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Septic Arthritis and Reactive Arthritis Comparison

Septic Arthritis and Reactive Arthritis Comparison. Septic infectious arthritis and reactive arthritis are two arthritic disorders that result from an infection. Though they both are related in their etiology and in their characteristic of causing arthritic joints, each of them are actually different in the way the infection triggers the condition. The main difference between the two conditions may be further clarified with the examination of the terminology used for each. Origin of Terminology Septic arthritis derives its name from the term sepsis which pertains to the systemic compromise due to the spread of infection [1] ; this is the reason why the term is at times used interchangeably with infectious arthritis. Reactive arthritis was previously known as “Reiter’s Syndrome” named after the late German physician Hans Conrad Julius Reiter who was instrumental in the identification and description of the condition. [2] The term “Reiter’s syndrome” has lost popularity due to the exposure of Reiter’s history as a Nazi party member during his prosecution in the Nuremberg trials as a war criminal because of his alleged participation in the forced human experimentations in the Buchenwald concentration camp; this urged a group of doctors to campaign for the renaming of term “Reiter’s syndrome” into “reactive arthritis” back in 1977. [3] The condition may also be known as arthritis urethritica, polyarteritis enterica, or venereal arthritis. (1) The term arthritis urethritica was coined due to its tendency to occur after a genitourinary infection, (2) the term polyarteritis enterica was coined due to its tendency to affect multiple joints and its tendency to occur after a gastrointestinal infection, and (3) the term venereal arthritis was coined due to the tendency of the condition to occur after a known venereal disease infection. The main difference between reactive arthritis from septic arthritis is that septic arthritis caused by the infection of the joint. However, reactive arthritis is not caused by an infection to the joint itself, but is rather an autoimmune response in reaction to an infection on another part of the body. Each disorder will be discussed further in depth in this chapter. Overviews, Microbiology, and Prevalence Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is an infection resulting in an arthritis characterized by purulent invasion and intense pain at the infected joint. [4] Aside from being interchangeable with the term “infectious arthritis,” this condition may also be known as suppurative arthritis due to its characteristic of producing purulent substances or pus, and may also be known as “bacterial arthritis,” even though the condition may at times be of fungal or viral origin instead of the commonly bacterial origin. The causative infectious agent in septic arthritis can spread to the joint from other previously infected areas of the body. The infection may sometimes only affect a single joint without affecting other parts of the body, but the infection may still spread to other body parts. Septic arthritis commonly affects the knee or wrist, and may also affect other joints such as the ankle, hip, elbow, shoulder, and shoulder. The infection infiltrates and damages the joint causing severe pain, suppuration, heat, and swelling. This severe form of arthritis also develops along with the sudden onset of fever, chills, and joint pain. [5] On the occasion that the sufferer of some forms of septic arthritis do not seek rapid medical attention for diagnosis and treatment, the joint may incur irreversible and permanent damage and in a period of days. Therefore, the situation should be regarded as a medical emergency. Gonococcal arthritis is the most prevalent form of septic arthritis in the United States [6] . This class of septic arthritis is less prevalent in other areas of the world such as Western Europe where it is presently uncommon. The causative organism behind this form of the condition is the gram-negative diplococcus bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae which was most likely spread to the joint systematically due to disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). This specific condition can be manifested as either arthritis-dermatitis syndrome which is a bacteremic infection accounting for sixty percent of gonococcal arthritis cases, or it can be manifested as an arthritic infection localized to a single joint which accounts for the remaining forty percent of cases. [7] Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis is an autoimmune condition caused by the body’s immune response to an infection. The causative infection is not located at the affected joint itself (cross-reactivity). [8] The triggering infection is usually or often already in remission by the time the patient presents with arthritic symptoms, thus making it difficult to ascertain the initial cause. Cultures taken from the synovial fluid of the joints affected by reactive arthritis will characteristically yield negative results indicating the cause is not a direct infection to the joint, but instead may be plausibly due to the over-stimulation of the autoimmune response or by the depositing of bacterial antigens in the joints by an unknown manner. Though the mechanism of reaction from the infection is still unknown, it is said that reactive arthritis often manifests within one to three weeks after a known infection. Microbiology of Arthritis The etiology of septic arthritis is commonly bacterial in nature–mycobacterial, viral, and fungal arthritis occur in rare cases. [9] The pathogen responsible for septic arthritis must reach the synovial membrane of the joint. The micro-organisms are usually carried to the joint by the bloodstream from an infectious source such as wound infections and abscesses located elsewhere on the body, introduced by skin lesions or trauma that penetrates into the joint, or by extension of the infection from adjacent body tissue such adjacent soft tissue infections or bones suffering from an osteomyelitic condition. Being the most common cause of septic arthritis, there are various strains of bacteria that may be the culprit behind this condition. Staphylococcus aureus is the common causative pathogen in adults, while streptococci is the second-most likely causative pathogen in adults. [10] Neisseria gonorrhoea is the most prevalent causative microorganism in young adults, although this is now thought to be rare in Western Europe. [11] Moreover, Haemophilus influenzae was the most prevalent causative pathogen in children but is now declining in areas where haemophilus vaccinations have been introduced. [12] Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most likely causative micro-organism among the elderly, the seriously ill, and users of intravenous drugs. Salmonella, brucella, and tuberculosis are the causative pathogens behind septic spinal arthritis. [13] Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the bacterium responsible for endocarditis, has also been identified as a causative pathogen for septic arthritis in children who have suffered a penetrating wound directly to the joint’s. [14] Reactive arthritis may also be caused by bacterial infection. It is triggered by a recent preceding infection; the most common culprit in the United States would be the genital infection Chlamydia trachomatis. The bacterium known as Ureaplasma urealytium, which is a pathogen of the urinary tract, is also known to trigger the condition. The condition may also be triggered by bouts of gastrointestinal infection or food poisoning from Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter, which are all enteric bacteria genera. [15] The infection is not located in the ailing joint, and may no longer present elsewhere on the body by the time the reactive arthritis develops. Other microorganisms may still be behind a case reactive arthritis but the evidence indicating them to be the actual cause is still circumstantial. [16] Prevalence of Septic Arthritis and Reactive Arthritis Young children, older adults, and individuals with artificial joints are at greater risk than the general population to develop septic arthritis. Those with artificial joints may be infected with different organisms in comparison with the general population, and may present with slightly different symptoms. [17] In general, if an individual affected by septic arthritis seeks medical attention and treatment within a week after the first symptoms appear, they will most likely make a full recovery. On the other hand, individuals aged twenty to forty years of age are more likely to be affected by reactive arthritis. Men are more likely to be affected by the condition than women. Caucasian people are more likely to be affected than individuals of African-American descent; this is due to the frequent occurrence of the HLA-B27 gene within the white population. [18] Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also have an increased risk of developing this condition. Arthritis makes it extremely difficult for affected individuals to remain physically active as many individuals become bound to their homes. These individuals will increase their risk for obesity, depression, and heart disease due to their inactivity and anxiety from worsening disability. [19] The Immune System’s Role in Arthritis Septic arthritis and reactive arthritis are both conditions that involve the immune system’s autoimmune response. However, septic arthritis is the result of the body’s normal immune response to an actual infection present at the ailing joint. On the other hand, reactive arthritis is the result of the immune system’s abnormal immune response to what it believes is a present infection at the joint but is, however, absent or is an infection on a part of the body aside from the joint; this mistaken response which may be due to misinterpretation or oversensitivity is considered abnormal and is classified as an autoimmune disease. An overview of the human body’s immune system can better explain the mechanism by which these two conditions come into fruition. Overview of the Human Immune System The human immune system is an intricate defense system designed to specifically defend against the many different types of pathogens. Pathogens are any organism, usually a live organism, which can cause disease. Pathogens include bacteria which are single celled organisms capable of living outside the body, protozoa which are single celled organisms that live and are spread through water, pathogenic proteins which are multi-celled organisms that can only reproduce in another more complex living organism, fungi which are plant-like multi-celled organisms that take nutrition from other living organism such as plants and animals, viruses which are actually multi-celled organisms that invade and reproduce inside another microbial organism, and parasites which are full complex organisms which feed off the nutrients of another complex organisms and which tend to live in the intestinal tract or bloodstream of the human body. In theory any one of these organisms can cause septic arthritis or reactive arthritis, but parasites are very unlikely to cause these conditions and bacteria are the most prevalent culprit. In the event that a pathogen passes through the body’s outer physical barriers, such as mucus and the skin, and penetrates into the internal structures of the human body, the immune system kicks in. [20] The human body’s immune system response is composed of the non-specific response and the specific response. Non-specific response consists of the complement response, the interferon response, fever response, and the inflammatory response. The complement response is conducted by the activation of complement proteins which bind with pathogens with lipid layers, such as bacteria, to destroy their lipid layers allowing water to shift into the pathogen to drown them, or by the activation of macrophages which engulf the invading pathogen. Interferon response is conducted by a cell that has been infected with a virus. The infected cell produces a chemical protein known as interferon which will bind to uninfected cells preventing the virus from readily infecting them. The fever is conducted in response to toxin present in the body which may or may not be produced by bacteria; pyrogen, which is a chemical also known as Interleukin 1, is responsible for resetting and increasing the body’s temperature and may cause gradual joint degeneration. Inflammatory response is the result of the release of histamines in response to tissue damage or infection; histamine is capable of causing capillary dilation which allows for greater capillary permeability, which in turn allows for white blood cells to gather at an infected site, for fluid to create inflammation and swelling at the site to create cushioning, and for an increase in temperature at the affected site. The inflammatory response and fever response are the main responses responsible for the signs and symptoms present during both septic arthritis and reactive arthritis. The human body’s specific immune response is mostly managed by the different types of leukocytes which are better known as white blood cells (WBCs). White blood cells can be classified as eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Eosinophils serve to produce interleukins which are chemicals that serve a vital role as immune system neurotransmitters that relay messages between the many different white blood cells to ensure that they work together and cooperate as an effective system against pathogens and to ensure that the immune system does not attack the body’s own cells. Macrophages are also known as phagocytes, meaning they are capable of conducting phagocytosis which is the process of engulfing, killing, and digesting of pathogens and cellular debris; after digestion, the degraded pathogen is turned in peptides which can act as antigens. The antigens produced by the macrophages are then carried by the macrophages into the lymph nodes where the helper T-cells utilize them to signal the B-cells to create antibodies. The last type of white blood cell is collectively called lymphocytes. The lymphocytes can be further subdivided into B-cells, NK cells, and T-cells. B-cells are responsible for creating immunoglobulin, or antibodies, that are specific to a certain pathogen as identified by their antigen. Antigens are protein peptides that exist on the outer surface of pathogens; these antigens are used to differentiate and identify cells and pathogens that are foreign to the host body. The helper T-cells who receive the antigen produced by the macrophage produce lymphokines which instruct the B-cells on the production of the specific antibody. When the B-cells produce the specific antibody, B plasma cells begin to create more copies of its own self to create more antibodies. These antibodies, when released into the bloodstream, will then proceed to bind with the antigens on the actual pathogens to signal the killer T-cells to attack these foreign organisms. The B-cells will also produce B memory cells, which are inactive B plasma cells. These inactive B memory cells last longer than their active B plasma cell counterparts, which last for about five to seven days; the presence of the B memory cells in the bloodstream allows them to respond faster to secondary exposures to the same pathogens in the future. Natural killer (NK) cells are cells that are activated by interferons, which interfere with virus replication, and chemicals produced by macrophages which have ingested a virus. Natural killer cells engulf virus pathogens to prevent them from reproducing until a killer T-cell is developed to kill the contained virus. T-cells are responsible for identifying and destroying specific pathogens and consist of helper T-cells, killer T-cells, memory T-cells, and suppressor T-cells. Helper T-cells receive antigens from macrophages which have ingested a pathogen and instruct the B-cells to produce antibodies which will in turn signal the killer T-cells. Killer T-cells are responsible for finding and destroying pathogens by injecting them with cytotoxins. Memory T-cells are derivatives of helper T-cells which circulate around the body and perform the same functions as their parent cells. Suppressor T-cells are responsible for slowing down and deactivating the immune response once the foreign organisms and pathogens have been eliminated. What Goes Wrong with the Immune Response Septic arthritis is really the result of the damage caused by the invading organisms and the normal immune response of the body to the infection in that specific joint or set of joints. In septic arthritis, the macrophages ingest a pathogen that has infected a joint. The macrophages then degrade the pathogen into antigens and relay them to the helper T-cells in the lymph nodes. The T-cells then create antibodies specific to the antigens on the pathogens. The inflammatory response also releases histamine which increases the blood flowing into the affected joint to cause swelling, redness, and pain, which in turn causes stiffness and difficulty moving in the joint to cause arthritic symptoms. Meanwhile, the invading organisms cause damage to the joints. Such damage incurred by the joints may be irreparable if medical attention is not immediately sought after. Suppuration which is the result of the white blood cells’ fight against the invading microorganisms may also contribute to the arthritic condition. The fever response that triggers the release of pyrogen may also contribute to the degeneration of the joint. Although the exact etiology of the condition is still uncertain, unlike septic arthritis, reactive arthritis is caused by a faulty immune system response. The condition occurs in the absence and aftermath of an actual infection that is located in a part of the body aside from the affected joints. Two theories exist for the purpose of explanation. The first theory speculates that there are antigens deposited in the affected joint; the second theory speculates that the immune system has become faulty in detecting the actual presence or absence pathogens and creates an exaggerated immune response in the joints even though there is no infection or the infection is located elsewhere on the body. These theories causes the immune system to believe in a current infection and will release histamine and pyrogen to produce inflammation and fever. The inflammation will again cause the joint(s) to be stiff, painful, and immobile–all of which are arthritic symptoms. The absence of an actual pathogen may mean that the inflammation and fever will last for an uncertain length of time but the absence of an actual pathogen will also mean that there is little to no actual damage to the affected joint. Distinguishing Characteristics There are over a hundred forms of arthritis, all of which involve some degree of inflammation, pain, and immobility of an affected joint. [21] The many different types are the result of several different causes and these causes may point towards what distinguishes each form of arthritis from the other. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and is the most common presentation of arthritis; it can result from trauma to the joint, direct infection to the joint, daily wear and tear, muscle strain, fatigue, or simply from old age. Other forms of arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis are attributed to autoimmune diseases. The main thing that differentiates septic arthritis and reactive arthritis from other types of arthritis is that they are mainly results of infection. This means that they will most likely present with fever. The main difference between reactive arthritis from septic arthritis is that the latter is when infection of the joint itself is the cause of the suppuration leading to the arthritis. However, reactive arthritis is not caused by an infection to the joint itself, but rather the inflammation is caused by an autoimmune response to an infection located on another part of the body; this is known as cross reactivity. [22] Septic arthritis will most likely affect an individual joint (monoarthritic) if only one joint is infected. Nonetheless, the possible systemic nature of reactive arthritis allows it to most likely affect several joints (polyarthritis). Septic arthritis will also most likely yield positive culture results and present with suppuration, unlike reactive arthritis which may not yield the same results due to the absence of an infection at the actual site of arthritic symptoms. Techniques and Research Diagnostic Techniques The diagnosis of arthritis in general is made through a clinical examination that is conducted by a duly licensed and qualified health professional, who may require other examinations such as blood tests and radiology to create a differential diagnosis for the suspected arthritis. However, radiographs (x-ray) and sonographs (ultrasound) are mostly used only to assess and monitor the severity and progression of the condition. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also an effective diagnostic tool. The history of the current disorder may guide diagnosis; some significant markers include: speed and time of onset, pattern and symmetry of joint involvement, aggravating and relieving factors, quality and severity of pain, and other systemic symptoms. An example of this is the use of pain patterns; for example, rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in pain and stiffness during mornings, but in comparison, osteoarthritis is usually aggravated after strenuous activities such as exercise. There is no diagnostic test to completely rule out septic arthritis; however, it should be considered whenever a patient presents with rapid onset of joint pain. Usually it only affects one joint (monoarthritis); however, several joints can be affected simultaneously in cases involving staphylococcus or gonococcus infections. The affected joints may present with pain, swelling, redness, and warmth, often affecting joints in the limbs instead of deep joints such as the hips or shoulders. A fever of above 38.5 degrees Celsius and history of septic arthritis may also be indicative of the condition. The Gram stain can rule towards a septic arthritis diagnosis but cannot rule it out. [23] Gram stain and culture of fluid from the joint and blood test serums can also rule towards a positive diagnosis when yielding elevated neutrophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), c-reactive protein (CRP), and WBCs. Being a sort of systemic autoimmune disorder, reactive arthritis can be expected to cause polyarthritis which is a multiple joint arthritic condition. The affected joints may also present with pain, swelling, redness, and warmth. Swabs taken from the urethra, cervix, stool, urine, or the throat can be cultured in an attempt to identify the causative organisms. Blood tests and synovial fluid cultures may also be done to reveal elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and CRP to support the diagnosis. A blood screening may be done to identify the presence of the gene HLA-B27, which is present in an estimated eighty percent of all patients suffering from reactive arthritis. [24] Treatment Techniques Treatment for arthritis in general includes lifestyle changes such as exercise and weight control, physical therapy, orthopedic braces, and medications. The main goal of treatment for both septic and reactive arthritis is to identify and eradicate the causative pathogen with the appropriate antibiotics. In the meantime, the treatment is symptomatic. Medications such as antibiotics, NSAIDS, steroids, and analgesia can help decrease inflammation in the joint resulting in decreased pain and hampered joint damage. [25] Reactive arthritis may require immunosuppressant medications in addition to the above medications to reduce oversensitivity of the immune system. Extreme pain, redness, and swelling may require drainage by needle puncture to alleviate these signs of inflammation. Surgical replacement of the joints may also be needed in eroding types of arthritis such as certain strains of septic arthritis. Surgical debridement or arthrotomy is usually indicated for infections involving prosthetic joints. Individuals for whom surgery is contraindicated will have to undergo long-term trial antibiotic therapy. [26] Analysis Septic arthritis and reactive arthritis are two arthritic conditions that result from the human immune systems response to infection. Septic arthritis is the result of an infection on the arthritic joint; if one joint is infected, only one joint shall be suffer arthritic symptoms. Reactive arthritis is the result of an exaggerated immune response to an infection that does not involve the arthritic joint; this condition may be systemic and may affect multiple joints. Septic arthritis and reactive arthritis may both be caused by any pathogen including bacteria, mycobacterium, virus, and fungi; however, bacterial infections are the most prevalent culprit. Since both septic arthritis and reactive arthritis are the result of an infection, what distinguishes them from most other forms of arthritis is that both of them may present with fever and some degree of suppuration in addition to the usual symptoms of inflammation which include pain, swelling, redness, and warmth at the joint. Septic arthritis will however prove to be the more destructive of the two conditions because it directly infects the joint and may cause permanent and irreversible damage. Since both of the conditions are the result of an infection, both of their treatments include antibiotics, which may usually be given intravenously, and medications that may deal with the symptoms of pain and inflammation may be given. Orthopedic bracing for support and surgical intervention for damaged joints may also be needed in certain cases. Septic Arthritis and Reactive Arthritis Comparison
ANTH 222 University of California Unpacking Myths & Mythology Discussion.

I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

WHAT YOU’LL DO:You’ll read about one or more ways of interpreting myth and then use one of these approaches to try to interpret a myth that is probably unfamiliar to you.HOW YOU’LL DO IT:You need to complete BOTH parts! Immediately after this discussion in the topical module is a PDF of a reading by Leonard and McClure, “The Study of Mythology,” that describes various approaches to interpreting myth. ( I can send the pdf)You’ll need to use this reading to help you with the assignment. You’ll want to pay particular attention to the following (some advice- for your own notes, try summarizing in a sentence each of the following ways to approach the study of mythology):Rise of Psychology and Joseph Campbell p. 59-60Claude Levi-Strauss p. 60-61Mircea Eliade p. 61-62Considering 20th Century Mythology Critically p. 62-64Doty’s “Toolkit” and Lincon’s Ideological Narratives p. 64Doniger’s Telescopes and Microscopes and Ellwood’s “Real Myths” p. 64-65Then, listen to me tell the Myth of Taliesin: For your discussion journal, select TWO of the following approaches to unpacking the “Myth of Taliesin.” Identify your selected approach. Answer the questions listed for each of those approaches. Your response should be about 2 paragraphs.1. Social functions (What does the myth tell us about how to behave? About society?)2. Archetypes and the unconscious (Can you identify major archetypes? What do they mean?)3. The individual’s spiritual journey (What does the myth say about the goals of the spiritual journey and how to get there?)4. Structural opposition (Can you identify major binary opposites? What do they mean?)5. Story-telling and its meaning in time/place (How do you think the meaning of this myth is affected by how it is told? How do you think people might use it?)6. Myth as literature (Who are the characters? What is compelling about the story?)7. How myth affects our emotions and intellect (What did you feel as you heard the myth? What thoughts came to mind?)8. The cultural context of symbolism (What in the myth may be symbolic? What cultural knowledge of these symbols might be important, that you may lack?)
ANTH 222 University of California Unpacking Myths & Mythology Discussion

Colorado State University Leadership Analysis Comparison Discussion.

Option #1: Leadership Analysis PaperFor this Portfolio Project paper, you will choose two leaders, one male and one female. These two leaders do not need to be from the same organization. One leader should be what you would consider “effective and successful” and the other should be what you would consider “ineffective and unsuccessful.” Compare these two leaders regarding their leadership characteristics, use of power and influence, and how these relate to their effectiveness or lack of effectiveness within their respective organization.The entire portfolio project is worth 35% of your overall grade for this course. Make sure to use research to back up your statements within the paper. You will need to address each of the following as they relate to your two leaders. Each element is worth equal value.Instructions:A brief background and organizational framework for each leader, including job title and general description, industry in which they work, number of subordinates they supervise, and their leadership level within the organization (lower level, middle level, executive level)A comparison of the techniques used by each leader to gain power in his or her role within the organizationA comparison of how subordinates relate to each leader, including how much influence the subordinates have on each leaderAn analysis of how each leader uses influence to change the behavior of other leaders, co-workers, and subordinates within the organizationA comparison of the techniques used by each leader to influence employee motivationAn analysis of self-destructive tendencies (dark characteristics) of each leader, and how these tendencies affect the organizationA comparison of how each leader rewards employees, and how effective the reward systems areAn analysis of which leadership theory best describes each leader and the reasons why you selected the leadership theory based on researchRequirements:Your paper must be 8-10 pages in length, not counting the required title, abstract (Links to an external site.), and reference pages.You must back up your analysis with at least six references not used as required or recommended readings in this course. You may also use additional credible sources including newspapers, trade journals, government reports, and white papers. You may not use Wikipedia. You may use course required or recommended readings as additional sources over the required six references.Include a cover page denoting the paper title, your name, the course number and name, your instructor’s name, and the date you are making the submission.Include an outline or table of contents.Include a brief abstract statement summarizing your hypothesis or findings.Conform to APA guidelines
Colorado State University Leadership Analysis Comparison Discussion

MN 505 Perdue Global University Types of Immunity Related to Vaccination PPT

MN 505 Perdue Global University Types of Immunity Related to Vaccination PPT.

I’m working on a nursing presentation and need support to help me learn.

Immunization PresentationDirectionsFor this Assignment you are creating a PowerPoint® presentation. Your presentation audience is the community. The topic is immunization/ vaccination. Information should include herd immunity, types of immunity related to vaccination, immunization effects on the individual, and community as well as the worldwide effects of immunization. Additionally, content should include vaccination trends, myths, disease statistics for those conditions prevented with vaccination, and pediatric vaccination schedule/s. Legal, ethical, and cultural considerations should be addressed.Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners and all specialty nursing fields are contributors to health promotion in populations across the life span. This Assignment is focused on the child and adolescent immunization, health information, epidemiology and surrounding influences. You should apply the topic towards your area of specialty focus as it relates to health promotion and epidemiology.The presentation must have speaker notes per slide; 1–3 paragraphs. There is no audio or voice in this assignment. The PowerPoint should be developed in a professional design and style; succinct, not overly wordy, with a tasteful amount of elegant text and visual appeal, as well as accurate and complete content. Number of content slides are 12, not to exceed 14. Title slide and reference slide required and not included in the total. This presentation should adhere to appropriate APA formatting and citation style.
MN 505 Perdue Global University Types of Immunity Related to Vaccination PPT

Ancient Egypt: The Afterlife Society and Their Rituals

help writing INTRO: The members of the ancient Egypt society were very spiritual, they believed each of us had many bodies. “Khat” is the term used to describe the physical body and it was considered the lowest of them all. The “Khu” was the spirit body and it was seen as immortal. For this reason, the Egyptians gave a large importance to death and the Afterlife. Unique rituals were practiced during funerary ceremonies, like the mummifications of pharaohs, kings, and nobles. The bodies were often buried in tombs, which was also another important aspect of the ancient Egypt culture. The following paper will discuss three essential features of the ancient Egypt related to death and the Afterlife. The first part will consist of the funerary rituals and other ceremonies they practiced, the following section is one of the most famous ritual in the Ancient Egypt, the mummification. Finally, the last section will discuss the tombs found across Egypt containing kings, pharaohs, and other artifacts. The ancient Egyptians did not have a negative image of death like in our society. They gave an important value to the Afterlife, to protect the soul of the dead person, many rituals and different ceremonies were practiced like mummification and burials in tombs. DEATH RITUALS AND RELEGIOUS CEREMONIES To begin, the civilization of ancient Egypt goes back to about 5000 years ago. In their spiritual believes, they venerated many different gods. Their ultimate goal was to ultimately purify their soul to finally meet the gods in the Afterlife. Kings and pharaohs were considered partly gods. The priests were seen by the society as guidance in the real world to advance in the spiritual world. Ceremonies were organised where different specialities of priests were used for example magical, seer, lookers, and of course, mummification. “The Book of The Dead” was an essential book for the Egyptian for their passage in the Afterlife. Therefor, it had an important signification for them. “The Book of The Dead” was read by a priest at the funerals if it could be afforded. This manuscript touched the journey of the spirit from the tomb to the Afterlife, and the rebirth of the “Khu”. Additionally, a list of forty-two negative confessions were written and judged by Osiris. This god was seen to determine if the soul was purify enough to meet the god or sent back to earth to rebirth for another life. Throughout the years the book changed name to “The Book of Coming Into Light” or “The Wisdom of Ani” and many other varieties. The tome was used as prayers to aid and help in the Afterlife. (Notes, James, 2018) The Egyptian were constantly searching for immortality of an individual’s soul. They believed the ceremonies and rituals could influence the fate in the Afterlife, but also as protection by gods. The religious rites were practice in the Temples, which were considered like the center of life or “Island of Creation”. Each room and hall of the Temples served for particular customs. With the help of the high priest, the king would bring the temple “alive” to produce a magical force. Many types of rituals were practiced, but two of them were the most important. One of them was practiced three times daily in honor of the rebirth of the sun and the resurrection of Osiris. The second ceremony was a great festival celebrated certain time during the year. These religious rites were in place to protect the king, the land, and its population from famine and evil. (David, 1975) Another believe the Egyptian had towards the dead, is that the buried body had the same needs as his life. The “Ka” was the energy or force that surrounded the body and could live internally. They offered food, jewelleries, clothes, amulets and important personal items. Each objects that was buried with the bodies had a specific signification closely related to magic. The “Ka” could return to his body and for this reason food was given and placed inside the burial chamber. The Amulets, or Wedja, was a very important item for the Egyptian. It had healing properties and protection force against darkness. Thoth or Hermes was considered the God of Magic. They believed that the entire world was created with magic. It was giving by the Gods to human to protect them against evil force. Although, many used it for bad purpose and created spells. Pharaohs and priests were in charge of fighting chaos in the society using magic and religion. (Notes, James, 2018) Later on, the priests realized the important implication that involved bring regularly bring food to the souls of the bodies. For this reason they created a new discipline of priest was created called the “Ka-Priesthood”. They had the duty to make the necessary offerings to the “Ka” of the buried. This custom created an economic drain which was solved with magic and art. The tombs’ wall contained various painting of food instead of real food. (David, 1975) There was three principal lines of priest in the Egyptian society. To become a priest it was a hard parkour physically but also psychologically. A long training was required in the priesthood, it was called “The Path of Power” or “The path or Pain”. Priest would dream together and improved their spiritual skills. The first line was focused mostly on Magic. Their speciality was to fight evil and help the people through magic and healing. The second type was the seer category, they would be able to see within the different level of the soul and plane of individuals. The third variety of priest used their power with looking further in time and distance, for example to see enemies approaching. (Leca, A. P. 1982) MUMMIES As mention previously, mummies were buried in tombs across Egypt. The study of Egypt and mummies became popular in the Renaissance, approximately 1350-1550AD, where many wealthy man and researchers from Europe started to focus their studies and interests towards Egyptian history. In the 19th century the Egyptology became an official discipline touching mostly archeology, anthropology and history. Hundreds of mummies and other artifacts were then found and studied. Today, mummies are known around the world because of photography like the very popular King Tutankhamun or different movies. Many questions can be asked about the dates, the procedure, and reasons behind the mummification of the Ancient Egypt. (Notes, James, 2018) Items from the ancient Egypt go back to about 5,000 years ago. The techniques of dating evolved with time. Flinders Petri was a British Egyptologist, especially known for his diverse techniques of dating. He mostly touched archelogy and history, but his way of dating was used with pottery, ruins, and texts found. He started a new method of dating called the sequence dating. Today the “Petrie” dating and the Berlin-school dating are used to put dates of ancient Egypt. Petrie started a new process called “In-situ”, which means “on-site”. This method was created afterwards of the founding of many artifacts transformed in dust after the trip from Egypt to Europe. He studied on the site instead of moving the items across the ocean. Which help with the preservation and quality of the objects discovered. Since then, the techniques have evolved a lot. Today, the Carbon Dating is very popular which consist of observing at what rate the carbon disappear on the relics which gives an approximate idea of the age. Moreover, the paleontology dating is a very interesting technique, it focuses on the ancient diseases. Also, the Computed Tomography gives detailed images through a scan of the body’s organs. It is used similarly to a “virtual dissections”, while keeping the bodies intact. (Petrella, E., Piciucchi, S., Feletti, F., Barone, D., Piraccini, A., Minghetti, C., … Traversari, M. 2016) Two type of mummies were discovered with the years, the natural and artificial mummification. The climate of Egypt was ideal to preserve bodies after their death. The hot and dry environment with the endless sand, presented the perfect conditions for bodies to be kept forever. Then a natural phenomenon occurred, as described by R. David, “The body fluids of the newly buried corpse evaporated and were absorbed by the sand, a process that arrested decomposition and were produced desiccated, practically sterile bodies that could last indefinitely in the right environment conditions.” This funeral technique was the first introduced, but was also mostly used by the lower class of Egypt. Eventually, the artificial method of mummification, which consist of different varieties of wrapping the bodies in tissue, was introduced. This new process started to be only for the elite members, like kings, pharaohs, and priests, then later on to anyone who could afford it. (David, 2008) Furthermore, the procedure of mummification also changed within the years, the earliest mummies had their internal organs removed, except the brain. This technique was introduced in the Old Kingdom and was called the evisceration. The body was then filled with spices and resins. The organs were preserved individually and were wrapped in a linen and placed either in a box called the Canopic Jars. The mummy was finally wrapped in fine linen and sometime included a mask. (Murray, A. Margaret. 1989) During the Middle Kingdom, most of the mummies discovered were in poor condition. There was barely evidence of the previous technique of evisceration found in the mummies. David states that the bodies were probably conserved with injection of resinous substances into the alimentary canal per anum. Although, some of the mummies found from the middle kingdom had their brain and the organs removed and preserved with the body. This practice was generally used for nonroyal persons. (Sparks, 2013) (Petrella, E., Piciucchi, S., Feletti, F., Barone, D., Piraccini, A., Minghetti, C., … Traversari, M.,2016) In the New Kingdom, the technique used to mummify a body had a goal to make it look like a living person. Incisions were made in the face and filled with padding and clay to push the cheeks and other parts of the face, then the face of the dead was painted. The procedure of evisceration and exacerbation, which consists of the brain removal acceded through the foramen magnum or the trepanned orbit, was well spread. (Murray, A. Margaret. 1989) TOMBS To finish, the tombs varied throughout the ancient Egypt reign. The first burial chamber discovered belonged to many kings of the predynatic period. Many were found with paint decorations and hieroglyphs, others had less decoration but could measure up to twenty-two square meters. They were transformed from simple chambers, to more elaborated designs, addition of staircases or statues. In the Old Kingdom, more precisely the third Dynatic, The Step Pyramid was made for king Djoser. His majestic structure was made mostly in mud brick and rose over his royal chamber up 204 feet high. This structure was a major progress in the procedure in the making royal burials. (Dodson, 2017) In the middle Kingdom, the eleventh Dynastic introduced a new type of structure, as described by Dodson,”the north side was the royal mortuary chapel and its burial-shafts, courtyards, and the tomb-chapels of members of the court. The face possessed massive courtyards and was sided by the tomb-chapels of members of the court. This was followed the entrance to an alternative location instead of the north side like in the Old Kingdom’s concept introduced by king Mentuhotep II. (Dodson, 2017) The Egyptians followed a very precise and unique style for the tombs, and eventually with the years, the changes were easily observed. (Dodson, 2017) The New kingdom’s tombs really modify the traditional way of burials. Started with the Eighteenth Dynasty founder Ahmose I, who built his pyramid at Abydos, but his burial chamber was built at the edge of the desert. After realizing the cost and the danger related to building a pyramid, a new strategy was adopted. Instead of being buried in a pyramid that could be seen from miles away, the Kings’ monuments were now secretly located deep in the desert. More precisely about 400 miles south of the Great Pyramid. It was located close to the city of Luxor, which used to be known as an important political and religious center called Thebes. The position of the valley was also influenced by the sun. Since it was in the mountains on the west side of the Nile, the sun set each evening. They linked the sun with the sun god Re and believed that the sun went into the land of the dead and would rebirth each day in the east. This sequence of removed catacombs created “the Valley of Kings” where dozens of royal tombs were found. These were the memorial temples, they were built in dedication to the king, but also two gods, Ra and Amun. The style memorial temples varied from different sizes, to bent ‘axis’ to carved reliefs and flat paint decorations. (Reeves, C. N.,

MBA 5910 Ashford University Hulu Television Company Capstone Proposal

MBA 5910 Ashford University Hulu Television Company Capstone Proposal.

please make changes to my existing paper based on the Faculty Comments:No change. I’m unclear on how you will get the details of digital integration plans and how you will align these to a business issue. Please consider selecting something else as this seems off target. To meet criteria one of the project, you’ll need to expand on the business analyses you will use for this project. Typically, students include MBA type analyses such as SWOT, PESTLE, VRIO, industry analysis, competitive analysis, customer analysis, trend analysis, financial analysis. Select the ones that will provide the most aligned data for your recommendations.Please provide analysis of the current state of technology and support/justify the need for improvement. Your identified business challenge sounds pretty difficult to do. and position as a business issue. Is there another aspect of the company that might make sense to pursue?
MBA 5910 Ashford University Hulu Television Company Capstone Proposal

CUNY Kingsborough Community College Math & Calculus Isaac Newton Research Paper

CUNY Kingsborough Community College Math & Calculus Isaac Newton Research Paper.

Format: Your 5 page paper must be written in Microsoft word using the equations editor. No plain text equations. The sixth page should have your 5 references in MLA style. You can get Word for free from CUNY. You paper must be single-spaced with 1 inch margins on each side. We are collectively creating a book with 21 chapters, each 5 pages long.Step 2: Prepare your first draft. Your paper must be five pages long. Two pages on the history and life of the person you are studying. Three pages on the mathematics the person did.In your paper you should not just talk about mathematics, but should actually do mathematics. For example, you may wish to select a mathematician and a particular mathematical technique that he or she initiated. So along with some biographical details, you must give examples of problems and at least one proof. Select material to convey that mathematics is about problem solving. Describe who used that mathematician’s work and how it was used. How would mathematics be different if that mathematician had not succeeded? Perhaps you may want to pick a mathematician who didn’t succeed in solving a particular problem. What impact did that have on mathematics? What was theerror? Who else (if any) finally solved the problem? In other words, focus on the mathematics that the mathematician did and how it fits into the big picture. Your paper must have history, problems, theorems, and proofs.
CUNY Kingsborough Community College Math & Calculus Isaac Newton Research Paper

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