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Sciences that Developed around the Personality of Prophet Essay

Each science has its history and the specific peculiarities of its formation; the historical processes and the figures that possessed the ability to exercise the powerful influence on the scientific and cultural progress are also frequently named as the major incentives for emergence of certain sciences. The personality of Prophet in religion is also a vast field of inquiry that has given the start to many sciences and studies. Speaking about the figure of Prophet in Islam, one can surely admit that this person has become a monumental figure and played a significant role in the creation of Islam and Islam-related sciences. Muhammad possessed a set of strong leadership qualities, represented the ideal man, the perfect character model, and conducted highly varied activities in the country for which he was responsible, thus becoming the model figure, educator, and activist. The sciences that can be said to have developed around the personality of Prophet Muhammad are Sirah, Sunnah, and Hadiths. However, despite the multitude and versatility of sciences that have developed around the personality of the Prophet, the most influential and extended on is the science of Sirah. It is the science directed specifically on studying the Prophet’s life and personality. It has evolved as a historical account of the events connected with the life and activity of Muhammad – “the Prophet’s life-story was transmitted by story tellers and then compiled in books called sirah” (Hadith and the Prophet Muhammad). Nonetheless, it was further extended to become the source of beliefs and faith for Muslims. The principle according to which it was done dictates that one cannot believe in something that he or she does not know. Hence, learning the life and personality of the Prophet through the science of Sirah, one will reaffirm his/her religious faith, and will become close to Islam (The Importance of Science of Sirah). In addition, the Sirah has become a much wider framework for considering the issues connected with Muhammad – his attention to institutional development includes the establishment of wise and rational laws, economy, social and political activities and participation in the international relations both at times of war and peace (The Importance of Science of Sirah). The function of Sirah in the modern studies of Islam is to show the virtuous nature of Muhammad, to explain how he practiced the teachings of Qur’an, and how he lived (Godlas). It may be said that Sirah is a practical guide to virtuous and religious life for a regular Muslim, and it provides examples of how Muhammad lived and acted in accordance with the sacred truths of the religion. The science of Sirah possesses the key importance in studying the personality of Muhammad nowadays as it gives the essential connection between the distance Qur’an as a holy writing, and the life of a Muslim that is practical and realistic. It serves as a practical guide for Muslims in their daily conduct hence saving them from sins and helping them realize what a truly religious life is. The science of Sirah started to take shape as early as the very religion was formed, as the roots of all academic and spiritual studies in Islam developed very early in the history of this religion. The onset of Islam was marked with the emergence of such subfields as “the commentary on the Qur’an (tafsir), Traditions (Hadith) and Asma’ al-Rijal (biographies of Hadith scholars), Sirah (Biography (of the Prophet) and Maghazi (Battles of the Prophet), Usul al-Din (theology), Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul al-Fiqh (methodology/principles of Jurisprudence)” (Beg 1) Sirah, in its original sense, means ‘life’ – it is the life of Prophet Muhammad that was studied very precisely, and was recorded in much detail. What is of particular importance is that the scripts about Muhammad’s life, words, and blessings were made during his lifetime and not afterwards, which ensures that the Prophet was worshiped and respected while conducting his prophet’s mission. There are several variants of Sirah that have become the most popular and influential ones throughout the whole period of Islamic development: Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The earliest work on the biography of Muḥammad was by Urwa b. al-Zubayr, but the dominant work became that of Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq whose Sīra survives in a recension by ibn Hishām. Also of importance are the works of al-Wāqidī, especially his Kitāb al-Maghāzī” (Bowker) The exact purpose of developing the science of Sirah was to ensure the continuity of Islamic experience, and the ability of each Muslim to learn the teachings of Muhammad personally, without any third parties, priests etc. It is obvious that reading the Sirah writings reveals the biography of Prophet Muhammad and gives a clear idea of the consistency of his words and blessings, the lifestyle he had, thus giving an opportunity to follow a blessed example. There are many themes discussed in Sirah, some of them including the early years of Muhammd Rasulullah and His family, the Revelation that He had, and surely the Hijrah (Framework – Sirah and Hadith). In addition, there are many provisions regarding the lifestyle that true Muslims should have – the necessity of hygiene and cleanness, the love towards all people and animals, charity etc. – it is called the Ahadith of Muhammad (The Prophet’s Qualities). The science of Sirah has undergone a long period of transformation and evolution, but its purpose has remained the same in the modern times – to guide a Muslim on the way of developing his/her soul and heightening his/her morality. However, Sirah has become something more than the individual account of a virtuous life to be followed – it now comprises a wider set of guidelines that may be first of all helpful for governors and politicians, as there is much useful information on the wise attitudes and actions of the Prophet on “institutional development and in the progress of Muslim societies in aspects of law, the economy, social and political arenas, international relations, and in times of war and peace” (The Importance of the Science of Sirah). Therefore, it is necessary to examine Sirah as a comprehensive set of recommendations and successful lessons of the past, which may help avoid some mistakes of the present and future. Drawing a conclusion from the present account, one has to note that Muhammad has been a person with model behavior that resulted in studying his life and attempting to follow his lead across centuries. All three sciences directly related to the personality of Muhammad, i.e. Hadiths, Sunnah, and Sirah, have been designed to approach the personality of Muhammad from various angles and to give Muslims an opportunity to better understand their Prophet and to lead a life to resemble him and the provisions of Qur’an. He has been conducting considerate activities in many fields of the private and public life; he proliferated humbleness, sincerity, and fidelity in all fields of life, and has earned respect and awe from believers for his charismatic leadership abilities. Muhammad was a relentless promoter of virtue and religiosity, and the ways to achieve these states for Muslims are much better and plainer discussed in Sirah, Sunnah, and Hadiths, offering a practical, hands-on guideline to become true believers. There are Prophet’s lessons about the attitude to morality, about kindness to animals and equality of all people, about good, virtuous manners that people should never forget. The Sirah writings also contain the information about the tolerance of Prophet towards other religions, about the humanity before the Prophet, and surely there is much exhaustive information about the mode of living, the love of Prophet to all people, the infallibility of Prophet Muhammad etc., which represents the whole framework of the Prophet’s heritage essential for the preservation and proliferation of Islam. References Beg, M.A.J. (2010). The Origins of Islamic Science. Muslim Heritage. Web. Bowker, J. (1997). Sīra. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Web. We will write a custom Essay on Sciences that Developed around the Personality of Prophet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Framework – Sirah and Hadith (n.d.). Web. Godlas, A. (2003). Hadith and the Prophet Muhammad. Web. The Importance of the Science of Sirah (2007). His Life. Web. The Prophet’s Qualities (2011). Supporting Prophet Muhammad Website. Web.

world history lesson plan

world history lesson plan. I’m trying to learn for my History class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Designing social studies instruction that integrates the arts provides a unique opportunity to align content standards to more creative demonstrations of knowledge and skills. Designing robust, standards-based lesson plans that practice this integration helps teachers to become well-versed in their content area. In addition, lessons that integrate technology provide opportunities for teachers to introduce real-world applications into social studies instruction.
Select a grade level 1-8 world history standard and an arts standard. Using the “Class Profile” and the “COE Lesson Plan Template,” write a complete lesson plan that includes:

Classroom and Student Factors/Grouping: Use the “Class Profile” to inform this section, and to differentiate for the needs of students throughout the lesson plan.
National/State Learning Standards: Identify one world history standard and one arts standard for your selected grade level.
Specific Learning Targets/Objectives: Create at least one specific learning objective that includes both standards.
Academic Language: List relevant academic language and how it will be modeled.
Resources, Materials, Equipment, and Technology: Incorporate at least one media or technology resource that supports real-world applications and scaffolding of social studies standards-based instruction.
Multiple Means of Representation: Explain how knowledge and skills will be presented, and how the selected technology supports real-world applications and scaffolding of social studies standards-based instruction.
Multiple Means of Engagement: Include at least one learning activity that utilized a technology resource to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
Multiple Means of Expression: Formative assessments are designed to provide data on student performance for monitoring and adjusting instruction, and provide students feedback so they can evaluate and adjust their own learning. Summative assessment is comprehensive and cohesive in form and function.

Compose a 100-150 word rationale explaining how your selected instructional strategies help to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills and meet the needs of all students.
world history lesson plan

The Established and the Outsiders | Norbert Elias

i need help writing an essay The Established and the Outsiders | Norbert Elias. Introduction This paper explores the relationship between two apparently different themes – the essentially postmodern, 20th century “established and outsider” social philosophy expounded by Norbert Elias (Elias and Scotson, 1994) and the distinctly 21st century and essentially economic programme encapsulated in the Post-Washington, Post-Beijing Consensus (PWBC) (Peerenboom, 2014). Every policy, however, has social consequences, and this paper examines the social consequences of the PWBC in an Eliasian context. This paper begins by explicating Elias’ established and outsider philosophy before moving on to describe the PWBC. The social consequences of the PWBC shall then be analysed within the Eliasian context in order to achieve a deep understanding of what these social consequences are and what they could mean for the people of China should the PWBC come to full fruition. The paper ends by drawing together the findings in a conclusion that while the PWBC comprehensively addresses China’s economic dilemma, its narrow focus and elision of the need for a free media and democratic representation indicates that social consequences go unaddressed, and that China faces social unrest and dislocation as a result. Norbert Elias’ established and insider concept Elias’ research as far as this paper is concerned relates to the distinctions between the established – those who comprise the official establishment and unofficial, socially mediated cliques – and the outsiders – those lacking in connections or social advantage – who are excluded from the power, economic and knowledge structures of the society in which they live (Elias and Scotson, 1994). Elias’ philosophy found expression in his significant research into the lives of the people of “Winston Parva”; Elias’ Winston Parva was a long-established community, the members of which viewed themselves within structural confines – a quantitatively ordered, dimensional and objectively classified concept (Hofstede, 2001) – something that offended Elias’ postmodern tendencies, where the objective is not to seek prima facie classification, but to search for depth and understanding (McSweeney, 2002). The initial research in Winston Parva was conducted by John Scotson, who was a member of the community and was therefore able to establish the validity of his research that long-term immersion endows (Christians, 1997). Elias took Scotson’s initial research and rewrote it, adding the insight of the philosopher to its original observational validity. The post-war history of Winston Parva rendered it particularly suitable for sociological enquiry. Pre-1945, Winston Parva had been a community divided on class and economic lines. The powerful “established” included businessmen, officials and professionals (Elias and Scotson, 1994). The disempowered established consisted of the community’s unskilled labour, skilled artisans and shopworkers; these count among the established because they were bonded through family, occupation and society, and found particular identification in these aspects of their lives (Elias and Scotson, 1994). Post-1945, however, a new influx of people arrived in Winston Parva. These comprised primarily people from various large cities, seeking homes to replace those lost as a result of wartime bombing (Elias and Scotson, 1994). These outsiders had little in common with each other, there were few extended familial ties and no social ties to bond them into a community; also, for them, work was often hard to find as their skills were not transferrable (Elias and Scotson, 1994). This influx became the outsiders, viewed by the established as “the minority of the worst” (Elias and Scotson, 1994: 7). Elias’ concept of the established, characterised by cohesion, self-support, self-praise and self-affirmation and the outsiders, characterised by lack of cohesion, lack of economic power and subject to the blame of others (Elias and Scotson, 1994), is transferrable to many other social settings. It is by this process that the social conditions for people in China undergoing the upheaval of the PWBC shall now be examined. The Post-Washington, Post-Beijing Consensus within the Eliasian context China has seen remarkable economic growth in recent decades, although growth that was typically in double figures until 2009 has slowed since then to a still-impressive but markedly reduced level of 7 per cent per annum for 2015 (The Economist, 2015). China’s economy has been predicated upon exporting manufactured goods and high levels of investment from government-controlled financial institutions (Peerenboom, 2014). China’s home-grown variety of post-Mao socialism has facilitated this and has unintentionally led to wide economic disparities among the population; as Chinese former premier Deng Xiaoping said, “let a portion of the population get rich first” (Hilton, 2012: n.p.). At first sight it appears that post-Mao China has little in common with the Winston Parva of Elias and Scotson (1994). It is important, however, to appreciate that China’s growth has been macro-economic; much has been achieved in terms of headline data, although for the Chinese equivalent of the newcomers to Winston Parva – the migrants to Chinese cities – the situation is markedly similar. As Hilton (2012) explains, the established of China are the main beneficiaries of Chinese economic growth, whereas the outsiders, while achieving the greater economic stability that comes with industrial employment, experience geographical and social dislocation. This bears comparison with the outsiders of Winston Parva; they too experienced geographical and social dislocation (Elias and Scotson, 1994). While the political and economic histories and macro-economic situations of Winston Parva and the Chinese cities may differ, the social experiences of their outsiders are significantly comparable. The question remains, however, whether the history and macro-economic situations of these outsiders is influential in their social condition. With one important qualification it appears not, as contemporaneous literature for both countries suggests that the vision of outsiders is preoccupied by their present and their future, not reflecting on their past (Levitt and Jaworsky, 2007). The present is the situation described in this paper; the past for China is the Cultural Revolution, and the past for Winston Parva is the Second World War. The important qualification relates to an aspect of China’s past and present that, while interesting, remains outside the remit of this paper – China’s inaccurately named One-Child Policy (Cai, 2010). As China’s migrants to the cities are mostly young and single, the effects of the One-Child Policy can be presently discounted, although this may change as the migrant population matures. Presently, however, China faces the dilemma of being caught in what is called the middle-income trap – the situation where development stalls due to an inability to adapt its economic model to enable the leap from middle-income to high-income status (Ginsburg, 2014). To enable this leap to high-income status, China needs to radically change its economic model from that of exporting cheaply manufactured goods to one of exporting fewer but more expensive premium products and building a comprehensive and sophisticated service sector – a feature that all high-income countries share. Other developing countries have followed the Washington Consensus paradigm for economic growth, comprising focus on markets and international co-operation (Williamson, 1989), with limited success (Fofack, 2014). China, however, followed its own path, known as the Beijing Consensus or China Model, comprising the export-led, high-investment programme described above (Peerenboom, 2014). While this may bear little comparison with today’s Britain, it exhibits startling similarities to the investment-led post-war British drive for exports that was underway in the late-1950s when Scotson conducted his initial research (Elias and Scotson, 1994). Unlike British government policy of the 1950s and beyond, however, there is no immediate provision for representative democracy or media freedom within the PWBC (Banerjee and Duflo, 2008). The success of the Beijing Consensus has been remarkable, but with significant adverse social consequences including income disparity, particularly noticeable between rural and urban areas, and a lack of urban social provision and infrastructure (He and Su, 2013). Like Elias’ Winston Parva (Elias and Scotson, 1994), Chinese cities have seen mass inward migration from diverse rural areas; these arrivals are recent and socially diverse, and have little in the way of local familial connections or social power. These are the outsiders who come for employment in the burgeoning Chinese private sector, set in contrast against a largely state-employed long-standing urban establishment. As such they correspond significantly to Elias’ outsiders. Where they differ, however, is that unlike Elias’ outsiders in Winston Parva, they are almost wholly in employment and so have a degree of economic power. Their economic power is, however, at present limited by the middle-income exigency of China’s export-led, high-investment economy, predicated upon mass exports at low production cost (Peerenboom, 2014) – a significant component of which is low remuneration rates. As such, they bear comparison with the outsiders of Winston Parva who also experience economic want due to unemployment (Elias and Scotson, 2014). The PWBC advocates a combination of the free-market approach of the Washington Consensus and the authoritarianism of the Beijing Consensus (Peerenboom, 2014). It is motivated by the need for China to escape the middle-income trap. Income and social status are interlinked as the outsiders in Winston Parva illustrate, although this is not the only relevant factor. In order for communities to be built – the means by which outsiders can achieve established status – it is necessary for social and material infrastructure to be built (Tanaka, 2015). The PWBC recognises the need for material infrastructure – housing, transport, hospitals and schools – as it is clear that as the migrant population matures, these facilities will be necessary; however the position regarding social infrastructure is less clear. Similarly, Elias and Scotson’s (1994) Winston Parva possessed the necessary material infrastructure. As has been explained, the economic situation of the Chinese cities and Winston Parva bears comparison through, in the Chinese cities’ case, low remuneration rates and, in Winston Parva’s case, unemployment. This, however, is where the similarity ends; while the economic outcomes for each location may be similar, the social effects of low pay and unemployment are very different (Stewart, 2005), although amelioration is possibly in sight through the income-raising measures of the PWBC in China and local training and employment measures in Winston Parva. The Chinese government appears to be either unclear about or unwilling to address the social infrastructure issue. The migrant population in Chinese cities currently works hard to support families in rural areas but, as the migrant population matures, its priorities and needs will change, and the question to be addressed is whether top-down, unrepresentative government will be able to identify that population’s social needs and adequately address them. The lessons from Winston Parva suggest not; in Winston Parva, building an estate and filling it with unconnected people from disparate backgrounds and locations did not build a community, and while the outsiders of Winston Parva were poor and largely despised by the established, they at least had the benefit of representation at national and local levels. They also had the benefit of a free media, so their voices could be heard. It appears that the social effects of low pay/unemployment and the presence/absence of representation and a free media crucially distinguish the cities of China from the community of Winston Parva. The established-outsider tension in Winston Parva implicit in the praise and blame associated with unemployment and other facets of social status was maintained from within by the self-supporting established (Scotson and Elias, 1994); however, viewed from outside, such self-affirming practices are regarded as illegitimate, as was the case highlighted in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, whereby outsiders’ plight was identified by the media and subsequently resolved through the power of their democratic representatives (Katrina 10, 2015). Concerning the presence/absence of democratic representation and a free media, in China, unlike in Winston Parva, the voices of the outsiders cannot be heard and, without democratically accountable representation, their social needs cannot be adequately addressed. China faces a social dilemma as serious as its economic one, but one that cannot be mediated due to the lack of representation and media access, and while the PWBC may address the economic problems faced by China, it seems unable to provide any solutions to its incipient social ones. Conclusion This paper set out to out to address how, using Norbert Elias’ concept of the established and the outsiders, the social consequences of China’s move towards the PWBC may be explained. Elias’ established-outsider concept was explained using the illustrative example of Winston Parva – the site of Scotson’s and later Elias’ research. Significant parallels were found between the situations of outsiders in Winston Parva and those in Chinese cities; in both situations, the outsiders were new arrivals from disparate origins, who had no familial or occupational ties to the area or each other. Neither group of outsiders had the means of building a community. There were, however, differences; the Chinese outsiders have a limited degree of economic power whereas their Winston Parva counterparts did not and, while the economic differences are negligible, the social consequences are not, although amelioration in both locations is in prospect; also, the Winston Parva outsiders had access to a free media and democratic representation, whereas the Chinese outsiders do not. The PWBC crucially lacks dimensions in these latter regards, and this is why the social needs of the Chinese outsiders are unlikely to be met by it, and their social future looks bleak and resolvable only through social unrest and dislocation. Elias’ established-outsider concept was explained using the illustrative example of Winston Parva – the site of Scotson’s and later Elias’ research. Significant parallels were found between the situations of outsiders in Winston Parva and those in Chinese cities; in both situations, the outsiders were new arrivals from disparate origins, who had no familial or occupational ties to the area or each other. Neither group of outsiders had the means of building a community. There were, however, differences; the Chinese outsiders have a limited degree of economic power whereas their Winston Parva counterparts did not and, while the economic differences are negligible, the social consequences are not, although amelioration in both locations is in prospect; also, the Winston Parva outsiders had access to a free media and democratic representation, whereas the Chinese outsiders do not. The PWBC crucially lacks dimensions in these latter regards, and this is why the social needs of the Chinese outsiders are unlikely to be met by it, and their social future looks bleak and resolvable only through social unrest and dislocation. Bibliography Banerjee, A. and Duflo, E. (2008) “What is middle class about the middle classes around the world?” in Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), pp. 3-28 Cai, Y. (2010) “China’s below-replacement fertility: government policy or socio-economic development?” in Population and Development Review, 36(3), pp. 419-440 Christians, C. G. (1997) “The ethics of being in a communication context” in Christians, C. G. And Traber, M. (eds) Communication Ethics and Universal Values, pp. 3-23, Thousand Oaks: Sage The Economist (2015) Economist Explains: Why China’s Economy is Slowing, 11th March, 2015 [online] available at, accessed 23rd September, 2015 Elias, N. and Scotson, J. L. (1994) The Established and the Outsiders: a Sociological Enquiry into Community Problems, London: Sage in association with Theory, Culture and Society Fofack, H. (2014) “Retrospective analysis of Africa post-HIPC Growth Resurgence: overcoming the risk of immersising growth” in Africa Affairs, forthcoming Ginsburg, T. (2014) “The Politics of Law and Development in Middle-Income Countries” in Peerenboom, R. and Ginsburg, T. (eds) Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries: Avoiding the Middle-Income Trap, pp. 21-35, New York: Cambridge University Press He, X. and Su, Y. (2013) “Do the ‘haves’ come out ahead in Shanghai courts?” in Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 10(1), pp. 120-145, March 2013 Hilton, I. (2012) “China’s economic reforms have let party leaders and their families get rich” in The Guardian, Friday 26th October, 2012 Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Cultures, Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organisations across Nations, Thousand Oaks, Sage Katrina 10 (2015) Resilient New Orleans [online] available at, accessed 23rd September, 2015 Levitt, P. and Jaworsky, B. N. (2007) “Transnational migration studies: past developments and future trends” in Annual Review of Sociology, (33) pp. 129-156 McSweeney, B. (2002) “Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences: a triumph of faith – a failure of analysis” in Human Relations, 55(1), pp. 89-118 Peerenboom, R. (2014) Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries: A Post-Washington, Post-Beijing Consensus, public lecture [online] available at Stewart, M. B. (2005) “The inter-related dynamics of unemployment and low-wage employment”, Warwick Economic Research Papers, No. 741, [online] available at Tanaka, A. (2015) “Toward a theory of human security” in JICA Institute Working Paper (91), March 2015 Williamson, J. (1989) What Washington Means by Policy Reform [online] available at, accessed 23rd September, 2015 The Established and the Outsiders | Norbert Elias

Defend ethical issues of United Airlines

Defend ethical issues of United Airlines.

primary objective is the persuade the reader through logic supported by reasearch.Select a specific ethical dilemma United Airline has faced. Describe and discuss the complex ethical dilemma. Explain what you deem to be the most ethical decision/solution. Defend/persuade your reader that it is the most ethical decision by explaining why. The textbook should be the primary source for information and you must include 4 addl relevant and credible sources to support your argument for a total of 5 sources. Do not use Wikipedia, the Huffington Post, blogs, q&a websites or any other unverified or open content source as these are not credible. Must include 1 direct quote from each source and cites your quotes using MLA citation guudelines.
Defend ethical issues of United Airlines

finances case study

finances case study.

Please read rubri and finish it. RubricSpecifically, we are interested in the valuation of your company. Assume risk free rate of 2 percent and expected return on market of 10 percent.Provide analysis of critical variables. Compute elasticities. One key variable will be opportunity cost of equity. With b=1, that is 10 percent. Like to see a computation of technological lead over competitors using BDF model or Holt Module given in your text. What would be the impact of a 3 percent increase in interest rates and required rates of return on equity. Analysis of Porter’s Five Forces. Strength of competitors, Threat of New Entries, Threat of Substitute goods, Strength of Consumers, Strength of Suppliers (including labor).
finances case study

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