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Scandal in Burson-Marstelle Firm Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Competition between the Fab Four Why the issue became a scandal How Burson-Marsteller responded The Lessons Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Burson-Marsteller is a public relations firm. This is a giant American company that won the best public relations company award. The firm is an experienced and respected organization that has won many other accolades and received major contracts. The issue about the public relations company Burson-Marsteller (B-M) turned out to scandalous because it brought disrepute on practitioners1. The matter was also not addressed well at the time it went public. These companies were Burson- Marsteller and Facebook. The companies failed in all their attempts to deal with the issue. They failed in their communication strategy and in the manner in which they responded to the media inquiries. A preview of the issue tells us that B-M was caught creating a whisper campaign against Google for an undisclosed Facebook client. Google and Facebook are involved in competition to control online advertisements. Burson and Marsteller’s were competing reporters who were instructed to write destructive information about Google. B-M had been hired by Facebook to do the dirty job as well. B-M understood the competition between the two and saw an opportunity to make money without giving due diligence to its integrity and the damage it would have on its image in case the issue leaked. The two employees were on the job when they were caught. The matter circulated to members of the public. Competition between the Fab Four The Fab four American companies are Facebook, Google, Amazon, and Apple. These technology companies have defined and transformed the world in terms of information technology and entertainment in the twenty first century. Initially, these companies operated different businesses. With time, they continuously transformed and fought for market dominance in the social networking industry, mobile phones and accessories, and laptops. Some of these products are their common products. All these companies are determined to be market leaders in technology. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their aim is to control the world living rooms. The competition has grown to a neck-throat level. Some of these companies have resorted to smear campaigns. This is to enable them receive undue advantage over others. A case in focus is what happened last year between Facebook and Google. The issue involved another public relations company, Burson-Marsteller. Each of these companies ensures that information is safeguard in the best way possible. They opt to keep both their customers and competitors guessing what product would be next in the market. This has been the key to their success. These companies are reshaping the behavior of customers because they are influencing to use electronic gadgets to access the web. These include tablets, laptops, and mobile phone devices. The competition is likely to go a notch higher as they fight to outsmart each other. Competition between these companies is a result of intensive advertising and the enormous resources. These are the hardware, data, and the media. This means that they have to be always innovative. They are all moving in one direction implying that their objective is to control the living rooms. They have developed a system in the market that leads to imitation2. Why the issue became a scandal The process employed by B-M deliberately ignored the code of ethics that touches on the disclosure. This in itself implies that B-M had a hidden agenda on the overall issue. The tactics applied here such as, whispering, were negative modes, which the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) discourages. The society discourages other vices including brand washing, dirty laundering, and flogging3. The company did not undertake due diligence in its initial steps to observe the code of ethics. Due diligence was expected from B-M because it is an experienced and renowned public relations company. The failure on their part or deliberate omission led to the issue exploding and becoming a scandal. The status of this company required it to think beyond money. It was expected to factor in other areas relevant to the company, which include the impact of the contract on the company’s image and returns on integrity. The two accused companies did not handle the matter well when it was busted. The leadership of Burson- Marsteller resorted to shifting blame from one end to the other. The leaders claimed not to have authorized the contractual agreement, blaming it on the junior employees. At one time, they issued a statement arguing that it was actually not a smear campaign and that they had withdrawn from the contractual agreement. A standpoint or official statement was required, but it was conspicuously missing. By the time the organization came to accept that what had happened was wrong and very unethical, it was too little too late. The damage on its part had already occurred. We will write a custom Essay on Scandal in Burson-Marstelle Firm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management came out late to state that what had happened did not conform to the standardized rules of service. The statement was of no use because the damage had already been caused. Facebook on its part failed to take responsibility. Google being its competitor was disgusting to see Facebook employ dirty tricks that were shameful against its rivals. The two companies ought to have owned the released information, and subsequently issue an apology. They should have punished the employees who were responsible and then proceeded to clean their images. It was also necessary for them to deposit an explanation regarding the same issue to PRSA4. How Burson-Marsteller responded Burson-Marsteller is a giant company in the public relations industry. Its response was expected to be professional. It, however, did not handle the issue professionally. This scandal was uncovered weeks after the company had received the best public relations company award. The company fumbled to try to contain a scandal that was already blowing out of proportion. This was not professional and only served to escalate the issue5. It showed that it was prepared to neither hear the truths nor get the feelings of other players in the industry such as clients and competitors, who posted their comments on the Facebook page. It employed a defensive mission instead of being apologetic. In addition to this, it denied being involved as soon as the issue was uncovered. One of its employees cheated that the organization had communicated with Jessica. She argued that the company was suffering from malice. Burson-Marstellar continued to handle the issue badly when the organization declined to take action against the two employees who had orchestrated the smear campaign. The organization instead promised to offer the two employees additional classes on ethics. These people were former senior journalists. They had earned their respect through good work before. The question of taking them for extra ethics classes was therefore unnecessary6. It only added proved that Burson – Marsteller’s was incompetent in handling communication issues, especially those arising from the media. This was wrong and did not augur well for the company. It would have been positive if the company took disciplinary actions against the two. Failure of the same only meant that the actions of the company could be interpreted to mean the top management of the company was involved. Another reaction came from its former Chief Executive Officer who rebuked the action wondering what had gone wrong at Burson-Marsteller. A statement from the boss on the matter was evaluated to mean failure by the current leadership in handling administration matters, including communication7. Not sure if you can write a paper on Scandal in Burson-Marstelle Firm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Lessons There are various lessons that can be learned from the public relations scandal. The two companies failed to use important aspects of the two-way symmetrical public relations model. The two companies did not show honesty in their contractual engagement. The best way would be to embrace honesty. Moreover, the companies should have accepted to compromise through embracing a two-way communication model. This was lacking because B-M did not even reveal its client. Understanding the rules of disclosure would be very important. Transparency includes making public the necessary information. This avoids misinterpretation and misrepresentation of the company. It is also a need under the code of conduct. B-M deliberately concealed information regarding Facebook, which is its client. Rules are very clear and the company overlooked them. Strict adherence could have helped the company in ending the mistake. It is also good to speak with one voice. Specific people should be assigned the duty of giving information when a crisis arises. This allows the media and the public to receive accurate information. When the matter found its way to the public, B-M and Facebook did not show any effort that focused on achieving mutual respect. A public apology and taking actions against the two employees would have been the best way to resolve the conflict. Furthermore, B-M and Facebook failed to explore the concept of negotiation and the willingness to make compromises, as illustrated by Grunig and Todd. They instead started offering conflicting statements over the issue. The best approach would have been to solve conflicts and promote mutual understanding. B-M saw the rivalry between Facebook and Google and wanted to make money out of the confusion. This was in disregard to the two-way symmetric model of public relations. B-M should have resisted the urge to make money using dirty means for the sake of its reputation. Strict adherence to the code of ethics by both the management and employees is paramount. The follow-up activities by the company to ensure implementation of the same are also a necessity. If the management of B-M were to adhere to the code of ethics, it would be definite that the matter would have taken a very different direction. It is imperative to understand that a company shouldering any misbehavior by its employees should therefore be prepared to handle the consequences8. Burson –Marstellar and Facebook should have weighed these options, including what effect their actions would have on their company images and integrity. They did not know that these factors were important in the flop of their agendum9. It is also necessary to understand the dynamics of the industry in which a firm is operating10. The social media is powerful such that secretes are no more. Therefore, learning what the organization can engage in may save it from a problem. The ever-advancing technology does not leave room for secrets. Bibliography Applegate, Jane. Great Ideas for Your Small Business. Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press, 2011. Briscoe, Schuler. International Human Resource Management. New York: Routledge, 2012 Croteau, Hoynes. Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2012. Dowling, Festing. International Human Resource Management: managing people in a multinational context. Sydney: Thomson Learning, 2008. Meyerson, Mitch. Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Pub, 2005. Miller, David. Tales from Facebook. New York: Polity, 2011. Nankervis, Chatterjee. Perspectives of Human Resource Management in the Asia Pacific. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia, 2006. Perlman, Corey. Eboot Camp: Proven Internet Marketing Techniques to Grow Your Business. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley
Cardinal Stritch University Fast Food and Obesity Annotated Bibliography.

Part 1: Find five sources that connect to your research question ( How fast food is related with obesity? ) . Take notes as you read. Become familiar with each author’s point of view. What insight do they provide? What ideas are discussed in the texts that you could apply to your own research? What is the rhetorical situation of each source?Part 2: Once you have read over each article thoroughly, compose an entry for each text in an annotated bibliography. This bibliography contains not only an accurate citation for your sources, but your own typed notes on the relevant content and ideas of each text. Your annotations should sum up key ideas in your own words, and describe the author’s positions as they relate to your topic. Furthermore, use your annotations to engage your texts as you explain them – show how the ideas of the texts relate, agree/disagree, and how each one contributes something distinct to your own research ideas.All sources should be relevant to your research paper; do not include sources you know will be of little use to you in composing a draft of your research paper. You may use either MLA or APA format for the annotated bibliography, but must be consistent in the style you choose.Use only secondary (and primary, if applicable) sources in your annotations. Do not use tertiary sources such as Wikipedia, Ask.com, news briefs, etc.
Cardinal Stritch University Fast Food and Obesity Annotated Bibliography

Physics homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the German Aerospace Industry SWOT analysis development. The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,The German Aerospace Industry SWOT analysis development,The German Aerospace Industry has enjoyed strong growth over the last two decades; for example, the industry’s turnover quadrupled between 1995 and 2006. The industry has benefitted from growing global demand, particularly in the civil aviation sector, as well as from a well-developed manufacturing base, a dense structure of networks and clusters, heavy investment in R&D, and multiple and growing channels of public support on the federal and regional level. In addition, the industry benefits from various programs of co-operation and support on the European level.,Despite this relatively favorable base, as of now there appear to be two main risks and threats to the further development of the industry.,The first is increasing competitive pressure. New emerging players, in particular, China, are seeking to establish themselves; the United States continues to harbor the world’s largest aerospace industry which benefits from a large internal market as well as from spillovers between the civil and military aviation sectors. Meanwhile, important parts of the German Aerospace Industry are dominated by small or medium-sized enterprises that thrive in technological niches. But may be below critical size for success in global competition.,The German Aerospace Industry SWOT analysis development,The second, and more fundamental, is the current economic crisis caused by the Corona pandemic and its possible repercussions for the industry. The current restrictions have virtually immobilized large parts of the population in industrial and emerging countries and led to a sharp drop in demand for travel and transportation services. There is fundamental uncertainty whether the crisis will lead to a longer-term shake-up of the industry or rather take a “V-shape”, implying an unbroken longer-run growth trend.,Task, Against this background, develop a SWOT analysis of the German Aerospace Industry by the steps, stated below. In doing this analysis, distinguish between at least two different scenarios with respect, to the further course of the Corona crisis and its impact on the industry.,LINKS:, ,https://www.acc-hsg.org/uploads/1/1/5/7/11573431/aerospace_study-delphi-2020-southern_germany.pdf,https://www.spiegel.de/international/business/lufthansa-ceo-on-how-coronavirus-has-radically-upended-the-aviation-industry-a-d2e08d00-9981-4063-9086-88cfd99187e0,https://www.rolandberger.com/en/Point-of-View/COVID-19-How-we-will-need-to-rethink-the-aerospace-industry.html,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Physics homework help
ECOM 201 SEU Marketing Manager of the Jadawel Company Questions Discussion.

ECOM-201 INTERDUCATION TOE -MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION NOMBER 1 Answer the following questions using the discussion board topic “2-1: Virtual Organizations vs. Traditional Organizations.” The answers should be 3-5 paragraphs with 3-5 sentences per paragraph and will justify your answer. This discussion topic is based off of this week’s readings, so make sure you have reviewed Chapter 1, as well as any supplemental readings prior to completing your response. Question 1: What are some of the major differences between a virtual and traditional organization? Are there any beneficial elements within a virtual organization that could give them an advantage in today’s global market? Question 2: In your opinion, would the size of an organization determine rather or not they could exist as a virtual entity? Why or why and give an example of a modern company that could and could not work as a virtual entity. —————————————————————————————————————————————— SUBJECT NOMBER 2 MGT-312 DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SO Course Learning Outcomes-Covered Demonstrate a solid understanding of decision making process for complex issues pertaining to business environment both internally and externally. (1.2)Apply and analyze various concepts of problem solving in diverse contexts and business situations. (1.5 & 2.2)Identify and analyze different perspectives on understanding problems for different situations. (3.1)Utilize different decision making tools to enhance problem solving and decision making approaches. (4.3) Critical Thinking Case studies: “Jadawel” a major retailer of household products in Saudi Arabia, had experienced steady growth during the past ten years since inception i.e. 2009. Mr. Badar, Marketing manager of the company has left the company in 2019. Mr. Hesham al Harby, who was working with Mr. Badr since 2009, now became marketing manager. The company has been experiencing steadily declining sales in an increasingly competitive and growing market from last one year.Even after increase in sales force, sales were not meeting expectations, and had not been for some time. In fact, sales had begun to decline in a market that still appeared to be growing with more competitors chipping away at a market the company once owned. Rashid, a sales executive who joined the company in December 2019, said that he could not get proper training form the company. In a feedback of Customer, Jadawel’s product price is costly and lack of seasonal offers. Mr. Khaled Al-ghassini, CEO has hired you to help him in increasing the company’s annual growth rate and ultimately its profitability. “Jadawel” has 25 retail stores located mostly in shopping malls in almost all the big cities in Saudi Arabia. Total revenue from the 25 stores has declined, despite major back-end cost savings. Assignment Question(s):(Marks 05) Identify the problem. [and other sub problems]What could be the causes of problem?Gather information: What information should you gather that would be helpful to know before making a decision?Consider the various choices of solution?Make the decision.What should you do?Evaluate the decision.Why do you think this is the best decision possible? Main problem:……………………………………..Other problems: Cause of the problem- 5 Why TechniqueWhy-1Why-2Why-3Why-4Why-5Develop a Cause and Effect DiagramGather information: What information should you gather that would be helpful to know before making a decision?Consider the various choices of solution?Make the decision.What should you do?Evaluate the decision.Why do you think this is the best decision possible?
ECOM 201 SEU Marketing Manager of the Jadawel Company Questions Discussion

Financial Statement Analysis of Hilton Worldwide Holdings

Financial Statement Analysis of Hilton Worldwide Holdings. Company Overview HiltonWorldwide Holdings Inc.is one of the largest and fastest growing hospitality companies in the world. The company is correctly positioned in the industry. We expect Hilton to grow at about 6.92% the same rate as its competitor and to maintain the median returns it currently generates. Hilton has relatively high profit margins while operating with median asset turns. Hilton’s year-to-year change in revenues and earnings are better than that of its competitor. Hilton’s revenue growth in recent years and current P/E ratio are both around their respective peer medians suggesting that historical performance and long-term growth expectations for the company are largely in sync. Analytical Conclusion Although the hospitality industry can get volatile Hilton Worldwide will continue to make strides as the company has a dedicated team coupled with an award winning portfolio and tailor made strategies for each hotel. Hence, the company will continue its operations for years to come. While Hilton has little control over external shocks, the company has the ability to adapt to its competitors, both old and new in all 104 countries and regions. Hilton worldwide is fairly valued. The company is currently valued at $19.07 billion with an anticipated value of $19.70-20B. Summary Financials Price (Sale):2.63(BV):3.21Float: 192.69M Debt to Equity: 184.85 52 Week Trading Range: 41.55 – 60.40Insider Holdings: N/A Current Ratio: 1.33 Cash: 1.42B Equity: 5.89 B P/E trailing: 54.77 Exchange: NYSEProfit Margin: 4.82% P/E forward: 27.65 Market Cap: 19.18BOperating Margin: 28.07% Shares Outstanding: 329.73MROE: 6.17% Selected Financials FY 12/31 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 Revenue 9.66B 8.88B 11. 66B 11. 27B 10.50B 9.74B 9.28B Net Income 743M 571 M 348M 1.4B 673M 415M 352M EPS (Basic) 2.06 1.74 1.06 4.26 2.04 1.35 1.14 EPS (Diluted) 2.06 1.74 1.05 4.26 2.04 1.35 1.14 P/E 28.22 33.25 21.59 30.65 34.40 33.82 35.98 Company Highlights Net loss for the fourth quarter was $382 million, and net income for the full year was $364 million. Diluted loss per share was $1.17 for the fourth quarter, largely driven by $513 million of non-cash corporate restructuring charges incurred prior to the spin-offs, and diluted EPS was $1.05 for the full year. Added 354 hotels to its system in 2016, opening nearly one hotel per day in the year. Completed spins-offs of Hilton Grand Vacations (HGV) and Park Hotels and Resorts (PK) Hilton launched its newest brand the Tapestry Collection by Hilton. Description Hilton is one of the largest and fastest growing hospitality companies in the world, with a portfolio of 14 world class brands comprising over 4,900 properties with more than 800,000 rooms in 104 countries and regions. Hilton is committed to fulfilling its mission to be the world’s most hospitable company by delivering exceptional experiences at every hotel, to every guest, every time. Hilton was founded in 1919 by Conrad Hilton when he purchased his first hotel in Texas, Hilton’s is the most recognized hotel brand in the world. Hilton’s operate its business across three segments: ownership; management and franchise; and timeshare. Hilton’s strategy focuses on providing service and cost models tailored to each hotel, reflecting size, business complexity, and market environment. Hilton provide appropriate levels of engagement depending on each hotel’s needs, by ensuring hotel owners are fully engaged in decision-making. This consolidated approach means Hilton maximize cost and scale efficiencies, by sharing best practice, market and trend intelligence and ensuring appropriate affordability to each hotel. For example: Hilton refine its luxury brands to deliver products and service standards that are relevant to each region. Hilton’s operations are mainly concentrated in the United States, however, it has its presence in the international markets such as in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and in the Asia Pacific region. Operations Hilton operates its business across three segments namely; ownership, management and franchise, and timeshare. Ownership Hilton is one of the largest hotel owners in the world based on the number of rooms at the company’s leased, owned and joint venture properties. Hilton’s diverse global portfolio of owned and leased properties includes a number of prominent hotels in major cities such as New York City, San Francisco, London, Chicago, São Paolo and Tokyo. Hilton’s portfolio includes renowned hotels with significant underlying real estate value, by the end of 2016, the ownership segment had 141 hotels with 57,716 rooms. In recent years Hilton has expanded its hotel system less through real estate investment and more by increasing the number of management and franchise agreements the company has with third-party hotel owners. Hilton focuses on maximizing profitability and cost efficiency of all its portfolios by, reducing fixed costs and implementing new labor management practices and systems. For instance, Hilton has developed and executed strategic plans for each of its hotels to enhance the market position of each property. At many of its hotels Hilton has renovated guest rooms and public spaces and added or enhanced meeting and retail space to improve profitability. At certain of its hotels, Hilton is evaluating options for the adaptive reuse of all or a portion of the property to residential, retail or timeshare uses. Management and Franchise Hilton’s management and franchise segment enables the company to manage timeshare properties and hotels and license its trademarks to franchisees. Hilton currently manages 4,734 hotels with 738,724 rooms. Therefore, this segment generates its revenue primarily from fees charged to homeowners’, hotel owners and associations at timeshare properties. Hilton grows its management and franchise business by attracting owners to become a part of its system and participate in its brands and commercial services to support their hotel. On Hilton’s part, these contracts require little or no capital investment to initiate and provide substantial return on investment for Hiltons. Hilton’s primary management services consist of operating hotels under management contracts for the benefit of third parties, who either own or lease the hotels. Hilton earns an incentive fee based on gross operating profits and a management fee based on a percentage of the hotel’s gross revenue. For a fee Hilton franchise its trade, brand names, operating systems and service marks to hotel owners. Hilton does not directly participate in the daily operation or management of franchised hotels but its conducts periodic inspections to ensure that brand standards are maintained. Hilton approves certain aspects of development and the location for new construction of franchised hotels, in some cases, Hilton also provides the franchise with product improvement plans that must be completed in accordance with brand standards to remain in Hilton’s hotel system. Timeshare Hilton’s timeshare segment generates revenue from three primary sources: Resort Operations, Timeshare Sales, and Financing. Hilton market and sell timeshare interests owned by Hilton and third parties. The company sells timeshare intervals on behalf of third-party developers using the Hilton Grand Vacations brand. Through resort operations Hilton manages the Hilton Grand Vacations (HGV) Club, receiving annual dues, enrollment fees, and transaction fees from members. Hiltons also provides consumer financing, which includes interest income generated from the origination of consumer loans to customers to finance their purchase of timeshare intervals and revenue from servicing the loans. Strategy Since Hilton Worldwide was founded, the company has been among the top hospitality companies in the industry. In fact, after almost 100 years it is considered one of the largest and fastest growing corporations with the goal to deliver outstanding customer experiences and excellent operating performance. Hilton’s business strategy is based on its service differentiation, the company distinguishes itself from its competitors by providing high quality service combining it with IT systems. According to Dudovki, (2016), Hilton has been focusing its strategy on digitalizing mobile services, booking channels, loyalty and data driven-personalization, and also improving guest experience and privacy. Enhanced service offering is at the forefront of Hilton strategy. In order to allocate more of customers’ travel spending to Hilton hotels, and consequently to enhance customer loyalty for the entire system of hotels and timeshare properties, the team created Hilton Honors Loyalty Program. The program rewards guests with points for each stay at any of Hilton’s more than 4,900 hotels worldwide. Members can use the points earned for free hotel nights and other goods and services; moreover, it is possible to spend the points with 130 partners, among which car rental, rail, and airlines companies, credit card providers and others. The loyalty program contributed over $17 billion in terms of revenues as reported at the end of the year 2016. Another strategy employed by Hilton is premium pricing. Hilton utilizes the premium pricing policies for its upscale services and hotels. The pricing strategy is established to emphasize, among customers, the sense of status and luxury rather than the sense of stay and dining. Through the analysis of previous performance and strategies they provide to manage future profitability. For instance, they engage with sales teams for hotels with significant group/corporate business, to ensure corporate pricing structure is maximized throughout the RFP process. The management of Hilton believe every Hilton Worldwide property has its own unique strengths and challenges. As such they provide service and cost models tailored to each hotel, reflecting business complexity, size, and market environment. Hilton matches its service to the needs of the client’s hotel, Hilton management believes that one size fits all. This consolidated approach means that Hilton maximize cost and scale efficiencies, rapidly sharing best practice, market and trend intelligence and ensuring appropriate affordability to each hotel. Hilton have focused on optimizing hotels’ market share and delivering market-beating revenue per available room (RevPAR) results. Hilton’s team provides thorough analysis of previous performance and strategies to drive future profitability. Management Hilton Executive Committee is characterized by key personnel with diverse backgrounds who were able to bring the company to the prominence it now enjoys in the hospitality industry. Among those executive are Hilton’s President and Chief Executive Officer, Christopher J. Nassetta. Nassetta has been one of the most important figure in the Hilton family since 2007. With a degree in finance, Nassetta has always been close to the hospitality industry and real estate market. In fact, he worked as President and Chief Executive Officer at Host HotelsFinancial Statement Analysis of Hilton Worldwide Holdings

Differences Between Qualitative And Quantitative Research Methods Psychology Essay

essay writer Differences Between Qualitative And Quantitative Research Methods Psychology Essay. The aim of any science is gaining knowledge and choosing the appropriate method that allows us to know the reality is therefore essential1. The problem is to accept as true the wrong knowledge or vice versa. Inductive and deductive methods have different objectives and could be summarized as theory development and theory analysis, respectively. The inductive methods are generally associated with qualitative research while deductive method is often associated with quantitative research. Health Social scientists using qualitative approaches now facing epistemological and methodological problems that have to do with power and ethics in data generation as well as external validity of these2. The quantitative research is one in which data are collected and analyzed quantitative variables. qualitative research prevents quantification. Qualitative researchers make narrative records of the phenomena that are studied by techniques such as participant observation and unstructured interviews3. The fundamental difference between the methodologies is that the quantitative studies the association or relationship between quantifiable and qualitative variables makes structural and situational contexts4. Qualitative research seeks to identify the underlying nature of reality, its relations system, its dynamic structure. The quantitative research is to determine the strength of association or correlation between variables, generalization and objectivity of the results through a sample inference to a population sample from which all comes. After the study of the association or correlation seeks, in turn, make causal inferences as to why things happen or not a particular way. The most obvious differences between the methodologies are shown in Table 1 5.6. The fundamentals of quantitative methodology can be found in the positivism that arises in the first third of the nineteenth century as a reaction to the empiricism which was devoted to collect data without entering any knowledge beyond the field of observation. Some of the scientists this time focusing on issues related to health sciences are Pasteur and Claude Bernard, the latter being the proposed experimentation in medicine1. In the early twentieth century, neo-positivism arises or logical positivism to be one of the most important contributions to probabilistic induction. The key is logical positivism and testing hypotheses probabilistically if accepted and demonstrated in different circumstances from those develop general theories. The statistics available quantitative tools to test these hypotheses and to accept or reject a particular security7. Thus the scientific method, following an observation generates a hypothesis and subsequently broadcasts contrasting conclusions arising from that hypothesis testing. The verified repeatedly test an hypothesis does not give an absolute guarantee of generalization because, as Karl Popper points out, not it has no method can guarantee that the generalization of a hypothesis is valid8. With the example of the swans, K. Popper’s thesis refuting the generalization neopositivists on assumptions9… “all swans were white from Austria … no data are available about the color of swans outside Austria … all swans are white …”. At present there is no method to ensure that generalization of a hypothesis is valid, but one can refute a hypothesis with a shred of evidence against it. That is why science, as noted by K. Popper “looking increasingly better explanations” Advantages and disadvantages of the methods The advantages and disadvantages of qualitative vs. quantitative methods are shown in Table 2 11-13. In general, quantitative methods are very powerful in terms of external validity as a representative sample of the population makes inference to this population from a sample (Figure 1) With a defined security and accuracy. Therefore a limitation of qualitative methods is their difficulty to generalize. The quantitative research to test hypotheses not only eliminates the role of chance to exclude or reject a hypothesis, but to quantify the clinical relevance of a phenomenon by measuring the relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number of patients needed to treat to prevent one event14. The question that obviously do qualitative and quantitative research is “how are your general particularize …? Today there is a clear predominance of quantitative research in relation to qualitative and we can objectify it in a Medline search to date 20/4/2002 using the keywords “quantitative research” vs. “qualitative research” are 11,236 and 1,249 items respectively generating a ratio 11.236/1.249 = 8.99. The select one or other methodology may rely on different approaches: Are looking for the magnitude or nature of the phenomenon?, Is looking for an average or a dynamic structure?, ” It aims to discover laws or understand human phenomena?. When in the Medline search on the keywords above mentioned add “nursing” to focus the question in nursing work objectify the ratio of qualitative vs. quantitative items (610 vs. 535) clearly decreases to 1.14 thus showing a significant weight of qualitative research in nursing despite a predominance of the quantitative and still expanding in recent years in this group. The use of both qualitative and quantitative procedures in an investigation would probably help correct the biases of each method, but the fact that quantitative methodology is the most widely used is not the product of chance but of the evolution of scientific method along the years. We believe in this sense that quantification increases and facilitates the compression of the universe around us and long before the logical positivists or neopositivists Galileo Galilei argued in this sense “measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not is “. Table 1. Differences between qualitative and quantitative research5.6. Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Focusing on the phenomenology and understanding Based on the probabilistic induction of logical positivism Uncontrolled naturalistic observation Measuring pervasive and controlled Subjective Objective Inferences from their data Inferences beyond the data Exploratory, inductive and descriptive Confirmatory inferential, deductive Process-oriented Result oriented Data “rich and deep” Data “solid and repeatable” Not generalizable Generalizable Holistic Particularist Dynamic reality Static reality Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative versus qualitative methods. Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods Propensity to “comunicarse with”The study subjects11 Proneness “use of”The study subjects11 It merely ask11 Only responds11 Horizontal communication … between researcher and researched … greater ease and ability to study social factors in a natural setting12  They are strong in terms of internal validity, but weak in external validity, which are not generalizable to the population They are weak in terms of internal validity, almost never know if they measure what they want to measure, but are strong in external validity, what they find is generalizable to the population13 Quantitative ask: How particularize are the findings? Qualitative ask: Are your findings generalizable? Figure 1. Elements of statistical inference Quantitative methodology is one that can examine the data in figures, especially in the field of statistics. Quantitative Methods For there is required that elements of the research problem there is a relationship whose nature is linear. This means that there is clarity between the research components that make up the problem, it is possible to define, limit and know exactly where the problem starts, in which direction to go and what kind of impact between its elements. Quantitative research is widely used in the natural sciences and social, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism. In the social sciencesThe term is often used in contrast to qualitative research. Types of quantitative research [edit] Descriptive research [edit] It refers to the preparatory phase of scientific work that allows ordering the result of observations of the behaviors, features, The factors, Procedures and other variables of phenomena and facts. Such research is not hypothesis explained. Analytical investigation [edit] It is a more complex procedure with respect to descriptive research, which mainly consists in making the comparison of variables between study groups and control without applying or manipulating variables, studying them as they naturally occur in the groups. It also refers to the proposition hypothesis that the researcher is test or deny. hg Experimental Research [edit] It is a methodological procedure in which a group of individuals or conglomerate, are randomly divided into study groups and ontrol and are analyzed with respect to one factor or as the researcher introduced to study and assess. INTRODUCTION The research is a process thorough, careful and systematic which seeks to resolve problemsEither vacuum knowledge (scientific research) Or ManagementBut in both cases is organized and guarantees the production of knowledge or viable alternative solutions. In this test Needless to say, our object of study is to establish the differences between the qualitative research and quantitative research., although both are generally part of research science, which is defined as “… a methodical and systematic process aimed at solving problems or scientific questions, by producing new knowledge, which constitute the solution or answer to these questions. From this it is possible to reflect on the approach that there is clear: If we are trying to scientific research, it is possible to develop two major approaches: qualitative and quantitative, in the former means that the amount is part of the quality, as well as given further attention deep into the results and not its generalization, while in the quantitative approach, the important thing is the generalization or universalization of research results. Therefore, an investigation should not speak or to Paradigm Qualitative, Methodology Qualitative or Qualitative Research, as are the qualitative or quantitative approaches to scientific research, and both can be used in one investigation, interacting methodologies. We believe that differences are not present at the type of problem to be investigated, but in terms of the methods and instruments which each applies and the way they treat the results. We hope that the information gathered here helps to understand the importance of scientific research whatever the paradigm that is used. Finally, the combination of both paradigms help achieve optimal results research in the field of health and particularly in that the Nursing.. The Group 1 .- Qualitative Research The qualitative methodology, as its very name, is aim the description the qualities of a phenomenon. Find a concept that can cover a part of reality. This is not to prove or to measure the degree to which a certain quality is given a certain event, but to discover so many qualities as possible. In qualitative research should discuss in depth understanding rather than accuracy: it seeks a deep understanding as possible. The origins of qualitative methods are found in antiquity but from the nineteenth century with the rise of science social – especially the sociology and anthropology – This methodology begins to develop gradually. However after the Second War World there was a predominance of quantitative methodology with the dominance of functionalist and structuralist perspectives. It is not until the ’60s that cut qualitative research methodology emerged as a front-line, mainly in United States and Britain. From this moment, in the academic and investigative there are a constant evolution theory and practice of qualitative methodology. Among the main features of this methodology include: Qualitative research is inductive. It has a holistic perspective, ie considering the phenomenon as a whole. These small studies scale which only represent themselves It emphasizes the validity of research through proximity to the empirical reality that provides the methodology. Not usually probe theories or hypothesis. It is primarily a method generate theories and hypoththesis. No rules procedure. The collection method data not specified in advance. The variables are not operationally defined or are prone to measurement. The base is in intuition. The research is nature flexible, evolutionary and recursive. Generally does not allow analysis Statistical You can incorporate findings that were not foreseen (Serendipity) Qualitative researchers involved in research through interaction with the subjects they study, is the measuring instrument. Analyze and understand the subjects and phenomena from the perspective of the last two; must delete or remove their prejudices and beliefs 1.1 .- QUALITATIVE FEATURES OF THE METHODOLOGY The characteristics of qualitative methodology that we can point to as a synopsis are A first characteristic of these methods has resulted in their Strategy to try to know the facts, processes, structures and people as a whole, and not through the measurement of some of its elements. The same strategy already indicates the Employment of procedures giving a character only to observations. The second characteristic is the use of procedures that are less comparable observations in the time and in different cultural circumstances, ie, this method finds less widespread and closer to the phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. A third important strategic feature for this work concerns the role of the researcher in their intensive-treatment-with the people involved in the research process to understand. The researcher develops and maintains guidelines and central problems of their work during the research process itself. For this reason, the concepts found in qualitative research in most cases are not operationalized since the beginning of the investigation, ie not defined since the beginning of indicators to be taken into account during the research process. This feature points to another debate epistemological, very hot, on the question of objectivity in the social research. 2 .- RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE Surge in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in the process consolidation Capitalism and within the Society Western bourgeois. In order to analyze the conflict social and economic fact as Universe complex. Inspired by the Science Natural and these in physical Newtonian from knowledge of Galileo. With Claude Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte arises Sociology as Science. Their rationale is based on scientism and Rationalism, As institutionalists epistemological stance. Profound attachment to the tradition of Science and use of value-neutrality as a criterion of objectivity, so the knowledge is grounded in the facts, with little attention subjectivity of individuals. His representation of reality is partial and fragmented. The expert becomes a authority really. Hurtado and Toro (1998). “They say the research Quantitative is a linear, meaning that there is clarity between the elements of the problem, which has definitions, limitations and know exactly where the problem starts, it is also important to know what kind of impact between its elements. “ 2.1 .- CHARACTERISTICS METHODOLOGY QUANTITATIVE Quantitative methodology is one that allows us to examine the data numerically, especially in the field of Statistics. Quantitative Methods For there is required that elements of the research problem there is a relationship whose Nature is linear. This means that there is clarity between the elements of the research problem that make the problem, it is possible to define, limit and know exactly where the problem starts, in which address going and what kind of impact between its elements. The elements consist of a problem, research Linear, are called: variables, Ratio between variable and unit observation. Edelmira G. La Rosa (1995) says that there should be clarity Quantitative Methodology between elements of research from which starts until it ends, the approach is static data is assigned numerical significance. The approach of the quantitative data are statistical, demonstrates with separate aspects of all, the meaning assigned numbers and make inferences Objectivity is the only way to achieve knowledgeAnd therefore uses the measurement comprehensive and controlled, trying to find the certainty of it. The object of study is the unique element Empiricus. She maintains that the relationship exist independence between subject and object, since the researcher has a perspective from outside. The theory is the fundamental element Social research, Brings its origin, context and purpose. Explanatory and predicative understanding of reality, under an objective conception, unitary static and reductionist. Linear conception of research through a Strategy deductive. It method Hypothetical – Deductive. 2.2. – QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS The limitations are placed at a number risks distortion, the least of which is certainly not the conversion of the qualitative deformans in quantities previously artificially transmuted calculated on ad hoc data Gonzalez Casanova (1975) mentions that the prospect Quantitative and emphasis are related to many other characteristics of the researcher. Overall we can say that analysis Quantitative is typical especially in the social sciences who work with people, binds to Empiricism and the Ideology the process of Social Sciences. Sorokin researcher has indicated the limitations of quantitative research: Quantitatively disguised subjectivity. Quantitative conjugation groups to study the systems Social. Take one part of system as the independent variable (cause) and all of the quantitative data that can be seen in the research traditional. 3 .- Differences between quantitative and qualitative research The aim of any science is gaining knowledge and choosing the appropriate method that allows us to know the reality is therefore essential1. The problem is to accept as true the wrong knowledge or vice versa. methods inductive and deductive are objectives different and could be summarized as development theory and theory analysis, respectively. The inductive methods are generally associated with qualitative research while the deductive method is often associated with quantitative research. Social scientists in health – Doctors, nurses, health technicians, etc.. – Using qualitative approaches now facing problems epistemological and methodological approaches are concerned with the can and ethics in data generation as well as external validity of these. Quantitative research is one in which data are collected and analyzed quantitative variables. Qualitative research prevents quantification. Qualitative researchers are records Narrative of the phenomena that are studied by techniques as participant observation and interviews unstructured. The fundamental difference between the methodologies is that the quantitative studies the association or relationship between quantifiable and qualitative variables makes structural and situational contexts. Qualitative research seeks to identify the underlying nature of reality, its system of relationships, structure dynamic, While quantitative research tries to determine the strength association or correlation between variables, generalization and objectivity of the results through a sample to make an inference population which shows all relevant. After the study of the association or correlation seeks, in turn, make causal inferences as to why things happen or not a particular way. The Employment both procedures quantitative and qualitative research could probably help correct the biases of each method, but the fact that quantitative methodology is the most used is not product accident but the evolution of scientific method over the years. We believe in this sense that quantification increases and facilitates the compression of the universe around us and long before the logical positivists or neopositivists Galileo Galilei asserted in this sense “measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not. Differences between qualitative and quantitative research Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Centered phenomenology and understanding Based on the induction probabilistic positivism logical Uncontrolled naturalistic observation Measuring pervasive and controlled Subjective Objective Inferences from their data Inferences beyond the data Exploratory, inductive and descriptive Confirmatory inferential, deductive Process-oriented Result oriented Data “rich and deep” Data “solid and repeatable” Not generalizable Generalizable Holistic Particularist Dynamic reality Static reality  Advantages and disadvantages of qualitative methods vs. quantity. Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods Propensity to “comunicarse with”The study subjects Proneness “use of”The study subjects It merely ask Only responds Horizontal communication … between researcher and researched … greater ease and ability to study social factors in a natural setting  They are strong in terms of internal validity, but weak in external validity, which are not generalizable to the population They are weak in terms of internal validity, almost never know if they measure what they want to measure, but are strong in external validity, what they find is generalizable to the population Quantitative ask: How particularize are the findings? Qualitative ask: Are your findings generalizable? One criticism that often make the quantitative approaches from the perspective of qualitative methods is their propensity to use more to communicate with, the study subjects. The argument is that the polls individuals used to extract them information which is then processed without holding without any sort of “return” to those who gave rise to the data. It is further said that the situation of interview is as artificial-one simply ask the other to respond, it is possible to make very strong questions about the validity of the data thus obtained. In change, Qualitative methods seem to find one of their sources of legitimation primaries that allow communication more horizontal-egalitarian-between the researcher and the subjects investigated. Without denying that some of the qualitative approaches such as depth interviews and life histories enable a more “natural” subjects, must be considered with more details on the conditions that make such encounters possible. In countries America America, including Cuba, Most studies are done on / socials subjects living under some form of subordination of gender (for women), sexual (in the case of sexual minorities, etc.). In many cases it is precisely this condition of subordination which gives rise to its willingness to collaborate. Authors such as Castro and Bronfman suggest that for more “democratic” we are, access to groups subordinate is given to us by what our status is. This produces a dilemma that challenges the root of the argument made at the beginning of this section, in the sense that qualitative research itself is claimed from his “naturalism” of his supposed ability to study the social actors in its natural setting. CONCLUSIONS The research is a rigorous, thorough and systematic which seeks to solve problems, either from lack of knowledge (scientific research) Or ManagementBut in both cases is organized and guarantees the production of knowledge or viable alternative solutions. Research is a methodical and systematic process aimed at solving problems or scientific questions, by producing new knowledge, which constitute the solution or answer to such questions “ Quantitative research is analyzing the various elements that can be measured and quantified. All information is obtained based on population samples and the results are extrapolated to the entire population at a given level of error and confidence level. Qualitative research reports on the credibility of the communication, or concepts, or the benefits offered. Qualitative studies are seen to individual respondent, on the one hand, and on the other hand look at the product, or under investigation and on which survey and that is the stimulus generator of certain behaviors among individuals. These observations acquire a character probabilistic, and hence projectable to the universe in a second stage of the investigation that it will be quantitative. Quantitative research uses numbers and statistical methods. Part of individual cases to reach a description general or check hypothesis causal. It says a quantitative systematic-generalizing. Qualitative research includes approaches by definition, not based on numerical measures. He uses in-depth interviews and analysis materials historical. Use the method of discourse and attempts to comprehensively examine an event or unit. They say quality-humanist discourse. From this it is possible to reflect on the approach that there is clear: If we are trying to scientific research, two approaches can be developed significant qualitative and quantitative, in the former means that the amount is part of the quality also be given greater attention to the depth of results and not its generalization, while in the quantitative approach, the important thing is the generalization or universalization of research results. Therefore, an investigation should not speak or to Paradigm Qualitative, Qualitative or Qualitative Research Methodology, as are the qualitative or quantitative approaches to scientific research. Differences Between Qualitative And Quantitative Research Methods Psychology Essay

PSY 7711 State College of Florida Baseline and Treatment Phases Discussion

PSY 7711 State College of Florida Baseline and Treatment Phases Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

In this unit, you read Carr, Newsom, and Binkoff ‘s 1980 article, “Escape As a Factor in the Aggressive Behavior of Two Retarded Children,” which shows the effect of a teacher’s demands on Bob’s aggressive behavior, as well as on another student named Sam. Figure 1 in the journal article provides the ABAB graphs for both Bob and Sam. For this discussion:Compare and contrast these two graphs in terms of baseline and treatment phases. Include a description of the type of baselines (for example, stable, ascending, descending, or variable) that were obtained for each child.State your conclusion about the baselines presented.Provide recommendations about improving the design, if appropriate.
PSY 7711 State College of Florida Baseline and Treatment Phases Discussion

Seattle Central College Computer Science Case Study

Seattle Central College Computer Science Case Study.

Class,Watch the provided video below and then Perform a Minimum of 800 Words (Peer Reviewed) Case-Study that explains the concept(s) of TCP/IP .Be sure to include the following (APA):3 peer-reviewed references. (Look for .gov or .edu for peer-reviewed material)4 In-text Citations.2 Direct Quote.A detailed explanation of TCP/IP.Provide examples based on your response.Minimum 800 Words (Citations and References are not included)Plagiarism Check ResultsSubmit your assignment as a word document.Note: An Intern provided a CCNA study guide from his employer that can be used to gain additional knowledge or in preparing for the CCNA certification examVideo link:
Seattle Central College Computer Science Case Study

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