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Science and Technology (Early Development) cheap mba definition essay help academic writing website

Early developments The key disciplinary components of STS took shape independently, beginning in the 1960s, and developed in isolation from each other well into the 1980s, although Ludwig Fleck’s monograph (1935) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact anticipated many of STS’s key themes: Science studies, a branch of the sociology of scientific knowledge that places scientific controversies in their social context.

History of technology, that examines technology in its social and historical context. Starting in the 1960s, some historians questioned technological determinism, a doctrine that can induce public passivity to technologic and scientific ‘natural’ development. At the same time, some historians began to develop similarly contextual approaches to the history of medicine.

History and philosophy of science (1960s). After the publication of Thomas Kuhn’s well-known The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), which attributed changes in scientific theories to changes in underlying intellectual paradigms, programs were founded at the University of California, Berkeley and elsewhere that brought historians of science and philosophers together in unified programs.

Science, technology, and society In the mid- to late-1960s, student and faculty social movements in the U. S. , UK, and European universities helped to launch a range of new interdisciplinary fields (such as Women’s Studies) that were seen to address relevant topics that the traditional curriculum ignored. One such development was the rise of “science, technology, and society” programs, which are also—confusingly—known by the STS acronym.

Drawn from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history, political science, and sociology, scholars in these programs created undergraduate curricula devoted to exploring the issues raised by science and technology. Unlike scholars in science studies, history of technology, or the history and philosophy of science, they were and are more likely to see themselves as activists working for change rather than dispassionate, “ivory tower” researchers[citation needed].

As an example of the activist impulse, feminist scholars in this and other emerging STS areas addressed themselves to the exclusion of women from science and engineering. Science, engineering, and public policy studies emerged in the 1970s from the same concerns that motivated the founders of the science, technology, and society movement: A sense that science and technology were developing in ways that were increasingly at odds with the public’s best interests.

The science, technology, and society movement tried to humanize those who would make tomorrow’s science and technology, but this discipline took a different approach: It would train students with the professional skills needed to become players in science and technology policy. Some programs came to emphasize quantitative methodologies, and most of these were eventually absorbed into systems engineering.

Others emphasized sociological and qualitative approaches, and found that their closest kin could be found among scholars in science, technology, and society departments. [citation needed] During the 1970s and 1980s, leading universities in the U. S. , UK, and Europe began drawing these various components together in new, interdisciplinary programs. For example, in the 1970s, Cornell University developed a new program that united science studies and policy-oriented scholars with historians and philosophers of science and technology.

Each of these programs developed unique identities due to variation in the components that were drawn together, as well as their location within the various universities. For example, the University of Virginia’s STS program united scholars drawn from a variety of fields (with particular strength in the history of technology); however, the program’s teaching responsibilities—it is located within an engineering school and teaches ethics to undergraduate engineering students—means that all of its faculty share a strong interest in engineering ethics.

Country Music and Identity: A Case Study

Country Music and Identity: A Case Study.

One of the requirements in this class is writing a brief, original, research paper that includes a modest proportion of critical analysis; no paper will receive an “A” without originality and critical analysis. The above page limit does not include bibliography, supporting appendices, discographies, etc. Please click here for a one-page description of the grading criteria, i.e. what papers will receive an “A,” “B,” and so on. In your final written assignment you are to examine one song that fits your own criteria of “country music” and provide the following: 1. A brief background of the song and its artist, e.g. date of release, album, artist’s bio (very brief) 2. An in-depth analysis of the song’s musical features (melody, harmony, rhythm, form, texture, instrumentation, dynamics) 3. What features make this song distinctively “country” and, most importantly, why? Appropriate content: you must write what the assignment asks for, as specified in these written instructions. If you write something that isn’t what the assignment asks for, it doesn’t matter how well you do it: you won’t get credit. Correct physical form: in addition to the criteria for “format” discussed above, physical form includes the proper use of paragraphs with indentation to show where a new paragraph begins, and overall neat appearance of the page with a straight left margin and without weird effects such as line breaks in the middle of a word. Print out your assignment before the day it is due to make sure that the computer does not produce these unwanted effects: printer problems will not be accepted as an excuse. Remember also that you must include the appropriate grading table at the top of each assignment. Papers must also be stapled, and typed, using a 12 pt Times New Roman font, which is standard for most academic papers. Appropriate style: This is a common problem among undergraduate students. Keep in mind that this is NOT a creative writing assignment. Use vocabulary and sentence structures suitable for an academic report, avoiding colloquial language and slang. Keep your prose clear, concise, and supported by data. Correct spelling and typing are required, including spelling of terms and names introduced in the class. Run the spell check after making all other revisions, and don’t rely on it exclusively: it will not detect errors like writing “from” instead of “form” because “from” is also a word. Proof-read your work for yourself as well. Spelling also includes word boundaries (leaving a space between words and not writing two words as if they were one). Correct punctuation includes the use of apostrophes (make sure you know the difference between possessive its and it’s = “it is”) and the proper use of spaces with punctuation (note that you leave a space before open-parentheses and open-quotes but after most other punctuation marks). The most common errors of punctuation concern sentence boundaries: writing two or more sentences as if they were one (‘run-on sentences’) or writing part of a sentence as if it were a whole one (‘sentence fragments’). Make sure that what comes between the capital letter and the period is a single complete sentence. Correct capitalization of proper names and abbreviations is also included in punctuation. Correct grammar includes subject-verb agreement (if the subject is plural, the verb should be in the plural form too) and using the correct form of a word (for instance, make sure you know the difference between sing, sang, sung, and song). Citation format: You must correctly cite information, ideas, and other relevant information that are not your known (see Syllabus for examples of plagiarism). For the purposes of the above written assignments, you must cite your sources in the form of footnotes. A simple bibliography page will NOT suffice. Your footnote citations must include the following information and in this order: author’s name (last, first), date of source, title of source, publication info on source (e.g. publisher’s name and city, journal title and volume/number, website url (including the date accessed by you), and page numbers, if applicable. A quick rule to remember: your citations must include all information that will allow your reader to consult your source in a timely fashion. Example footnote citations: Website: 1Reid, Shaheem. (no date given). “Eminem: The Gift and the Curse.” []. Accessed 5 May 2003. Book by a single author: 2 Farrell, Gerry. 1997. Indian Music and the West. Oxford, UK, and New York: Oxford University Press: 25-26. DO NOT USE: Wikipedia

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