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Scope Statement and Work Breakdown Structure, Computer Science Homework Help

Scope Statement and Work Breakdown Structure, Computer Science Homework Help.

DETAILS: The Project Team will develop a detailed Scope
Statement for the selected IT RFP. Each scope statement will be posted
next week for a peer review.  In addition to this – the team will
develop a Work Breakdown Structure. Collectively as a group – part one – for this assignment, your team will create the Scope Statement for the selected IT RFP.Collectively as a group – part two – for this assignment your team will create the Work Breakdown Structure. You must create an outline view WBS with task descriptions, resource skill sets, and predecessors. Time (days) and rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimates need completed and the WBS dictionary needs completed for each work package.  See page 132 of the PMBOK. Your text outlines the types of predecessors (dependencies).  Remember, you should create a logical flow of work.References:Required Reading/ViewingMethods of IT Project Management – Chapter 6PMBOK® Guide (5th ed.) – Chapter 6 Cost estimateshttp://www.pmhut.com/how-to-achieve-accurate-project-time-and-cost-estimatesAdditional Web Reading/Viewing ExplorationWork Breakdown Structure – Videohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZoHMi-RuUEProject Costshttp://www.pmhut.com/understanding-project-costs-and-why-they-went-up-or-downBudgetinghttp://www.techrepublic.com/article/creating-your-project-budget-where-to-begin/#

Scope Statement and Work Breakdown Structure, Computer Science Homework Help

PHL 10101 Montana University Billings Philosophies of Life Questions

PHL 10101 Montana University Billings Philosophies of Life Questions.

I’m working on a philosophy writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Question 1 (25 points?
Campbell claims that moral effort fits three criteria necessary to have free will. List the criteria and how moral effort is definitive of free will given what these criteria require. Be specific. the two  How does moral effort meet these criteria and does he believe that most situations require moral effort? Why, or why not?
Question 2 (25 points)
A Western conception of God poses a unique problem for free will. Articulate this problem, as Pike presents it, and the Jones example he uses to present his idea. Be sure to explain in detail how God’s existence makes free will impossible according to this view.
Question 3 (25 points)
The teleological argument requires that several inferences be made to derive God’s existence. In detail, articulate what what is being analogized and the inferences that the argument from design attempts to derive.  these inferences are and what is being analogized. What does Hume find so problematic about this argument. Give at least three clear criticisms Hume provides. 
Question 4 (25 points)
What is the logical problem of evil and how is it different from the evidential problem of evil? Connect this to the Atlantis example Russell conjures in order to explain the evidential problem of evil.
Question 5 (25 points)
Libertarian thinking is founded upon Locke’s Principle of Acquisition. What does this principle state and how does it lead to the wrongness of wealth distribution and eventually the minimal state? Be detailed.
Question 6 (25 points)
What is the distinction between the private/public sphere and how does the former impact the latter? Explain how both of these spheres are connected to a lack of equality of opportunity.
Question 7 (25 points)
What are Hume’s criticism’s of the teleological argument? How do these conclusions counter the desired conclusions about God from proponents of the argument from design?
Question 8 (25 points)
How does Okin arrive at her conclusion that libertarianism leads to slavery, matriarchy,
PHL 10101 Montana University Billings Philosophies of Life Questions

Archaeology: Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism

programming assignment help Archaeology: Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism. How does archaeology interact with Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism? Have they contributed to archaeology in any way? Discuss with examples. When we look at the history of the archaeology, it can be said that the archaeology have always been a part of political activities however the most sensational and the conspicuous time of this interaction between archaeology and the politics can be dated after the French Revolution. With the French Revolution, the nationalism ideology raised and swiftly spread around the world with industrialization. At the first round, rising Nationalism awaken the curiosity of the people about their ethnicity. With this curiosity, people focused ethnicity researches to find out their origins and for this reason many archaeologist take a place in this quest. Governments started to support the archaeological excavations and many institutes started to be opened and many archaeology students started to be educated. In this manner, archaeologists’ interest began to turn form historic times to pre- historic times. With the emergence of Darwinian evolutionary theory, all these ethnicity research and the focus on the pre-historic excavations prepared foundation of Colonialism and Imperialism. Nationalism is defined by Trigger as “an all embracing sense of group identity and loyalty to a common homeland that is promoted by mass media, widespread literacy, and a comprehensive educational system.”(Trigger, 2007). As a result of Nationalism, in the 18th and 19th C. ,the ethnicity concept gained a significant role among the most European states and they started to courage pre- historic archaeologist to study the origins and early ethnic groups. Although all the European states made archaeology which serves to the nationalistic ideology, for me the most striking and passionate studies are done by Germans who carried nationalism into the fascism level in the Word War II. With the establishment of German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistoric Archaeology, Germans began to be professional in the pre-historic archaeology and they introduced culture-historical approach to the archaeology (Trigger, 2007). For the nationalistic archaeology, Kossina is the most striking name for that period in German archaeology. He claimed that the Germans are the noblest topic for the archaeological research and criticized the archaeologists who were studying classical and Egyptian archaeology (Trigger, 2007). He seeks for the origins of Germans and he wrote “Die Herkunft der Germanen”. He evaluated his archaeological data in a biased way and this evaluation encouraged “Germans to regard Slavs and other neighboring European peoples as inferior to themselves and which justified German aggression against these people” (Trigger, 2007). Although Kossina died in 1931, he continued to be effective on the nationalistic and racist actions of Germany. For example, Nazis supported their discourses by using the works of Kossina. As a result of the nationalistic and ethnic researches, people became more aware of the different nationalities -such as the French, Germans, and English etc. It encouraged thinking that the people are biologically different from one another; therefore their behavior was determined by these racial differences as opposed to social or economic factor. This kind of thinking led people to think about “the inequality of the races”. Gobineau, who was a part royalist French family, claimed that “the fate of civilization was determined by their racial composition” (Trigger, 2007). Also in this time, Darwin’s evolutionary thought started to interact with the ethnicity oriented and nationalistic archaeology. Darwin claimed that plants and animals pass on their characteristics to their offspring however different offspring vary from each other. He believed that some of these offspring suited to their environment than others. This idea was explaining tremendous variety and the complexity of the natural world. He published his ideas in “Origins of Species”. This book was highly effective on the Herbert Spencer who introduced the idea of “survival of the fittest” and applied this view into the archaeology to explain the human societies in uni-linear evolution concept. He claimed that all human societies move from simple to complex (Johnson, 2010). As a result of this interaction “inequality of races” idea had gained scientific credibility. Additionally to these ideas, in 19th century Lubbock suggested that as a result of natural section human groups had become different from each other not only culturally but also in their biological capacities to utilize culture (Trigger, 2007). He regarded Europeans as the product of intensive cultural and biological evolution. His idea used to legitimize the British colonization and the establishment of political and economic control on their colonies. He also vindicates British and American colonialist from the moral responsibility for the rapid decline of native peoples in North America, Australia and the Pasific. This decline of these peoples was not because of what colonialists were doing them but because of the natural selection. This type of modality toward the native people increased the colonialism and the imperialism all over the world. As a result of colonialism, “historians of archaeology have sometimes justified acts of colonialist usurpation in adopting ethnocentric viewpoints which presuppose that archaeological pieces are better conserved in Western museums.”(Abadía, 2006). For an example, the situation of Elgin marbles can be mentioned in this matter. Evans says, in 1816, Elgin Marbles were brought to the British Museum and all the drawings, excavation and the exhibition coast like £35,000 to the British government. In 1821, Greece separated from Ottoman Empire and it created an endless controversy about the propriety of the ‘marbles’. What is beyond all of this discussion most people think that they would have great damage if left in their original home (Abadía, 2006). With the increasing industrialization, which is the period inventions and developments, created the ideas in diffusionism and the migration to explain the cultural differences in past cultures. Many of the researchers rejected the culture evolution theory. As result of this, the idea of psychic unity, which is introduced by Adolf Bastian, lost its importance. It made racism much more powerful because the belief that every culture has a potential to develop their culture is collapsed. The idea that indigenous people were viewed as biologically inferior to Europeans became much more solidified. Writers and social analysts claimed that human beings were not inherently inventive. If there is a development in culture it should be a reason of diffusionism or migration. Also they said that the change was naturally belong to the human nature and it was not beneficial to people. Therefore it is supported that unchanging societies are the most convenient to human being. In this manner, independent development idea in the cultural changes ignored and a belief emerged which is particular inventions were unlikely to be made more than once in human history. This kind of discourses solidified perceptions about the savage people inferiority. In the United States, the ‘myth of the mound builders’ was aroused and it has been thought that these mounds could not have been built by the Native People of America, who were considered too savage. Instead, they were built by a ‘civilized’ race that disappeared a long time ago (Abadía, 2006). When the people see the mounds in Zimbawe and investigators claimed that this similarity is the proof pf prehistoric white colonization in Southern Africa (Trigger, 2007). To sum up, the interaction between archaeology and Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism developed after the French Revolution. Archaeological studies and the scientific developments to answer the questions in the archaeology have been abused by the politicians. The archaeological studies which suit the politician were encouraged and supported financially. Although this mutuality helped the archaeological developments, the results that archaeology reached had been used to satisfy the nationalist, colonialist and imperialist actions. Bibliography Abadía, Moro O. 2006. The History of Archaeology as a ‘Colonial Discourse’.Bulletin of the History of Archaeology16(2):4-17 Johnson, Matthew. 2010. Archaeology Theory an Introduction. Trigger, Bruce. 2007. A History of Archaeological Thought. Archaeology: Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism

Bill of Rights Amendment Gitlow v New York Case Presentation

Bill of Rights Amendment Gitlow v New York Case Presentation.

1. Students will choose a Supreme Court Case that relates to at least one amendment from
the Bill of Rights from the following selection.
● Gitlow V. New York
● U.S. V. Miller
● Weeks V. U.S.
● DeJonge V. Oregon
● Tinker V. DesMoines
● Brandenburg V. Ohio (Pick One Case)
2. Each student will need to find two scholarly references to use for the research of their
case and reference them in MLA format.
● SCOTUS.gov
● GMC library
● Oyez. org
● Library of Congress
● Princeton or Harvard Law review 3. .You must create a presentation with
a minimum of 8 slides. One title slide, one reference slide, and 6 information slides.
Speaker notes are required on the information slides.
● Which amendment it relates to and why?
● The factors that led up to the case?
● The result of the case?
● Effect of the Supreme Court case on society?
● Do you agree with this decision? Why or why not?
● What could have been some alternatives to this decision?
Bill of Rights Amendment Gitlow v New York Case Presentation

Corporate Social Responsibility in International Human Resource Strategy Argumentative Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility in International Human Resource Strategy Argumentative Essay. Introduction Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to “the integration of stakeholders’ social, environmental and other concerns into a company’s business operations”. CSR initiatives help companies to ensure sustainable growth through practices that promote fairness among their stakeholders. In this context, CSR can be conceptualized as a self-regulating mechanism that enables firms to ensure compliance with the law, ethical standards, as well as, international norms. Empirical studies reveal that companies that have effective CSR policies tend to be more competitive than those without CSR policies. Consequently, CSR is increasingly becoming an integral aspect of every business. Most companies, especially, the multinationals are incorporating CSR policy functions in their strategies. However, the importance of CSR to a business has always been questioned. In particular, critiques of CSR assert that the benefits of CSR can not be easily quantified. Thus, investing in CSR initiatives can not be justified. This paper will analyze CSR from an international human resources perspective. It will argue for the premise that CSR is and will continue to be the most important element of international human resource strategy. The role of CSR in international human resource management will be used to support this premise. Drivers of CSR According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, CSR has become an important concept in the international business community. Additionally, businesses are gradually adopting CSR policies as a mainstream activity. This means that the application of CSR in the global business environment is likely to increase in the future. This increase is likely to be driven by the following factors. First, there has been significant lose of trust in corporate management. The public has lost trust in most corporations due to financial scandals and production practices that pollute the environment. Consequently, multinational corporations have to invest in CSR initiatives in order to improve their image in the society. Second, businesses that pursue global strategies have always encountered resistance from anti-globalization activists (Jones, Comfort and Hillier, 2007, pp. 23-35). Consequently, they use CSR initiatives to pacify interest groups. Third, the application of CSR policies is driven by competitive pressures in various industries. As companies adopt CSR practices, their counterparts who fail to adopt such policies are increasingly put under pressure to adopt CSR policies. For example, companies that engage in mining activities are often expected to engage in CSR practices that promote environmental sustainability (Josep and Emmanuelle, 2011, pp. 955-967). In this context, the public is likely to accept the mining company if it implements programs that promote environmental sustainability. Finally, firms in various industries are beginning to conceptualize CSR as a means of ensuring competitive advantage. A company that incorporates CSR polices in its strategy is likely to have a strong brand image. The strong brand image in turn enables the company to achieve a competitive advantage over its rivals. Research on the outlook of the international business environment indicates that competition is likely to intensify in most industries (Arthur, Cato and Kanoy, 2007, pp. 32-38). Additionally, emphasis on ethical practices is likely to increase. These trends coupled with the aforementioned drivers of CSR, will catalyze the use of CSR policies in future, especially, in human resource management. Role of CSR in Human Resource Management Multinational corporations can not afford to ignore CSR in developing their human resource management polices due to the following reasons. First, the competition for talent at the global level is likely to intensify in the future. Empirical studies on human resource management reveal that CSR policies enhance attraction as well as, retention of highly qualified employees (Kiran and Sharma, 2011, pp. 10-15). In the global labor market, a firm is considered a strong employer brand if it is able to align its values and concerns with those of its employees. Employees tend to identify with companies that are highly regarded. Employer differentiation has become a formidable weapon in the structural ‘battle for talent’. Individuals are more willing to work for firms that have ‘conscience’. Individuals prefer working for organizations that are ready to make a difference in the lives of their stakeholders. A company can only build conscience by infusing its corporate values with CSR policies (Schoemaker and Nijhof, 2006, pp. 448-465). Consequently, firms have to align their values with their mission, as well as, vision. This enables firms to demonstrate corporate social responsibility in everything they do, thereby attracting the best talent and winning the support of the community. Second, CSR reduces employee turnover and recruitment costs. A recent study on corporate citizenship conducted in US revealed that 77% of employees consider a firm’s commitment to social issues when they (employees) decide on where to work (Garcia, Tabales and Herradon, 2008, pp. 27-44). Most employees consider the firm’s environmental, as well as, social reputation to be more important than salaries in their job search. The study also revealed that 70% of employees will resign if their employer does not engage in socially responsible behavior. Given the high costs of replacing workers, it pays for firms to reduce turnover by incorporating CSR in their human resources policies. Turnover can be reduced significantly if the performance and talent management strategy incorporates CSR policies. For instance, Sears reduced its turnover rate by 20% after implementing its CSR program (Garcia, Tabales and Herradon, 2008, pp. 27-44). Third, emerging evidence reveal that integrating CSR polices with human resources management strategy can significantly improve employees’ motivation. Naturally, employees desire to achieve a sense of purpose from their jobs. Employees are likely to achieve a sense of purpose and high job satisfaction if they identify with the values and practices of their employer. Job satisfaction can increase if corporate citizenship is included in the performance evaluation process. In this context, employees who promote corporate social responsibility initiatives should be rewarded for their efforts. Shareholders across the globe are interested in the long-term sustainability of their enterprises. Shareholders believe that remuneration packages that are based mainly on achievement of short-term financial objectives or targets can deny a firm the chance to focus on long-term sustainability. Consequently, shareholders are pressuring firms to link executive remuneration packages to the firm’s sustainability performance. Finally, incorporating CSR policies in human resource management helps in improving the productivity of employees and the profitability of firms. Empirical studies reveal that employees tend to be motivated, loyal and committed to their jobs if their employers engage in socially responsible practices. Employees who are motivated and committed to their jobs as a result of CSR are highly productive. With high job satisfaction, employees can promote innovation in a company. Such innovations not only help in reducing costs, but also lead to the development of products that meet customers’ expectations. Additionally, high employee satisfaction coupled with high performance results into high customer satisfaction. Research on customer behavior reveals that over 50% of customers are normally turned away from a company’s product due to employees’ indifferent attitude. Every unsatisfied customer always discusses his unpleasant experience with other customers, thereby turning away more customers. Hence, it is apparent that ensuring customer satisfaction must begin with enhancing employees’ satisfaction by implementing effective CSR policies. Critique of CSR Opponents of CSR initiatives defend their positions with the following arguments. To begin with, CSR’s ability to improve the profits of a firm has always been questioned. Some managers argue that investing in CSR can not be justified since its return on investment is difficult to measure. Such managers consider CSR to be a cost rather than an investment. The oppositions to CSR on the ground of returns-to-investments are unfounded. As stated earlier, CSR leads to low employee turnover, and high customer satisfaction which in turn leads to high profits. Additionally, a firm can improve its profits by investing in technologies that protect the environment. For instance, a firm that chooses to reduce global warming by substituting diesel with solar energy can significantly reduce its production costs. The difficulty in measuring the intangible benefits of CSR such as sustainable governance has since been addressed. Alternative accounting concepts such as “intangible valuable asset” have been developed to measure intangible assets such as human capital. Managers opposed to CSR also point out the high costs of implementing CSR programs. For example, providing sponsorships to students from poor backgrounds can be very expensive. Managers who focus on the costs of implementing CSR fail to approach CSR in a holistic manner. CSR is not just about corporate philanthropy (Lantos G, 2002, pp. 205-232). Companies with effective CSR programs focus on the internal aspects of CSR. This involves promoting strong labor relations, ethical behavior, good corporate governance and transparency. Investing in these initiatives is more beneficial than corporate philanthropy since they benefit all stakeholders. However, firms must continue to financially support the communities they operate in (Lantos G, 2002, pp. 205-232). Thus, the bottom line is to have a balance between the external and internal aspects of CSR. The objective of the firm has traditionally been associated solely with the profit motive. Managers who hold this view believe that firms are responsible only to the stakeholders and not the employees or the society (Lantos G, 2002, pp. 205-232). Such managers normally emphasize economic aspects of a strategy such as profits and cost reduction. They hardly consider the effect of strategies on employees, customers and the community. Research on leadership reveals that managers who emphasize values that all stakeholders identify with are seen by employees as being inspirational and visionary (Waldman, Kenett and Tami, 2006, pp. 2-4). Managers who emphasize economic values are seen as being authoritarian and less visionary. Unlike authoritarian leadership, inspirational leadership leads to higher firm performance, as well as, employee commitment. Finally, managers opposed to CSR argue that they do not have to invest in CSR in order to enhance workplace safety, transparency, and brand image. Managers who hold this opinion ignore the fact that failure to invest in CSR, especially, in human resource management does not necessarily lead to low costs or high profits. This means that measuring the benefits of not investing in CSR is just as hard as measuring the benefits of investing in it. Failure to invest in CSR is often an indication of inefficiency within a firm. For example, a company that deliberately underpays its workers is likely to experience high cases of corruption among its workers. In this context, the firm can realize short-term financial gains by failing to incorporate CSR in its human resource management strategy. In the long-term, failure to invest in CSR leads to poor labor relations and low productivity, which in turn erodes the short-term benefits. This leads to the conclusion that failure to incorporate CSR in human resource management is not beneficial as perceived by managers opposed to corporate social responsibility. Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to defend the premise that CSR is and will continue to be the most important element of international human resource management strategy. As stated earlier, CSR is a management concept through which businesses incorporate the values and concerns of their stakeholders into their strategies. The importance of CSR in international human resource management include attracting and retaining the best talent; boosting employee job satisfaction, and promoting ethical behavior (Garcia, Tabales and Herradon, 2008, pp. 27-44). These benefits lead to high productivity, customer satisfaction, good corporate governance and higher returns for shareholders. In a nutshell, incorporating CSR in human resource management is beneficial to the firm and all its stakeholders. Consequently, multinationals can not afford to ignore CSR in their international human resource strategies. Even though investing in CSR is costly, failing to invest in it does not guarantee any financial benefits. Thus, we can conclude that CSR is and will continue to be an important element in international human resources management. References Arthur, L., Cato, M., and Kanoy, T., 2007. Corporate Social Responsibility in Your Own Backyard. Social Responsibility Journal, 3(2), pp. 32-38. Doebele, J., 2005. The Importance of Corporate Responsibility. New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit. Garcia, F., Tabales, J., and Herradon, R., 2008. Application of Corporate Social Responsibility to Human Resources Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(1), pp. 27-44. Jones, P., Comfort, D., and Hillier, D., 2007. Corporate Social Responsibilit: A Case Study of the Top Ten Global Retailers. EuroMed Journal of Business, 2(1), pp. 23-35. Josep, M., and Emmanuelle, D., 2011. CSR and Development: A Mining Company in Africa. Journal of Management Development, 30(10), pp. 955-967. Kiran, R., and Sharma, A., 2011. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Corporate Strategy for New Buisiness Opportunity. Journal of International Business Ethics, 4(1), pp. 10-15. Lantos, G., 2001. The Boundaries of Strategy Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), pp. 595-672. Lantos, G., 2002. The Ethicality of Altruistic Corporate Responsibility. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(3), pp. 205-232. Schoemaker, M., and Nijhof, A., 2006. Human Value Management: The Influence of the Contemporary Development of Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Capital of HRM. International Review of Management, 17(4), pp. 448-465. Waldman, D., Kenett, R., and Tami, Z., 2006. Corporate Social responsibility: What it Realy is, Why it is so Important, and how it should be Managed. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(1), pp. 2-4. Corporate Social Responsibility in International Human Resource Strategy Argumentative Essay