In this project, you are required to evaluate the websites below based on what you learn from this course and your perspective. The evaluation will cover the different aspects of E- Commerce such as business idea, website design, marketing, security … etc.You will need to analyze the business and provide suggestions to improve the current business situation.Current e-commerce businesses:www.karazlinen.com/ it’s an Arabic website only need you to answer some questions.Ø Where is the money?o What is the company’s business model?o What is the revenue model? Give a general idea of how the business generates revenuesØ Who and where is the target audience? Explain demographics, lifestyle, consumption patterns, etc.Ø Characterize the marketplace.o Size, growth, demographics, structure, competitiono Research the market and give an idea about each pointYou must check the spelling and grammar mistakes before submitting the assignment.Please ( no plagiarisms & your own words not copy and paste )
SEU E Commerce Project & Website Evaluation Usability and Security Essay
1. Which of the following best explains why the number of firms is fixed in the short run in perfect competition?Marginal costs are too high to allow firms to operate profitably.Firms would wait to see how the long run develops.Capital is fixed in the short run.Firms would never want to enter a perfectly competitive industry.2. Which of the following best explains why the number of firms is fixed in the short run in perfect competition?Firms want to wait t see how the long run plays out.Marginal costs are too high to allow firms to operate profitably.Firms would never want to enter a perfectly competitive industry.Capital is fixed in the short run and so a firm not in the industry cannot increase its capital from zero.3. In perfect competition, if the long run supply curve is positively sloped, this industry exhibits increasing costs.TrueFalse4.If the market demand increases in perfect competition, in the new long run equilibrium firms will make economic profits.TrueFalse5. The short run equilibrium price in perfect competition is that where:no firms wish to enter the industry.quantity demanded equals quantity supplied on the market diagram.firms are just covering average variable costs.economic profit is zero.
WK7 Practice Level Logic Model
WK7 Practice Level Logic Model.
APA Format & No Plagiarism A completed practice-level logic model outline (table) from the Week 7 Assignment handoutA completed program logic model outline (table) in the Week 7 Assignment Handout2–3 paragraphs that elaborate on your practice-level logic model outline. Describe the activities that would take place in the support group sessions that would address needs and lead to improved outcomes2–3 paragraphs that elaborate on your program-level logic model and address the following:Decisions that would need to be made about characteristics of group membershipGroup activitiesShort- and long-term outcomesWays to measure the outcomesATTACHED FILE APA FORMAT & NO PLAGRISM
WK7 Practice Level Logic Model
Cuyamaca College Crucible of Struggle Book Ch 7 & 8 Questions
cheap assignment writing service Cuyamaca College Crucible of Struggle Book Ch 7 & 8 Questions.
I’m working on a history writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.
For the Reflections on each chapter, please follow these instructions: Answer one or more of the following questions in your reflection:
? What did you learn from reading this chapter
? What did you unlearn from reading this chapter?
? What questions were left unanswered?
? Does any of the information you learned in the chapter impact you personally?
? Did you change your mind about anything after reading this chapter?
? Who would you like to share information you learned from this chapter with and why?
? Would you have taken a different approach to the topic of the chapter? If yes, explain. (Do not address this question in your reflection if your answer is “no”).
? In your opinion, what did the authors do particularly well in this chapter? What could they have done “better”? Explain.
-Crucible of Struggle. A History of Mexican Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Era. Second Edition. Zaragosa Vargas. Oxford University Press, 2016 or 2017 (NOT THE 2010 version).
Cuyamaca College Crucible of Struggle Book Ch 7 & 8 Questions
The Importance of independence for external auditors
The Importance of independence for external auditors. The word of ‘INDEPENDENCE’ is defined as ‘freedom from situations and relationships which make it probable that a reasonable and informed third party would conclude that objectivity either is impaired or could be impaired.’ (Anon, www.europeanlawyer.co.uk) [Online] There are 2 types of independence, that are independence of mind and independence in appearance: Independence of mind The state of mind that permits the expression of a conclusion without being affected by influences that compromise professional judgment, thereby, allowing an individual to act with integrity, and exercise objectivity and professional scepticism. (ACCA, www.accaglobal.com) [Online] Independence in appearance The avoidance of facts and circumstances that are so significant that a reasonable and informed third party, having knowledge of all relevant information, including safeguards applied, would reasonably conclude a firm’s, or a member of the assurance team’s, integrity, objectivity or professional scepticism had been compromised. (CIMA, www2.cimaglobal.com) [Online] QUESTION 1(b): It is important for external auditors to be independent because external auditors act on behalf of the owners of the business, normally the shareholder, and report on the financial statements prepared by management for the benefit of shareholders. If the external auditors are not independent of their shareholder, for example, if they hold shares in the companies that they audit, their ability to form an objective opinion on the financial statements will be impaired. In addition, external auditors must be also be seen to be independent because if they are not, the owners of the business will not have confidence in the audit reports that the audits issue. This is why it is auditor’s independent is so important because to prevent further scandals such as those of Enron’s and Parmalat’s case, and etc. For example in the case of Phar-Mor, Inc one of the top 10 deep discount drug store chains in the United States and declared bankrupt in the year 1995. Phar-Mor, Inc declared bankrupt because the company contributing to the frauds and ability to cover it up for so long. Listed below the summarized of the factors contributing to the fraud: Familiarity threat Phar-Mor, Inc knowledge of audit procedure an objectives. Phar-Mor’s fraud team was made up a several former auditors, including at least one former auditor who had worked for Coopers on the Phar-Mor audit. The fraud team indicated that one reason they were successful in hiding the fraud from the auditors was because they knew what the auditors were looking for. Self-interest threat The Phar-Mor had financial interest in financial reporting, potential self-interest threat may occur. Such the fraud in the Phar-Mor case included: Overstating inventory and recording consigned inventory as owned inventory Recording revenue from receipts from vendors under certain promotion and exclusivity agreements when received rather than over the life of the agreements Understating the amount of accounts payable by holding disbursement checks Recording revenues and receivables from vendors at budgeted rather than actual amounts (Severson and Julie, V., http://www.allbusiness.com) [Online] Integrity The principle imposes an obligation on all professional accountants to be straightforward and honest in professional and business relationships. In the case of Phar-Mor, the Phor-Mor did not perform honest in professional and business relationships. The Phar-Mor provide misstatement of margins, inventories, and earnings in reports to management and in general ledger and financial statements (to cover up other misstatements), and diversion of assets to affiliated companies via manually written checks (nature of disbursements falsified when recorded in books and records). (Severson and Julie, V., http://www.allbusiness.com) [Online] QUESTION 1(c) (i): From the case above, a member of the audit team has possible financial interest in the client, potential self interest threat may occur and the gift rise to Roslan possible self-interest. Form my point of view, it seems less significant in terms of threats because the trust fund is indirect investment in the client. However, if the ownership in the client increases resulting in a significant proportion of Roslan’s fund to be invested in the client, then the threat may be significant. Moreover Roslan is an audit partner who audit in the investment company. Safeguard or action to be taken is since the threat may not be so significant, it may not be necessary to get Roslan to dispose off the financial interest. However, it would be better to remove or re-assign Roslan from the audit assurance engagement. QUESTION 1 (c) (ii) : For the case above, Sofia Ali has been given extended gift and hospitality by client that is in the form of a discount to purchase on new car by a sales manager. This may give arise to possible self interest and familiarity threats. The threats may be significant because of the extent of gift and hospitality that is audit staff is offered discount. However, the threats may not be significant if the gift and hospitality is within client’s normal commercial terms, that is client offer to other customers. Safeguard or actions to be taken is the audit staff, Sofia Ali should refer to policies of audit firm prohibiting or getting permission before accepting the gifts and hospitality from senior personnel. QUESTION 2 (a): ISA 500 Audit Evidence requires auditors to ‘obtain sufficient, appropriate audit evidence to be able to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the audit opinion’. Sufficiency and appropriateness are interrelated and apply to audit evidence obtained from both tests of control and substantive procedures. (ACCA, 2008, pp.119) Sufficiency is the measure of the quantity of audit evidence. The quantity of audit evidence required is affected by the level of risk in the area being audited. Firstly, it is the level of inherent risk faced by auditors is high. For example, high technology developments in a market which is very competitive can lead to going concern problems and more possibility that the client’s Financial Statements will be misstated. This will lead to an increase in the inherent risk and will cause the difficulties for auditors to analyze Financial Statements in a volatile industry due to no consistency in Financial Statements and more evidence is needed during the planning stage. Besides, lack of IT control in a computerized environment may cause the level of control risk faced by auditors is high. This is because more evidence is needed for auditor when auditing the company. (ACCA, 2008) Appropriateness is the measure of the quality or reliable of audit evidence and its relevance to the audit subject matter. If quality is high, then the auditor may need less evidence. The quality or reliability of evidence is affected by several factors, such as external sources, evidence directly by auditor, entity, written documentation, and original documents. Original documents are more reliable than photocopies or facsimiles, which can easily be altered by the client. (ACCA, 2008) Testing control is a test for the auditor to determine whether the control is operating effectively throughout the period under review stage. The auditor must consider the sufficient appropriates audit evidence (such as design and operation) is to support the assessed level of control risk is audit evidence is obtained from tests of control. For example design and operation (ACCA, 2008) The auditor must always carry out substantive procedures on material items. The ISA says ‘irrespective of the assessed rick of material misstatements, the auditor should design and perform substantive procedures for each material class of transactions, account balance and disclose’. When obtaining audit evidence from substantive procedures, the auditor must consider the sufficient appropriate audit evidence from such procedures together with any evidence from tests of control to support the audit opinion. (ACCA, 2008, pp.99) In an audit of a financial report, the audit opinion is given on the assertions by management, explicit or otherwise, that are embodied in the financial report. They can be categorized as follows: Assertions about classes of transaction and events for the period under audit One of the examples is occurrence, where a transaction or event took place which pertains to the entity during the period. Assertions about account balances at the period end For example existence is an asset or a liability exists at a given date, rights and obligations is an asset or a liability pertains to the entity at a given date, and etc. Assertions about presentation and disclosure An item is disclosed, classified, and described in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. (Shakoor, www.accountancy.com.pk) [Online] The auditor has a statutory duty to make a report to the entity’s members on the truth and fairness of the entity’s annual accounts. This report must state the auditor’s opinion on whether the statements have been prepared in accordance with the relevant legislation and whether they give a true and fair view of the profit or loss for the year and state of affairs at the year end. The duty to report on the truth and fairness of the financial statements is the primary duty associated with the external audit. The assurance given by auditors is governed by the fact that auditors use judgment in deciding what audit procedures to use and what conclusions to draw, and also by the limitations of every audit. The auditor’s task is to decide whether the accounts show a true and fair view. The auditors are not responsible for establishing whether the accounts are correct in every particular. This is because it can take a great deal of time and trouble to check the accuracy of even a very small transaction and the estimation which means that financial statements can never be completely precise. It is not easy and impossible to examine every single item in the financial reports. Here, as we shall see, auditor provides opinion about the financial statements, but not certificate that the financial statements are correct. Besides, audit procedures are designed to reduce the risk of the misstatements in the financial statements, but not eliminate the error in the financial statements. This is because by providing sufficiently reliable conclusion arriving by way of using the sampling procedures. The sampling risk arises from the possibility that the auditor’s conclusion, based on a sample, may be different from the conclusion reached if the entire population were subjected to same audit procedure. A sampling risk can be reduced by increasing the sample size for both test of control and substantive procedures. (ACCA, 2008, PP.189) QUESTION 2 (b): Confirmation This involves seeking confirmation from another source of details in client’s accounting records. Example: Confirmation from bank balances by referring to the bank statement. (ACCA, 2008, pp.121) Analytical procedures Analytical procedures mean the study of trends and ratios in financial and non-financial information. It is used within audit planning to identify risk areas and also as a means of gathering substantive evidence, for example by calculating as estimate of a particular figure based on knowledge of the business and comparing this to the actual figure. Example: A comparison of gross profit percentages month by month for a company could be performed and any unusual fluctuations investigated as these could indicate errors such as omission of sales, loss of inventory or other errors. (ACCA, 2008, pp.121) Observation Observation means watching a procedure being carried out. It is usually used as a means of gathering evidence about the internal controls in a company. Example: A appropriate to observe the procedures that are carried out when the post is opened to assess whether controls exist to prevent the misappropriation of cash. (ACCA, 2008, pp.121) Inspection Inspection means looking at documentation, books and records or assets. This could be done to confirm existence of an asset, to verify values or to provide evidence that a control has taken place. Example: The inventory of a company at the year-end could be inspected as part of the evidence relating to its value. The inspection would give evidence as to whether the inventory was in good saleable condition. (ACCA, 2008, pp.121) Inquires Inquires mean requesting information. This could be from individuals within the company, either orally or in written representations, or in formal written requests to third parties. Example: A relevant example would be to send a standard confirmation letter to the company’s bank (ACCA, 2008, pp.121) QUESTION 3 (a): Audit Risk is the risk of giving an inappropriate opinion on the financial statements. For example, failing to qualify when the financial statements contain a material error. Audit Risk has three individual components in the formula: Audit Risk = Inherent Risk X Control Risk X Detection Risk (ACCA, 2008) Inherent Risk is the susceptibility of an assertion to a misstatement that could be material individually or when aggregated with misstatements, assuming there were no related internal controls. Inherent risk is also a risk that it is impossible for auditors to manage and transfer away due to the nature of the company and its transaction. (ACCA, 2008) Control Risk is the risk that material misstatement that could occur in an assertion and that could be material, individually or when aggregated with other misstatements, will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis by the entity’s internal control. (MIA, www.mia.org.my) [Online] Detection Risk is the risk that the auditor will not detect a misstatement that exists in an assertion that could be material, individually or when aggregated with other misstatements. For a given level of audit risk, the acceptable level of detection risk bears an inverse relationship to the assessment of the risk of material misstatement at the assertion level. QUESTION 3 (b): Auditors should obtain an understanding of the entity and its environment, including internal control, sufficient to identity and assess the risks of material misstatement in the financial statements whether due to fraud or error. Then, the auditors able to design and perform further audit procedures. It is essential for auditors to understand the client’s environment, including its internal controls because the knowledge of understanding of the client’s environment will guide auditors to build up or maintain a good professional relationship with the client. Listed below are the reasons why auditors need an understanding of the client’s environment, including its internal controls. A client may involve in a volatile sector of economy, which means that the industry has rapidly and is planning further expansion which will require additional resources. This will cause the stock obsolete and the obsolete stock may be overstated in the Financial Statements. In such circumstances, there is a risk that creditors will go unpaid and the business will go into liquidation. It is very risky for directors of the company and the auditors if they auditing the company. Today’s world is rapidly changing such as technology. It is very competitive with new technology developments in a market because competitive can lead to going concern problems and more possibility that the client’s Financial Statements will be misstated. This eventually will increase the inherent risk for the auditors especially in the aspect when the auditors auditing the financial statements. It is also will lead to an increase in the inherent risk and will cause the difficulties for auditors to analyze Financial Statements in a volatile industry due to no consistency in Financial Statements. Besides, the management’s attitude, whether are they reliable and trustworthy in the business is suspected. This will indicate that the management’s integrity is doubtful and mismanagement may be occurred. This in-turn will cause the Financial Statements may be subject to manipulation by existing auditors when they auditing the company as management is bias. Nevertheless, financial aspect will be taking into consideration if the company is facing financial problems. The company would needs a bank loan to finance the director ambitious plans. However, the loan facilities are scare. The risk for auditors to audit the Financial Statements will increase when the management of the company would use an aggressive accounting tactics to manipulate the Financial Statements. Last but not least, there is a misappropriation to a specific ascertain for a cash transactions or account balances in the. The cash balances may influence the Financial Statements and will cause an increasing risk for auditors to audit Financial Statements and there is a limitation for the auditors to identified completeness of sales and internal controls are insufficient. The aspects of client’s environment and internal controls are as follow: Industry, regulatory and other external factors, including the reporting framework Nature of the entity, including selection and application of accounting policies Objectives and strategies and related business risks that might cause material misstatement in the financial statements Measurement and review of the entity’s financial performance The control environment Control activities Monitoring of controls (ACCA, 2008) QUESTION 4 (a): It is important for auditors to observe client’s inventory stock count. This is to verify assertions of existence of inventory items that makes up the balance, means that the stock count done by the client staffs are as per the Stock Taking Instruction (STI). All the stocks are properly allocated, ensure that the stock stated in the stock list are actually exist. If do not have such stock exist as per the stock list, inquire the management or superior for the explanation. Besides, the auditors should ensure that the condition of the stock are clearly stated during the stock count, such as identify evidence of damaged or slow moving inventory because it is useful for the further evaluation of the inventory. This also wanted to prove that the actual stock record data are as per the stock count. Not only that, observation of stock count is to ensure that all the stocks held in the warehouse are particularly owned by client, that is right and obligations assertion. Any stock held for 3rd party, ensure it is properly separated from the client’s stock and inspect the agreement between the 3rd party and client regarding about the stock held. Lastly, the auditors should verify by assertions of completeness. That is the audit should ensure all sales and purchases are well recorded and all the inventory at year end is included on the statement of financial position. QUESTION 4 (b) (i): As an external auditor, the audit procedures I would take is to find out or enquire whether this box of liquid is still part of the inventory balance, that is inventory record. Besides, I will ensure that the box of liquid in this inventory is written off and not saleable anymore. Lastly, I will also determine whether the sales of the liquid shoe polish are valued at the ‘lower of cost’ or ‘net realization value’, if it is saleable. If the liquid shoe polish still cannot sell, then dispose the liquid shoe polish. QUESTION 4 (b) (ii): As an external auditor, the audit procedures that I would take is I will ensure that client’s staff are following instructions during the inventory count. Besides, no pencil is allowed during the inventory count. This is because by using pencil to record down inventory counted is showing not a good count instruction. Therefore, I will inform the person in charge of count that some staff are using pencils to record down inventory counted to prevent any adjustment easily to be made. Lastly, I will follow up to observe whether the staff are using pen subsequently during the inventory count and observe the condition of the stock properly to ensure it is clearly stated as per during the stock count, as it is useful for the evaluation of the inventory. QUESTION 4 (c): The management of the company is responsible for the identification and reporting of stocks that are worth less than cost to the auditor in a form of a schedule listing all the identified items. The types of inventory that may be worth less than costs include slow-moving, obsolete and damage stocks. Audit procedures for stocks worth less than costs are as follows: Enquire from management as to how they account for and identify such inventories, including the assumptions they made about the age, conditions and value of the inventories. Inspect sales, marketing and other reports, and review the extent to which inventories which are worth less than costs have been reduced to net realizable value (NRV) in prior years. Analytical procedures may be performed to evaluate the appropriateness of the write down in the current year. Analyse the client’s computerized records, if available, to identify goods that are old or slow-moving. The records may also show seconds and damaged goods. Any information produced by the computer system for management relating to inventories need to be checked. Computer Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAAT) may be used for these purposes. Auditor’s need to checked the appropriateness of the definition of old and slow-moving given by the management, by making references to competitors products, technology changes and legislation. For high value items the auditors will need to refer to the expert’s valuation report to note if any material differences exist. At the inventory count, a note should have been made of any items that appeared to be old, slow-moving or damages and the count records should be inspected to see if they do show such goods. QUESTION 5: The auditors’ responsibility is to consider the appropriateness of the going concern assumption made by management and whether are there any material uncertainties about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern that need to be disclosed in the financial statements. In obtaining an understanding of the entity, the auditor should consider and stay alert to obtain evidence as to whether any events or conditions and related business risks which may occur and cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern during the auditing. If such event or conditions were identified, the auditor should perform addition audit procedures to consider their impact to the audit assessments. The auditors should: Review management’s plan for future actions based on its going concern assessment Gather sufficient appropriate audit evidence to confirm whether or not a material uncertainty exists. Considering the affects of any plans of management and other mitigating factors Seek written representations from management regarding its plan for future action (ACCA, 2008) The auditor should also inquire management as to its knowledge of events or conditions beyond the period of assessment used by management that may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The audit procedure that auditor should undertake to realize that may have affected on company going concern issues are as follow: Analyse and discuss cash flow, profit and other relevant forecasts with management. Analyse and discuss the entity’s latest available interim financial statement Review the term of debentures and loan agreements and determine whether they have been breached Read minutes of meetings for the reference to financial difficulties Enquire of entity’s lawyer regarding the litigation and claims Consider the entity’s position if unfulfilled customers order Assess financial ability to provide additional funds Review events after period end for item affecting the entity’s ability to continue as going concern. (ACCA, 2008) The Importance of independence for external auditors
The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) Report
Strategic human resource management is not a simple process as it keeps on evolving over time. The concept does not have an absolute definition since opinions about it vary between various scholars and analysts. However, one thing that remains clear is that the concept is essential for improved business performance. It can be regarded as a strategic approach to human resource management which links human resource to the future plans and directions of an organization. Basically this implies that the strategic HRM seeks to ensure that resources are matched with organizational future needs by concerning itself with long term issues relating to employees, organizational culture, values, and commitments. Harter et al. (2006) says that strategic human resource management focuses on increasing productivity and effectiveness by motivating employees to give their best and work towards achievement of organizational strategic goals. The approach revolves around policies that motivate employees and cause them to be committed towards their work. It entails practices such as employee comprehensive training, employee development activities, developmental appraisal, and staff selection among many others. In the recent years, the notion of high commitment human resource management has been of much interest in many organizations and research studies. Elwood et al. (1996) agrees with the fact that strategic human resource management focuses on shaping organizational culture. HR practices within organization directly affect their culture which eventually is reflected in the company’s overall success. Employee attitudes are affected and shaped by systems of human resource management. Strategic human resource management therefore is linked to increase in organizational effectiveness. It helps create a working condition where employees become highly motivated and focused on the goals of the organization. Employees tend to assume that high commitment practices of human resource are a direct show of commitment by the organization to them. They therefore tend to reciprocate the same gesture by being committed to the organization. Relationship between SHRM and Outsourcing HR The concept of outsourcing human resource can be regarded as part of strategic human resource management. It involves the use of a third party provider to administer the human resource functions in an organization. The popularity of HR outsourcing has increased as most companies seek the expertise of HR outsourcing firms to effectively manage their internal human resource activities. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main reason why companies opt for the option of outsourcing key HR functions is because it is less costly and more efficient than employing HR personnel to execute these functions. According to Galanki and Papalexandris (2005), the HR vendors are able to provide the services at a lower cost because they benefit from economy of scale. The companies then transfer these benefits to their clients. As a result, Galanki and Papalexandris (2005) argue that small and medium sized companies are the ones who benefit the most from the HR vendors. Delmotte and Sels (2008) say that companies may also decide to outsource their HR functions because of the need for knowhow. According to the authors, such companies may lack the necessary knowledge about strategic human resource management or they may simply have outdated information. This therefore requires them to make significant investment into their human resource functionalities. The idea that Delmotte and Sels (2008) are contending is that outsourcing human resource functions offer knowledge and competence which in most cases are usually absent from within companies. Case study: discussion of the key HR functions in the organization In this section, the case study of a nonprofit organization based in California shall be analyzed to develop a discussion of key HR functions for organizations. Strategic human resource management is an important aspect for nonprofit organizations. The company had to ensure that its HR functionalities are aligned to its strategic goals in order to experience effective functioning. The organization was found over 25 year ago with the intention of helping individuals struggling with domestic violence, trauma, mental illness, and substance abuse. The main goal was to help children, women, and communities rebuild their lives. The needs within the community increased forcing the company to also expand its operations to meet the increase. However, in the process of this expansion, the company encountered business challenges in its human resource management. The department was not fully equipped to handle the requirements that accompany large organizations. The company faced a situation where its employees were overloaded with work. There were numerous challenges relating to the employment and staffing. These challenges also began affecting the finances of the organization. Even with the HR manager and a few other HR personnel in place, the department was overwhelmed with the new emerging HR needs. We will write a custom Report on The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key HR functions in the organization include: global mobility, benefit pans, health and welfare, recruiting, payroll, staff performance, and staff development. Cook (1999) suggests that three additional functions can also be effectively outsourced. The three include organizational culture, human resource planning, and performance appraisal system. Critical analysis of the HR functions that can be outsourced Outsourcing key human resource functionality is designed to help companies integrate their human resource into their needs and goals. With regards to pay and benefits, the payroll clerk job measurements are usually done narrowly since it is considered to one of the back office jobs. This is mostly done by considering the output in terms of paying the employees on time and accurately. Also measures can be done by the finance people to determine the how cost effective and proficient is the job. Outsourcing this function can prove cost effective for the organization since the job of a payroll clerk may not be necessary. Another area that needs outsourcing in the organization is staffing and recruitment. This area falls under organizational man power planning. It seeks to improve and maintain the ability of an organization to attain its entire strategic objective through development of manpower contribution. When an organization develops a wrong man power planning, there can be a lot of disruption which will affect the organization adversely. The process of staffing in companies includes recruitment of human resource, selection, training, and promotion. Other processes such as retirement, transfer and demotion also make part of the staffing process. Therefore, recruitment is an initial step of staffing. The entire process of staffing continues with the experience of employees within an organization. Outsourcing firms have the resources and capabilities that ensure staffing and recruitment is done effectively. External sources of recruitment would even be more appropriate in reducing all the chances of biasness. However, despite the recruitment team appointed for conducting the process, that is whether internal or external recruiters, it is appropriate that they be well trained. They have to be aware of the skills and parameters that the company needs from the candidates. All the evaluation processes have to be planned in advance and these include both the technical and human resource interviews and the tests. The systems of performance appraisals focus mainly on the employees who have contributed to the achievement of organizational goals and are also still in a position to assist the organization continue attaining its goals. Promotion is a human resource management best practice that helps to retain employees for long as well as motivating them to perform. Promotion can be monetary or non monetary. Nonetheless, it has to be an opportunity for the individual employees to grow personally. Performance appraisals are not only aimed at identifying best performing and highly productive employees, but are also aimed at identifying poor performing employees. This is important for an organization because poor performing employees negatively affect performance of an organization. Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The human resource personnel manager is responsible for coordinating the process of staffing and recruitment. This is a very conscious process that does not require mistakes to be made. Mistakes can lead to major consequences that would pose a serious threat to an organization. The mistakes can affect the brand value of an organization as well as disrupt operations. The manager in charge of recruitment has to define primary and essential skills that are required for each role within an organization. In addition, the education qualification and experience are also to be defined. The entire experience and stages of an employee in an organization constitute the existence of the process of staffing. Once an employee has been recruited for a position, the human resource team needs to identify the individual skills of the employee’s individual skills and integrate them to the skills required for the job. This is achieved through proper training. There is usually a difference in the required skills for the job and the employee’s individual skills. Depending on the size of the gap or difference, the human resource team should be able to come up with proper training for bridging the gap. Training therefore serves an important role of making the employees competent by giving them the confidence to face the task before them. Each employees within an organization needs to be developing and growing in their career. Therefore staffing process takes care of transfers and promotions of employees. Employees need to be aware of the opportunities for growth within the company. This should be clearly communicated to them and the procedure blueprinted. For instance, in most organization, the path up the career ladder is usually certified through performance appraisals. The employees that qualify for promotions must have performed extremely well to deserve the promotions. Such organizations also require work place diversity. Internal human resource personnel may be challenged to ensure the internal working environment is as diverse as a possible. However, outsourcing firms have the skills and expertise in recruitment and staffing needed to ensure diversity within the workplace. Workforce diversity is one of the main dominant staffing issues experienced by organizations. With increase in globalization, many organizations find themselves having a multicultural workforce. Women, minority community, immigrants and the elderly are making job applications. Labor laws in almost any country require that companies have a balance workforce in terms of gender, and ethnic communities within its location. The challenge is in staffing professionals and specialties. The organizations also have to recognize the cultural needs of their employees and address them appropriately. Adapting to the diversity provides the organizations with the opportunity to retain staff for longer periods. At the same time, such an organization is able to get the best out of each of their employees. Another area that can be considered challenging for the in-house human resource management of the organization is training and development. The demands in employee training and recruitment can be overwhelming for the nonprofit organizations. The workforce definitely matures over time and this requires that the organization creates opportunities for their growth. Training and education of various fields in the market is advancing with time as current technology is integrated in almost every aspect of life. Organizations find it challenging to retain the old employees who do not the current skills and knowledge required for a company to remain competitive in the market. This therefore forces companies to make new recruitments who are enthusiastic and motivated with the latest education and training. Conclusion Outsourcing provides the company with the necessary human resource expertise which may sometimes be difficult to have from within. An HR outsourcing firm would work close with the company to plan, develop, and implement necessary HR capabilities. Outsourcing critical functionality of human resource management works best in a small and medium sized company. This is primarily because employing HR personnel in such a situation can prove more costly for the company than when the functions are outsourced. The outsourcing firms offer end to end services which sometimes the internal human resource personnel may not be able to fully provide. For large companies, the idea of outsourcing HR functionalities may make sense because HR administration can be time consuming. Outsourcing therefore can free up time and employees who can be made to support in other important company activities. In most cases, companies do assume that HR functions can be handled in a short time. However, human resource requires a full time input for it to be effectively handled. Companies may also try to handle the HR functions with a single human resource personnel or a team of unqualified employees. Such an approach can never be effective and does not offer sound solution to the HR issues faced within the companies. Outsourcing the functions of HR ensures that they are handled by experts with the necessary resourcing to for a fulltime input. Management of human resource has a lot of legalities involved and sometimes companies may lack the necessary resources and expertise to handle these legal implications. However, the outsourcing firms are equipped with professional expertise and resources to handle the legal implications of human resource management. As a result, employees within the company will end up being more productive, healthy, and happy in line with the company’s strategic goals. References Chew, I.