two ways. Some argue that the Swedish crisis is an inevitable consequence of lavish public spending and impossibly high welfare provisions. The other school, represented by Esping-Anderson for instance, argues that the Swedish crisis is temporary and that its welfare state is capable of surviving present economic difficulties. Events for this school are conjunctural (Esping-Anderson, 1990). Sweden is not the victim of globalization, but of a particularly unlucky set of economic coincidences. Finally it must be said that neither Sweden nor Germany has yet determined with certainty whether they will be able to resist the pressure of globalization to modify or replace their idiosyncratic national welfare models. Sweden and Germany face pressure from within and without. Globalization from the outside, and the absolute demand of their citizens for a continuation of the present generosity of their respective welfare systems. If Esping Anderson is right, Sweden may weather the storm and preserve its social-democratic model. For Germany the external pressures are greater and the rescue of its conservative model far less certain. Bibliography Beck, H. (1995) The Origins of the Authoritarian Welfare State in Prussia. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. Bleses, P. (2004) The Dual Transformation of the German Welfare State. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Castells, M. (1996). Information Technology and Global Capitalism’ in W. HuttonGlobalization Theory on Welfare Provision
The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills. This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing. It is a public space to share you.    This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing.  It is a public space to share your most well-crafted and theoretical thinking.  Your best writing is expected.  Our discussions are also not a place for you to express opinion; rather it is where you articulate well thought out and supported thinking.   You will save your internal thinking and processing for your journals writing. Total 2 paragraph, one each answers the questions below.  Chapter 8 focuses on the impact of capitalism on intercultural communication. Drawing on the chapter and and other class activities please discuss one or all of these: Provide a brief overview of the history of capitalism. How has the development of capitalism impacted U.S. culture? In the context of globalization, capitalism is increasingly affecting countries with developing economies. Discuss the likely impact of the culture of capitalism on these cultures. Why is an understanding of capitalism important for the study of culture and intercultural communication today? Chapter 1Identify the six points of entry into intercultural praxis and explain how you can use them for more effective intercultural interactions and relationships. The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills. This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing. It is a public space to share you

Liverpool John Moores University MOD2 Representation and Power in Arts Paper

Liverpool John Moores University MOD2 Representation and Power in Arts Paper.

Engagement and participation are important aspects of any college course. For this online course your engagement and participation are partly determined by your presence on the Discussion Boards.As mentioned in the syllabus, each of the three Contextual Analysis Discussions gets progressively more complex as your skills increase. For this second Contextual Analysis Discussion, you should make at least one original contextual analysis post and two comments to other posts for each module. Posts should be in full, grammatically correct sentences that create at least one solid response of at least 900 words–make sure you include a word count. The word count does NOT include any headers or references section. All posts must be relevant to the assigned materials (although you may build upon previous knowledge from earlier weeks and include personal observations). Start by answering the prompt, and then build upon the prompt to consider your own perspectives and experiences. You MUST attach photos and web links to support your position. An important part of your grade for this assignment is to communicate with your classmates. Because this is intended to be your opportunity to discuss topics with your classmates, the professor/TA will generally refrain from commenting or actively participating in the discussions aside from reading and grading them.Each of the two comments should be at least 300 words (include a word count) on two different classmates’ posts each module to receive full credit.Posts: For this post, select one work of art (architecture, literature, music) that has NOT been already analyzed or extensively discussed in the course readings or videos…part of the fun in learning about art is in DISCOVERING it! You are required to make one post to conduct both a formal and contextual analysis or your chosen work. Then, you will compare it to the work you selected in Module 1 AND to any other work in Module 1 that was analyzed by another student in this class. This will give you THREE works to discuss in this assignment:One work of art you select from the mediums we discussed in this module (architecture, literature, or music) in which you conduct a formal and contextual analysis with social angles.You then compare the work you chose in this module (architecture, literature, or music) with the work you chose in module 1 (two-dimensional art or three-dimensional art). This comparison will be a brief compare/contrast/ways of seeing between the two works.Last, you compare the work you chose in this module to any other work analyzed in module 1 by a peer. Again, this comparison will be a brief compare/contrast/ways of seeing between the two works.This process expands your skills of doing a contextual analysis by comparing works to each other.In a narrative format, the post should contain the following elements:Define and Identify: Brief information about the artist and work. For example, birth/death dates, place of birth or work, where work is displayed, name of work, medium of work, context for creation of work.Experience and Appreciation: For example, where you found the work (website, another book, museum), what made you select the work, what about this work speaks to you.Observe and Analyze: Use and underline three terms that were introduced in the module to observe/analyze your chosen work. Add any other relevant information to improve your paper.Critique and Compare: Compare your work to similar pieces or to examples used in the book. Consider the impact of the work on a particular social angle and/or the evolution of the media. Consider the impact of experiencing the work on your general outlook on the medium or appreciation of art.Apply Social Angles AND Context: Identify at least one social angle from the list below that can be observed or analyzed as part of the work. Address how the social angle is connected to the work. Plus, a thorough contextual analysis of the historical, cultural, and social implications should be discussed.race and ethnicity,gender and sexuality,class and highbrow/low,colonialism, postcolonialism, place and regionalism,nature (environment, ecology) and culture,memory, history, generational identity,food culture, andbody and mindStudents will be expected to define, identify, and apply at least three terms (underline them so I can quickly find them) from the module in the post. Make sure to underline the terms so that I can quickly identify them. College-level writing and mechanics are expected; however, the purpose of this assignment is to move from experiencing art to analyzing art to evaluating art. Make sure to include a references section at the end of every post, even if you only cite the lecture video. All in-text citations and references should be in MLA.Comments: For each of the two comments, select a classmate’s post, read the post, critique the post, indicate your reaction to the chosen work, discuss a comparison work from the module or any other outside source that is similar to the work identified in the post, and either add personal commentary or pose a question to stimulate conversation.EXAMPLES: These are”A” grade examples from previous semesters.EXAMPLE 1EXAMPLE 2EXAMPLE 3Discussion Board Grading: (Note: while the total number of points you can earn is the same in all contextual analysis discussion assignments for this class, the percentage weight of each assignment towards your final grade increases.)Original Posts—30 points possible per module: Student has actively connected with the materials and has made a thoughtful and engaging post that considers multiple perspectives in relation to the readings and videos. Correct grammar, spelling, and sentence structure are utilized, as well as direct references to the course materials and an image of the selected work. It is crucial that you cite or reference some material from the class at least once during each original post to earn full credit. Minimum of 900 words per original post. Indicate your word count at the end of your post (example: “Word Count: 553”).Comments—20 points possible per module (10 points per comment): Student stimulates the conversation and has made a thoughtful comment that is directly related to the original post. Correct grammar, spelling, and sentence structure are utilized, as well as direct references to the course materials. Minimum of 300 words per comment. Indicate your word count at the end of your post (example: “Word Count: 283”).
Liverpool John Moores University MOD2 Representation and Power in Arts Paper

Biology homework help

essay writing service free Biology homework help. Since she was a young child, Jewel Shuping dreamed of being blind. “When I was young my mother would find me walking in the halls at night, when I was three or four years old,” she says.,Since she was a young child, Jewel Shuping dreamed of being blind,Specifically address the ethical issues in the case, what you think Doctors have an ethical responsibility to do considering the oath of a Dr. is to “do no harm.”, Make your argument based on a specific ethical theory of your choice.,Case, Since she was a young child, Jewel Shuping dreamed of being blind. “When I was young my mother would find me walking in the halls at night, when I was three or four years old,” she says. “By the time I was six I remember that thinking about being blind made me feel comfortable.” She would stare at the sun for hours, hoping that it would damage her eyes. As a teenager, she began wearing thick black glasses and carrying a white cane.,By the time she was 20 years old, she was fluent in braille. Shuping describes her desire to be blind as a “non-stop alarm that was going off” in her head. Finally, at nearly 30, she found a psychologist willing to help blind her by putting a couple of drops of drain cleaner in each eye. Though the process was painful, she remained hopeful: “all I could think was ‘I am going blind, it is going to be okay.’”,1 The drain cleaner severely damaged her eyes but did not render her completely blind, so she is not totally satisfied with the result. However, she is happy to be “much further along her path to blindness.”,2 She explains: “I really feel this is the way I was supposed to be born, that I should have been blind from birth. When there’s nobody around you who feels the same way, you start to think that you’re crazy. But I don’t think I’m crazy, I just have a disorder.” Bodily Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare condition where there is a conflict between a person’s actual, physical body and their idea of how their body should be—usually, an able-bodied person who believes that they should be disabled.,3 The most common manifestation of the disorder is a desire to have a specific body part amputated. Dr. Michael First, a professor of clinical psychology, coined the term BIID. He explains: Any major disability can be a focus of BIID, from amputation to paraplegia and blindness. These people are aware that this feeling of theirs is unusual—they know it is coming from within them.,They can’t explain it. But because of this level of awareness we don’t consider this to be something that we would consider evidence of psychosis. In the world of psychiatry cures are rare, very often it’s about asking how you make someone’s life fulfilling despite their condition. Now the problem of course if you have a particular individual who wanted amputation or who wants to be blind–how do you know once you have done it that they are going to be satisfied? And it is true that the procedure will not cure the underlying disorder.,4 But for many people who have BIID, the desire to make their body match their identity is extremely strong—so strong that they are will to take desperate measures to make it happen.,Because it is so difficult to find a doctor to perform the surgery, however, some people with ,BIID, resort to harming themselves. They might put drain cleaner in their eyes to blind themselves, like Jewel Shuping; they might shoot their leg off to remove the offending limb; theymight jump off a cliff in an effort to paralyze themselves.,5 A doctor cannot amputate a healthy limb without risking his or her license. A Scottish surgeon who performed two such surgeries in the late nineties was banned from performing any more—even though he had given the issue considerable thought, consulted his professional organization, and received written permission from his hospital’s chief executive.6 And indeed, his patients were convinced that surgery was the only relief for their condition and were completely happy with the results of the procedures. One patient says he finally feels like “a complete person” now that he is an amputee.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Biology homework help

Things Fall Apart How Achebe Portrays Okonkwo and the Purposes Behind It Essay

Things Fall Apart How Achebe Portrays Okonkwo and the Purposes Behind It Essay.

Submission instructions: Please submit your 250-350 word response as a Word doc on Blackboard (no paper copies will be accepted). Every submission should include at least one quote from the text. Grades will be based on the completeness of your submission (including textual quotes + sufficient word count length) as well as proper grammar/spelling and the depth of your critical analysis. Four points total: 1 pt. for proper citation use; 1 pt. for sufficient length; 1 pt. for sufficient depth of content/engagement; 1 pt. for proper assignment formatting.Assignments should be formatted as follows: 12 pt. font, 1-inch margins, double-spaced with header, page numbers, Times New Roman font, Word Count listed, Works Cited page on separate page, submitted as Microsoft Word or PDF. This may seem like a lot but it is the golden standard for document preparation, and if properly followed will make your writing immediately more consistent and easier to read
Things Fall Apart How Achebe Portrays Okonkwo and the Purposes Behind It Essay

Diabetes Education: The Increase In Diabetes

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Diabetes is becoming a worldwide epidemic. It is one of the biggest health challenges that the United Kingdom (UK) is facing today with one person being diagnosed with diabetes every 3 minutes (Diabetes UK, 2009). The latest data indicates that there are now 2.8 million of people with diabetes in UK and nine out of ten people diagnosed with diabetes are Type 2 diabetes (2.5 millions). According to health experts, UK is now facing a huge public health problem and the figure is set to rise to four million by the year 2025. (Diabetes UK, 2010). The alarming increase in diabetes prevalence is a great cause of concern and has a devastating economic effect. Recent estimate shows that 10% of National Health System (NHS) spending equivalent to 9 billion pounds a year, 1 million pounds per hour goes on diabetes (Diabetes UK, 2008). The direct and indirect cost to the NHS of caring for people with Type 2 diabetes and its complications are staggering and will continue to rise with the increasing incidence of the disease. As a result of this health crisis and significant financial burden, the NHS needs to respond to this massive strain by looking at more effective and efficient ways of providing diabetes care. It is therefore of primary importance for our local primary care diabetes services to identify ways to deliver an effective quality care for people with diabetes to counter this worrying trend. 1.1 Diabetes Education Diabetes education has been considered as one of the key components of diabetes care since the 1930s and has been increasingly recognised as an integral part of the disease (Atak

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