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Security In Different Schools Of Thought Politics Essay

Political analysts agree that international security is the most important contemporary global issue. Twenty first century politics has brought urgency to consider the proliferation of weapons, increase in military spending, and terrorism. In principle, security is a condition in which States consider that there is no danger of military attack, political pressure or economic coercion, so that they are able to pursue freely their own development and progress. International security is thus the result and the sum of the security of each and every State member of the international community; accordingly, international security cannot be reached without full international co-operation. However, security is a relative rather than an absolute term. National and international security need to be viewed as matters of degree. Concepts of security are the different bases on which States and the international community as a whole relies for their security. Examples of concepts are the “balance of power”, “deterrence”, “peaceful coexistence” and “collective security”. The reason to address security in this paper is the belief that an understanding of the broader scope of security should make it possible for states to deal more effectively, both individually and collectively, with current problems and threats to peace. So accordingly the paper will deal with analysis of security as a concept well established specially since the world war and how different schools of thought defined it. Also the current issues of human security and its impact on foreign policy options will be discussed besides the national interest debate in international relations. What is security? There is no agreement on the concept of security. Notwithstanding the wide range of studies of security published over the past sixty years, no single generally accepted definition of security has been produced. The concept of security is as contested as ever. To understand the concept of security we should first define its relation to the state, is it an internal matter related to domestic circumstances or an external matter related to international context. As a matter of fact security as a predominant issue had developed and went through various phases marked by the two world wars, the Westphalia conference also had an impact on it, the huge advance in military and technological tools had dramatic influence as well. Still the concept remained contested between different theories and theorists and between different “zeit geist” shaping the interests and policies of states. In the Westphalia world of internally strong states, there is less danger of internal conflict, and the international system is marked by conflicts among states rather than within them. Since 1945, however, many of the most significant threats to state security have been internal, rather than external, a shift which has only accelerated and which may have profound consequences on the conduct of international relations. So traditionally, security was defined primarily at the nation-state level and almost exclusively through the military prism. This focus on external military threat to national security was particularly dominant during the Cold War. It would be misleading, however, to associate the origins of security studies with the Cold War and the recent nuclear threat. In the first decade after the Second World War academic interest in security studies increased significantly. Although questions of national security were usually treated within the broader framework of international relations and foreign policy, this period has been described as ‘the most creative and exciting period in the entire history of security studies’ Security in different schools of thought Security has been a cornerstone in realism theories and studies; neorealism has even put more emphasis on security and power as determining factors in states’ decisions and position. Thus a detailed explanation of realism security view follows. While Liberal school was seen as counter theory for realism, for the interest of this paper focus will be shed on these two leading theories. Realism: Realism has been the most dominant theoretical tradition in international relations and security studies. Its philosophical foundations were laid by Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes and Rousseau. The realist’s world view represents international relations as a struggle for power among strategic, self-interested states. Realists discount any claims to system-wide international order other than that based ultimately on power or force. They argue that international society is best described as a condition of international anarchy, since there is no central authority to protect states from one another. States act as independent, sovereign political units that focus on their own survival (or expansion). For that reason, the objective of national security is survival of the nation-state rather than the guarantee of international security .Realists are not prepared to engage in long-term accommodation or cooperation. In this view, world politics is anarchical characterized by a state of war, not a single continuous war or constant wars but the constant possibility of war among all states. Consequently, the realist perceives a period of peace as a state of non-war. The possibility of war requires that states follow “Realpolitik”: be self interested, prepare for war and calculate relative balances of power’. A state is constantly seeking relative gains and its behavior is therefore continuously determined to facilitate self-preservation by the actual ‘balance of power’ between political powers … this is what security stands for. As a product of presumed uncertainty, a central issue in nearly all realist theory is the security dilemma. Due to their continuous efforts to guarantee their own security and survival, states are driven to acquire more and more power in order to escape the impact of the power of others. This, in turn, constitutes a threat to the security of other states. Traditional Cold War concepts of nuclear strategies and deterrence only emphasize this line of thought. Striving to attain maximum security from attack therefore inevitably produces new insecurities. Realism is not a single theory. It could be argued that there are two crosscutting dichotomies: classical realism versus neorealism, and offensive realism versus defensive realism. Classical realists, of which one of the most influential was Hans Morgenthau believe that states, like human beings, have an innate desire to dominate others, which leads them to fight wars. In this perspective, state power and security are ends in themselves. Neorealists see the international system consisting of a number of great powers, each seeking to survive. Because the system is anarchic and has no central authority, each state has to survive on its own. This driving force of survival is the primary factor influencing their behavior and in turn ensures that states develop offensive military force, as a means to increase their relative power. The classical focus on the centrality of power shifts gradually towards a more neorealist view whereby power becomes a means to gain security. Neorealists bring attention to a persistent lack of trust between states which requires states to act in an openly aggressive manner. Though neorealists recognize that international democratic structures and liberal economics are imperative to peace, security stems from balancing strategies based on sound military capabilities. For that reason, neorealism can be considered the dominant paradigm in security studies. Despite the varieties of realist thought, all realists stress the centrality of military threat and the use of force. The referent object of security is the state; states act as strategic, self-interested units which seek to ensure their own security. In all cases, the realist concept of security has been severely criticized as being too ‘narrow’ to account for the multiple dimensions of security. Liberalism: The principal challenge to realism came from liberal theory, the foundations of which were laid, by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. A central principle of liberalism is the importance of the freedom of the individual. Foreign policy should reflect the rights and duties of individuals. Liberals’ understanding of security differs in part from that of realists. Reflecting the aims of the individual, liberal states view security not only in military terms, but also in terms of the protection and promotion of individual rights. For example, the liberal approach to combating terrorism focuses far more on the application of legal instruments than on the use of military force. That’s to say that liberal concept of security tends to include issues such as migration, environmental concerns. Like realism, liberalism is not a single theory. Although all liberal theories imply that cooperation is more pervasive than even the defensive version of realism allows, each view offers a different recipe for promoting it. It is worth noting that Liberalism has such a powerful presence that the entire political spectrum of the Western world, it is no surprise that liberal themes are constantly invoked as a response to contemporary security dilemmas. Also Liberal theory believes in the innate goodness of mankind to conduct peace-keeping relations in the international system where States rely on mutual cooperation to tackle global issues. Managing security issues according to this theory requires the involvement of international institutions, along with the cooperation of states to achieve this.The Liberal theory of security management consists of two key methods; collective security and arms control. 1. Collective Security Liberal theorists strongly believe in the power of collective security. This is a protective measure used by a group of allied states. When threatening and unlawful actions are directed at one state, united opposition is shown by the other supporting states. The goal is to stop the aggressor while creating security in the international system. Collective security can be best described by the concept of ‘one for all, all for one’.Another important function of this security measure is to ward off potential aggressors from acting. 2. Arms Control In global politics, arms control is best described by either the controlling, reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons completely. Another approach to controlling weapons includes general disarmament. According to Liberal theory, arms proliferation and specialization can be reduced.Having fewer weapons means reduced insecurity so long as states agree to carry out this task mutually. National security and IR Human security In 1994, the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Human Development Report presented a new way of thinking about the integration of security issues and globalization. This report defined human security according to seven dimensions: personal, environmental, economic, political, community, health, and food security, the report adopted a people-centric security concept as its focus instead of the traditional state-centered concept The concept of human security stresses that people should be able to take care of themselves: all people should have the opportunity to meet their most essential needs and to earn their own living. This will set them free and help ensure that they can make a full contribution to development their own development and that of their communities, their countries and the world, Human security is a critical ingredient of participatory development. Human security is therefore not a defensive concept, the way territorial or military security is. Human security is a concept that identifies the security of human lives as the central objective of national and international security policy. After 1994, the concept of human security became a central theme of a number of governments through their foreign and defense policies. In particular, the Canadian, Japanese and Norwegian governments led the way in institutionalizing human security concerns into their respective foreign policies. According to a Canadian government report, “human security means safety for people from both violent and non-violent threats. It is a condition or state of being characterized by freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety, or even their lives.” Also the report emphasized that increasing human security entails: Investing in human development, not in arms; Engaging policy makers to address the emerging peace dividend; Giving the United Nations a clear mandate to promote and sustain development; Enlarging the concept of development cooperation so that it includes all flows, not just aid; Agreeing that 20 percent of national budgets and 20 percent of foreign aid be used for human development; and Establishing an Economic Security Council Human security and Foreign policy: A departure from the realist, state-centered concept of security that has dominated foreign policy thinking of major powers, this conceptual reframing of security has important implications on foreign policy. It brings new issues or vulnerabilities and measures or actions as priorities for global security that were not on the security agendas, it has huge impact on foreign policy orientations especially when it comes to big powers decisions The issue of oppression and physical violence due to deliberate action and neglect by the state to its own citizens. Vulnerability to poverty and destitution as a factor inter-connected with threats of violence. Development and ending poverty as important means to achieve human security. Actors other than the state as sources of threat and as holders of obligations to protect; Global inter-connectedness of security threats (such as terrorist networks, global financial crises and global diseases) and necessary responses. Questions have been raised about the relationship between human security and state security and actions in foreign affairs. Contrary to some claims, the twokinds of security are not mutually exclusive. The security of the state is not an end in itself rather it is a means of ensuring security for people. In this context, state security and human security are in fact mutually supportive and accordingly the decisions made to maintain security of the state in foreign affairs and in international relations had a direct influence on humans security. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is central to promoting human security. At the same time, improving the human security of its people strengthens the legitimacy, stability and security of a state. So the interdependent relation is crystal clear. Human security provides a template to assess policy and practice effects on the safety of people. From a foreign policy perspective, there are a number of key consequences; First ensuring human security can involve the use of coercive measures, including sanctions and military force, as in Bosnia and Kosovo. On the other hand the human costs of strategies for promoting state and international security must be explicitly assessed. security policies such as economic sanctions, should take into account the impact on innocent people. Third, security policies must be integrated much more closely with strategies for promoting human rights, democracy, and development. Human rights and humanitarian provide the normative framework on which a human security approach is based. On the other hand one of the dividends of adopting a human security approach is that it further elaborates a people-centred foreign policy. Fourth, due to the complexity of contemporary challenges to the security of people, effective interventions involve a diverse range of actors including states, multilateral organizations, and civil society groups. As the challenges to the safety of people are transnational, effective responses can only be achieved through multilateral cooperation. This is evident in the new international instruments developed to address transnational drug trafficking, terrorism, and environmental issues. These threats link the interest of citizens in countries which enjoy a high level of human security with the interests of people in much poorer nations, who face a wider range of threats to their safety. This has a direct impact on foreign policy implementation and interests. The relationship between national and international security The changing international environment, following the advent of globalization and end of cold war politics has made it imperative for both practitioners and scholars to rethink and redefine the existing framework on which foreign policy operated. Foreign relations are in fact developed in the context of the security environment. However, security issues are no longer seen in the pure realist term of preserving the national security of the states in terms of territory only. States have aligned and realigned to further their national interest by forming new regional and economic blocs, while putting aside historical and cultural hostility, and arriving at consensus over various issues of global concerns. National and international security are becoming increasingly interrelated, thereby challenging the notion that security is primarily a function of national power or military and economic strength. Searching for solutions to the problem of insecurity, many nations increasingly find themselves face-to-face with circumstances beyond their direct control, such as a structural economic crisis and global economic, population, environmental and resource trends. All nations face universal threats posed by the nuclear arms race. Global interdependence has created a situation in which actions not only by major Powers but also by other nations can have major regional or even international repercussions. Only by recognizing that security is not divisible, either in its military, economic, social and political dimensions or as between its national and international aspects, can nations evolve the co-operative measures necessary to achieve security in an interdependent age. This requires a comprehensive and co-operative approach to international security(a liberal version of security). The unrestrained pursuit of national security interests at the expense of others is not conducive to international security and may even lead to disaster. With the existence of nuclear weapons such policies constitute a potential threat to the survival of mankind. It is imperative that nations reconcile the contradictions between individual national security interests and the overall interest of international security and peace. Conclusion
INTRODUCTION Darwin and natural selection Darwin explained the evolution of morphological and behavioral differences by putting forward certain basic processes. According to Darwin Individuals do not vary only from the members of distinct species but from con-specific too. These variations are the result of the effect of conditions of life on the reproductive systems of individual. In order to survive under the physical conditions of life individuals have to struggle not only with the physical conditions but with the individuals of con-specific and distinct species – Struggle For Existence – It does include the struggle for leaving progeny where male do struggle for possession of female and female choice. Hence, any variation, even slight, in anyway if improves the position of an individual either for survival or for mate over members of the con-specific or distinct species under the present environmental conditions will be preserved through the processes of natural selection and harmful will be eliminated. Neutral variations will be latent and will not be affected because natural selection works directly on the characters which are manifested and anyway affecting the individual (Darwin, 1859). However, accounting for many behaviors and morphological differences he failed to explain altruism in terms of natural selection. Altruism can be defined as an act that benefits the individual for whom it has been performed but costs the organism performing it in terms of reproductive success (Trivers, 1974). In 1963, Hamilton added new perspective to the evolution of behavior and explained it by considering the effect of that behavior on the inclusive fitness of the individual organism. Inclusive fitness refers to one’s own reproductive success and reproductive success of kin multiplied by the degree of relatedness. For an altruistic act to be performed to have survival value for a relative its benefit/cost ratio has to be larger than the inverse of the altruist’s degree of relatedness to that relative. These costs and benefits have been defined in terms of reproductive success (Hamilton, 1963). Hamilton has explained altruism in relation to the degree of genes shared. Taking one more step ahead, Trivers explains altruism in individuals which are not closely related even at the level of different species. He sees altruistic act in terms of reciprocity. According to him it’s the exchange that supports such altruism. Altruistic acts are performed on the unequal cost/benefit ratio of the altruistic act, that is when the cost (degree to which the behavior retards the reproduction of the genes of the altruist) to performer is trivial as compared to the benefit (degree to which the behavior increases the rate of reproduction of the genes of the recipient) of the recipient and recipient may not be closely related. However, performer expects reciprocity in future when situation might be reverse. Selection will act against the cheater (one who does not reciprocate) under certain conditions. Trivers has given three conditions following it. 1) Length of lifetime should be long enough to increases the probability of encountering many altruistic acts. 2) Dispersal rate should be low which again increases the probability of repeated interaction with the same neighbors. 3) Interdependence of members of a species, which will also increase the probability of encountering many altruistic situations together. Selection favors these altruistic behaviors because in the long run they benefit the organism performing these acts (Trivers, 1971). Taking base of evolution of behavior in given frame of evolutionary origin; social behavior can be explained in terms of an evolutionary advantage of such behavior. Life-history traits The life history of an organism is often described by the features of its life cycle pertaining to its developmental and reproductive rates as well as reproductive effort (Roff 1992; Stearns 1992). In mammals, gestation length, size, number, and sex of offspring, inter-birth interval, age and size at first breeding, and life span are the significant life history traits (Charnov 1991). Primate’s life history is the slowest among the mammals (Harvey
The referendum for the Scottish independence will take place on the 18th of September 2014. This would most definitely lead to the breakup of the United Kingdom. There have been a series of arguments supporting the break up, and other not supporting the break up. The independence of Scotland is mainly supported by the Scottish National Party. According to this party, achieving independence from the United Kingdom is beneficial to Scotland, because the Scottish will be able to implement policies that are of great concern to them[1]. On this basis, Scotland will be able to achieve self-determination. The Scottish National Party believes that by achieving independence, the people of Scotland will be able to make the right policies, concerning their economy, and society at large. The Scottish National Party further believes that the government situated in Westminster is not a representation of the Scottish people, and this is because the many of the Scots did not vote for the government under consideration. Despite this factor, this government makes major decisions concerning issues that affect the Scottish families, and communities[2]. The Scottish National Party finds this situation unacceptable. On this basis, proponents of independence argue that with an independent government, the country can focus on issues that affect the Scottish people, and also one that would protect the interests of the Scots, and anybody living in Scotland. Furthermore, the Scottish National Party believe that the policy initiated by the UK government reducing taxes on the wealthiest is not of the Interest of the Scots, and on this basis, it aims at reversing such laws, and initiating a universal tax system that would serve the entire Scottish population. However, there are counter arguments developed by people who are strongly opposed to the independence of Scotland[3]. One reason advanced is that a strong Scottish parliament, entrenched within the political structures of the United Kingdom enables Scotland to experience the very of both world. That is the ability to make decisions in Scotland, as well as the ability to play an important role in creating a secure and strong United Kingdom. On this basis, people who do not support independence argue that Scotland is strong when it is entrenched withi8n the political structure of the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom is strong and secure with Scotland as its member. Furthermore, anti-independence proponents argue that important British institutions such as BBC and the Bank of England were created by Scotsmen[4]. On the other hand, the UK pension system was developed by a Briton, while the NHS was created by a Welsh man. On this basis, if the Scots and other members of the Kingdom work together, then chances are high that they would make the Kingdom a better place to stay. To accelerate the strength of the unity, the Scots, together with other members of the union fought together to destroy Nazism, fascism, and other ideologies that were a danger to the unity and prosperity of other members of the Kingdom. These proponents further argue that the Scots are justifying independence on the basis of protecting their social welfare and interests. However, this is difficult, when the Scots leave the British connection[5]. This is because chances are high that there will be barriers to trade, uncertainties, and political and economic instability. To protect themselves from these uncertainties, the best method is to maintain the British connection. This would ensure more prosperity, more jobs, and more economic growth in Scotland. Furthermore, the world is moving to regional integrations, and examples include ASEAN, and the European Union[6]. This therefore proves that states needs to corporate in the international system, and negotiate as one community, for purposes of protecting their interests. This would prove virtually be impossible if Scotland decides to gain independence. For instance gaining membership in the European Union is a very difficult process that normally takes so many years. Furthermore, the economy of UK is strong, stable, and very big. This is a very big advantage to various business organizations in Scotland, and this is because they can easily access this market, without facing any barriers. Furthermore, the Currency of the United Kingdom is the most successful and oldest in the world, and on this basis, it is a good currency for trading with[7]. These proponents further argue that it would be very difficult for Scottish organization to competitively conduct business in the international arena. This is because other countries are negotiating as a block, and on this basis, Scotland needs to be under the UK in order to compete effectively in these foreign markets. Under United Kingdom, Scottish businesses will be able to find new markets, and improve on their existing ones[8]. Scotland security will further be strong, and this is because they will be under the protection of the British armed forces. Lon this note, the Scots will have a say in the UN Security Council, as well as NATO. These anti-independence proponents further denote that Scotland and English have interacted with each other, for many years. This interaction amongst each other promotes multi-ethnicity, and it is therefore strength for Scotland. These proponents argue that thousand of Scots, and the English have intermarried with each other, they have formed families, and are neighbors. On this basis, voting for independence is not a wise decision, and this is because the disadvantages of independence outweigh the advantages of independence[9]. In conclusion, Scotland should not vote for independence. This is because the arguments brought forth by the Scottish National Party are not sincere. For instance, the British political system is democratic, and everybody is responsible for electing the person they want. On this basis, the Scots also had a chance to participate in the elections and elect their representatives. Arguing that the government at Westminster is not representation is there undemocratic and not sincere. Furthermore, the decision to gain independence from UK is not wise, and this is because Scotland will lose many trading opportunities that they enjoyed while under the UK. This would make the economy of Scotland vulnerable to manipulations from the international community, and other powerful economies. On this basis, arguments brought forth by anti-independence proponents are valid. Bibliography: BBC News. “Salmond calls for independence referendum in 2014.” BBC News. BBC, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. . Crawford, R., Bannockburns: scottish independence and the literary imagination, 1314-2014.. S.l.: Edinburgh Univ Press, 2014. Print. Gordts, E., “Scotland’s Secession Vote: Indecisive Independence.” The Huffington Post., 5 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <– vote_n_3876007.html>. Market, J., The economic implications for the United Kingdom of Scottish Independence: 2nd report of session 2012-13. London: The Stationery Office, 2013. Print. Saunders, B., “Scottish Independence and the All-Affected Interests Principle.” Politics 33.1 (2013): 47-55. Print. [1] J, Market., The economic implications for the United Kingdom of Scottish Independence: 2nd report of session 2012-13. London: The Stationery Office, 2013. P. 44 [2] B, Saunders., “Scottish Independence and the All-Affected Interests Principle.” Politics 33.1 (2013): 49 [3] J, Market., The economic implications for the United Kingdom of Scottish Independence: 2nd report of session 2012-13. London: The Stationery Office, 2013. P. 32 [4] BBC News. “Salmond calls for independence referendum in 2014.” BBC News. BBC, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. . P. 7 [5] BBC News. “Salmond calls for independence referendum in 2014.” BBC News. BBC, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. . P. 4 [6] E, Gordts., “Scotland’s Secession Vote: Indecisive Independence.” The Huffington Post., 5 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2014.. p. 6 [7] Saunders, B., “Scottish Independence and the All-Affected Interests Principle.” Politics 33.1 (2013): 51. [8] R, Crawford., Bannockburns: scottish independence and the literary imagination, 1314-2014.. S.l.: Edinburgh Univ Press, 2014. [9] E, Gordts., “Scotland’s Secession Vote: Indecisive Independence.” The Huffington Post., 5 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2014.. p. 8

Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Essay

Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Essay.

In Unit 3, we are focusing on organizing your writing and clarifying your ideas so that they appeal to specific audience values. Unit 3 activities help us practice strategies of thesis writing, using support, counterarguing, and qualifying positions. At this point, we have everything in place to begin putting our skills together to write a longer, research-based essay.Write a research essay in which you analyze a problem of wide interest to one or more social groups and offer a specific insight, perspective, strategy, or policy that addresses the problem in ways that will move the conversation forward.In your research essay, define the problem and address its social context. What existing perspectives give relevance and urgency to the problem? Contribute something new to the issue: a solution, new strategy, solution, policy, perspective, or insight into the problem that addresses the challenges of the issue. As you write, make sure that the purpose of your argument is clear and that your contribution to the issue anticipates possible implications of the problem that you have identified. Think about your own credibility as well: pay close attention to organization, academic conventions, rhetorical tools, and to the support you offer from outside sources.The task of writing a research essay requires writers to demonstrate that they can make several moves at once.The writer must analyze a specific issue or problem in enough detail to convince an audience that the problem is relevant.The writer must also offer a specific approach or perspective that addresses the issue they identify by contributing new ideas, new solutions, or new research. This approach can include a combination of evaluating, responding, finding causes, proposing solutions, or extending existing arguments, but it must offer more than summary of current research.In structuring the essay, the writer must give enough context to convey the relevance and urgency of the issue to one or more social groups. The writer must also acknowledge other existing perspectives and appeal to these perspectives where possible. Overall, the goal is to move the conversation about the issue forward by leaving audiences with new insights, understandings, or perspectives on the challenges the issue poses.The writer must also decide about form and formal conventions. Research essays typically take the form of academic arguments, which show original thinking and offer insight into issues with reference to outside research. However, alternative or additional forms for the essay are possible for this assignment. Ask your instructor for advice if your want to explore alternatives to the traditional essay.Using evidence from reliable sources, the writer will support their insight into a social or cultural issue and address how their insight might contribute positively to the way an audience perceives the problem or takes action in relation to it.The writer will use rhetorical skills, writing strategies, and habits of critical thinking that they have learned in their first-year writing courses to write this essay. The essay will serve as an index of the rhetorical abilities, writing processes, and knowledge about writing that the writer has learned in first-year writing.In this project, you willPresent a well-researched, social or cultural issue that is relevant to the writer as well as to one or more contemporary audiencesOffer a specific way of approaching the issue that addresses its controversies or problems in ways that will appeal to specific audiences. This approach could include a combination of evaluating, responding, finding causes, proposing solutions, or extending existing argumentsGive enough context to convey the relevance and urgency of the issue to one or more social groups.Acknowledge other existing perspectives on the issue and appeal to these perspectives where possible.Generously represent existing approaches to the topic and perspectives that are different than your ownContribute to the conversation about the issue by leaving audiences with new insights; understandings, or perspectives on the problemChoose an appropriate form and formal conventions for the essayAddress how your insight might have a positive effect on the way an audience perceives the problem or takes action in relation to it.Make use of important skills in written communication and critical thinking, culminating in an essay that showcases your rhetorical abilities and writing processes.Explain insights that you have gained through careful study of the social or cultural issue in focusOffer a closer look at an interesting part of the issue that might otherwise be invisibleThoroughly consider long-term effects of the issue at stake, including consequences that affect various groups (stakeholders) involved in the issue.Use specific details drawn from close reading of texts, observed behaviors, interviews, or other evidence to support and clarify the main insights of the writing.Meet the expectations of an academic research essay in the conventions you choose of grammar, syntax, paragraph structure, and word choice. Follow expected academic conventions for all source material, including examples, observations, and sources from books or other texts.Format: Typed, double-spaced, submitted as a word-processing document.12 point, text-weight font, 1-inch margins.Length: 1600 – 2500 words (approx. 7-10 pages)
Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Essay

Forced Arbitration

nursing essay writing service Forced Arbitration. I don’t understand this Law question and need help to study.

Forced Arbitration is when a legal entity or a person forces you to submit a dispute to arbitration by using an agreement or contract previously signed on conditions made by the legal entity or the individual. By forcing you to go to arbitration, you relinquish your right to trial. The video today gave a really good concept of the fact that while forced arbitration is legal it isn’t necessarily morally correct.The following article provides an example of how big corporations like Amazon are proponents of forced arbitration and how the common people are working to dismantle this clause. this particular case, how could forced arbitration harm the employees or third party sellers?
Forced Arbitration

Final Strategic Plan

Final Strategic Plan. I’m trying to study for my Business course and I need some help to understand this question.

Create the Final Strategic Plan in the form of a Powerpoint presentation. The Final Strategic Plan contains the elements of all the previous weeks’ components and incorporates instructor feedback. The strategic recommendations will be evaluated and the best options chosen for recommendation. The final strategic plan should contain:

Table of Contents
Executive Summary (350 to 700 words)
Company Background
Mission Statement
Vision Statement
Value Statement
Environmental Scan
Internal and External Environmental Analysis
Strategic Recommendation
Implementation Plan
Organizational Change Management Strategies
Risk Management Plan

Create a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation of about 15 slides to present the strategic plan, summarizing all relevant elements from previous weeks. The objective is to sell the strategic plan to investors or company directors.
Do not include Speaker’s Notes, but include all relevant content in the body of your slides instead.
Format the assignment according to APA guidelines.
Submit your assignment.
Final Strategic Plan

Project Management, writing homework help

Project Management, writing homework help.

You will begin your project by selecting a location for your company’s convention. In order for the project to proceed, it must receive approval from the Board of Directors. This document will communicate not only the location that has been selected but the reasoning behind this selection. This document is being submitted to the Executive Level of your company so be sure to exhibit appropriate, audience-specific tone and vocabulary for the purpose of defending your position. In a minimum of 4 pages, please do the following:First formulate a detailed Project Definition Statement(s) which answers the following questions:What work must be done?Who will do the work?How long will it take?What resources are required?Because an event this large will generate a huge amount of revenue for the community selected it is possible that some communities might attempt to sway the decision making process in their favor by offering “special deals” or “financial incentives” to improve their chances of being selected. Accepting this type of favoritism is contrary to the ethical code of your company but you must keep the lines of communication open to all communities considered in case of changes during the project planning phase.Identify at least three ethical and legal issues that should be considered when making the decision of where to locate the convention. State at least 3 actions you would take to ensure the decision of the location of the convention made ethically.Your submission should follow the essentials of APA (i.e., cover page, double-spaced, 12 pt. font, reference section at the end, in-text citations, etc.).
Project Management, writing homework help