Get help from the best in academic writing.

Segregation and Discrimination in the United States nursing essay help Literature

Inclusion of minorities ii. Upward mobility iii. Equal protection b. Exclusion of certain groups iv. Lack of upward mobility into upper ranks v. Restriction to certain jobs 2. World War Two Minorities c. African Americans vi. Inclusion 1. The Draft and quotas 2. 369th Hell Fighters 3. Tuskegee Airman vii. Port Chicago Disaster d. Native Americans viii. Code talkers 4. Invaluable resource 5. Creation and use 6. Top secret until middle 1968 e. Females ix. Triumphs 7. Warfighter Squadron/WASP 8. Nurses 9. “Y” Women 10. WAAC/WAC 11. 688th Central Postal Directory x.

Failures 12. No Recognition 13. Disbanded After the War f. Conclusion xi. Fighting for Rights At Home xii. Inefficiency of Racism xiii. The Present and Future The history of the United States military has been one of contradictions. From the American Revolution to modern times the every branch of the military has evolved into one of the most efficient fighting forces in the world. As society changes so has the military. At times, the service has been at the leading edge inclusion, but it has still dealt with the same problems of segregation, bigotry and hatred.

Although the U. S. military has been a leader in desegregation and in other social matters, during World War Two fear and prejudice keep many highly qualified people from serving. This weakened every branch of the military by limiting it to a less diverse and therefore less flexible fighting force. From its inception, the U. S. military has had what today we call minority troops in service of the nation. They served and continue to serve with honor and pride in a nation that has not always treated them with the respect they deserve.

Even during the American Revolutionary War Minority soldiers served in units that included black and whites, all longing for the right to self-govern. During the American Civil War free black men and former slaves joined the Union Army in large numbers after prominent black leaders including Fredrick Douglas implored them to join to insure the North’s victory and the freedom of all blacks in the United States. By the end of the war approximately 179,000 black men served as soldiers in the U. S. Army and another 19,000 served in the Navy. This equated to about 10% of the Union Army.

Nearly 40,000 black soldiers died over the course of the war and many were highly decorated and respected by some of the white soldiers they served with. The United States military has also had a history of including other minorities when there was a need. Many Native Americans were used as scouts and translators by the army during its push westward. One of the most misunderstood and overlooked segment were the black officers. By the end of the Civil War the U. S. Army had some 80 black officers serving in various roles but they did not see the same extensive combat as white.

President Abraham Lincoln went to great lengths to ensure the equal treatment of black soldiers captures in combat. After the Confederate Congress, in 1863, threatened to harshly punish officers of black troops and to enslave black soldiers President Lincoln issued General Order 233, threatening reprisal for any mistreatment of black prisoners of war (POWs) by the Confederates. This simple act should not be overlooked. It was possibly the first time that any high ranking political figure had gone out their way to ensure that blacks were not mistreated and was seen by many as a bold and risky move on Lincoln’s part.

Not everyone was welcome in the U. S. military. Women in particular were heavily restricted. Women could only serve as nurses and then nowhere near an active combat zone. Black women, who could not formally join the Army, nonetheless served as nurses, spies, and scouts, the most famous being Harriet Tubman. When the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy for the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers. She was the first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war for America. She led a Union raid on the Combahee River in the interior of South Carolina on June 2, 1863.

This single raid was credited with freeing over 750 slaves was a humiliating blow to the Southern cause and a major morale booster for the North. Tubman will always be remembered for her role in the Underground Railroad but her service to the military in a time of war should never be forgotten. The history of black soldiers did not change much until December 7th 1941. On that terrible day forces of the Japanese Imperial Navy attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbor. This single attack plunged the U. S. into the Second World War and changed the lives of every American.

This was a shock to most Americans but it was simply confirmation to others of what they already knew was coming. Members of the military and many politicians watched as Europe was plunged ever deeper into war and began making preparation for Americans inevitable entry into the hellish fray. Of major concern was the lack of manpower. When a new piece of equipment is built it can be used immediately. Not so with a person. It takes time and training for a service member to reach a level of competence where they can be trusted to do their job without direct supervision.

Many jobs take as much as three years to reach this level. To make up for the lack of suitable men to serve the U. S. military requested that Congress make changes to the selective service draft. The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, was passed by Congress on September 14, 1940 and President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed it into law two days later. This was the first peacetime draft in U. S. history and required men between the ages of 21 and 35 to register with local draft boards for a period of one year. When the U. S. ntered World War Two, the act was amended to include all men aged 18 to 45. One sweeping change made by this bill was the inclusion of minorities, specifically African Americans. A quota was established and set at 10% for blacks in all four services. Over 2. 5 million African Americans registered for the draft before and during World War Two and of that number, approximately half served in one of the four branches. None of the services, however reached the 10% quota; most had from 8 – 9% blacks in their ranks. Almost three-quarters of all blacks who served in World War Two were in the Army.

Utility Function

A three-person society has a utilitarian social welfare function U = u(c1) u(c2) u(c3) defined over the utilities of the three citizens. ci is the consumption of citizen i and u(ci) = 2c^0.5i. The society has total 100 units of consumption to divide among the three citizens. Suppose that initially 80 units belong to citizen 1 with 10 units belonging to each of citizens 2 and 3. The government loses $0.50 for each unit it takes away from citizen 1 to give to others. What allocation should the government choose to maximize its social welfare function subject to its equity-efficiency tradeoff? (An approximate solution, rounded to the nearest integer, is fine.