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Santa Monica College Chapter 11 Wacky Wednesday by Dr Seuss Paper

Santa Monica College Chapter 11 Wacky Wednesday by Dr Seuss Paper.

chapter 11. Overview InstructionsPlease respond to the following questions in 2 – 4 pages (double spaced). Please number your responses and do not re-write the questions.What have been the most important books in your life?(Describe) Consider the books that have made a difference in your life. What kind of books are they (e.g., novels, reference books, religious books, children’s books, comic books)? How did you access these books? Were they already in your home? Did you go to the library? Did you get them as gifts, or did you buy them at a bookstore? What were your early experiences with school libraries, public libraries, and bookstores? What role do books currently play in your life? Have you kept many of the books that are important to you? Why or why not?(Interpret) Consider your book experiences in relation to the decade in which you started reading and the other media and activities battling for your attention. Did you generally have negative or positive experiences connected to books and reading? Do you have certain coming-of-age experiences connected to books? Why?(Evaluate) After considering your book experiences, what do you think is the role of books in an age of electronic media?Submission and GradingLength: Approximately 2 – 4 pages, with a minimum of 2 pagesDouble-spaced, 1 inch margins, 12 point font
Santa Monica College Chapter 11 Wacky Wednesday by Dr Seuss Paper

Milan I am Invited by My Friend to Attend a Family Function at Her House Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

For this discussion you will once again use your imagination, show some familiarity with the material, and have a little fun!Imagine that you wake up one morning, and you are Antoine Roquentin. This may not necessarily be a dream come true for you, but it is how it is! Describe a typical day in your life. (Keep in mind, you have not solved your “problem” at this point. You are Roquentin in the course of the novel, not at the end).Be sure to refer to ideas or situations from the book at least twice in your post. Do not simply go off on a tangent here! And, please, keep it respectful! Do a bit of research to make your portrayal more compelling. Try to really occupy the character.Your post should be at least 400 words not including any quotations you use, but longer is fine! Be sure to examine the rubric associated with this forum closely so that you know exactly how your post will be graded. Do not address another’s post at this point. We will return to these next week.
Milan I am Invited by My Friend to Attend a Family Function at Her House Discussion

CIS 505 Strayer University Domain Name System Security Extensions Essay.

NetworkingOverviewSelect one of the following topics in which you will base your responses in the form of a term paper:Network Neutrality.Web2.0.Wireless Technology.Broadband Convergence.U.S. Telecommunication Policy.Internet Security.IPv6.WWAN.WLAN.DNSSEC.WAN. InstructionsWrite a fully developed paper in which you:Compose an executive summary highlighting the paper’s contents and reasoning for your chosen topic.Conduct a SWOT analysis by analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, application opportunities, and threats from competitors of the chosen topic.Evaluate the current ethical and legal concerns surrounding your topic.Select one ethical or legal concern surrounding your topic, take a position on the issue, and provide rationale.Analyze the improvements over the last two years to your communication technology topic, and suggest an improvement based on its current usage.Predict the future role of the communication technology you’ve selected for both personal and commercial use.Create a diagram that illustrates the communication structure of your chosen technology in Visio or its open source alternative software. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.Use at least eight quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Synthesize research on a networking topic including ethical and legal concerns, recent improvements, and the future role of the communication technology.
CIS 505 Strayer University Domain Name System Security Extensions Essay

The Mitochondria: Structure, Functions and Reactions. Mitochondria are rod-shaped structures that are enclosed within two membranes – the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The membranes are made up of phospholipids and proteins. The space in between the two membranes is called the inter-membrane space. The structure of the various components of mitochondria are as follows: The outer membrane is a relatively simple phospholipid bilayer, containing protein structures called porins. Ions, nutrient molecules, ATP, ADP, etc. can pass through the outer membrane with ease. The inner membrane is freely permeable only to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water. Its structure is highly complex, including all of the complexes of the electron transport system, the ATP synthetase complex, and transport proteins. There are folds present which are organized into lamillae (layers), called the cristae. The cristae greatly increase the total surface area of the inner membrane which makes room for many more of the above-named structures than if the inner membrane were shaped like the outer membrane. The membranes create two compartments. The intermembrane space is the region between the inner and outer membranes. It has an important role in the primary function of mitochondria, which is oxidative phosphorylation. The matrix is a complex mixture of enzymes that are important for the synthesis of ATP molecules, special mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNAs and the mitochondrial DNA. Besides these, it has oxygen, carbon dioxide and other recyclable intermediates. In glycolysis, what type of reactions do hexokinase and phosphofructokinase catalyze? In general, what is the importance of these reactions – or in other words what makes them unique in the glycolysis pathway? The first step in glycolysis is phosphorylation of glucose by a family of enzymes called hexokinases to form glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). This reaction consumes ATP, but it acts to keep the glucose concentration low, promoting continuous transport of glucose into the cell through the plasma membrane transporters. In addition, it blocks the glucose from leaking out because the cell lacks transporters for G6P. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible transfer of a phosphate from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate. Because this reaction is irreversible, PFK is the key regulatory enzyme for glycolysis. When ATP levels are high in the cell, the cell no longer needs metabolic energy production to occur. In this case, PFK’s activity is inhibited by allosteric regulation by ATP itself, closing the valve on the flow of carbohydrates through glycolysis. In general, how are fats and proteins utilized during cellular metabolism? Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen , and sometimes other atoms. They form the cellular structural elements, are biochemical catalysts, and are important regulators of gene expression . Digestion breaks protein down to amino acids. If amino acids are in excess of the body’s biological requirements, they are metabolized to glycogen or fat and subsequently used for energy metabolism. If amino acids are to be used for energy their carbon skeletons are converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle for oxidation, producing ATP. The final products of protein catabolism include carbon dioxide, water, ATP, urea, and ammonia. What two molecules combine in the TCA cycle to form Citrate? Where did each ‘precursor’ molecule come from? The Citric Acid cycle begins with acetyl-CoA transferring its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound called oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon compound called citrate. Acetly-CoA is created when from the reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Oxaloacetate is created from a combination of pyruvate carboxylase and Malate dehydrogenase. Would you expect to find the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in an anaerobic bacterium? Explain why or why not and explain what task this complex performs. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a complex of three enzymes that transform pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation which involves the oxidation of pyruvate. Since anaerobic bacterium only exists in oxygen-free environments you would not expect them to contain this complex. What are high energy electrons and what is represented by an oxidation-reduction potential? Using this knowledge briefly explain the importance of Figure 5.14 and the role of the high energy electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 in the creation of ATP. Why are the electron transport chain complexes referred to as proton pumps? Electron transport chains are biochemical reactions that produce ATP. ATP is made by an enzyme called ATP synthase. ATP synthase is powered by a transmembrane proton gradient, which conduct protons from high to low concentration across the membrane. In essence working to pump protons through a proton channel which temporarily opens in the inner membrane How are NADH and FADH2 different when it comes to interacting with the ETC? NADH H arrives from Stage II of carbohydrate metabolism or Stage III (TCA cycle) to the ETC and immediately oxidizes to NAD with its protons (hydrogen ions) going into the matrix and its electrons (e-) going to cytochrome complex 1. As the electrons arrive on cyctrochrome complex 1 the complex immediately goes through redox (reduction and oxidation). This reaction creates a proton pump within the cytochrome, pumping some protons from the matrix through the cytochrome into the intermembrane space. The electrons now transfer to mobile carrier Q and NAD returns to its original source. FADH2 arrives from the TCA cycle to the ETC and goes directly to cytochrome mobile carrier Q. FADH2 oxidizes to FAD with its protons going into the matrix and its electrons going to mobile carrier Q. Mobile carrier Q shuttles the electrons from FADH2 (and from cytochrome 1) to cytochrome complex 2. The electrons are transferred to cytochrome complex 2 and it immediately goes through redox (reduction and oxidation). This creates a proton pump, pumping protons from the matrix through cytochrome complex 2 directly into the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion. FAD returns to the TCA cycle. What does the proton-motive force represent (you don’t need to explain the formula)? A proton-motive force represents the energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane. Describe the structure of ATP synthase and the binding change hypothesis of mitochondrial ATP production. ATP synthase is made up of two portions, F1 and F0. The FO portion is within the membrane of the mitochnodria and the F1 portion is above the membrane, inside the matrix of the mitochondria. The binding change mechanism involves the active site of a β subunit cycling between three states. In the “open” state, ADP and phosphate enter the active site. The protein then closes up around the molecules and binds them loosely – the “loose” state. The enzyme then undergoes another change in shape and forces these molecules together, with the active site in the resulting “tight” state binding the newly-produced ATP molecule with very high affinity. Finally, the active site cycles back to the open state, releasing ATP and binding more ADP and phosphate, ready for the next cycle of ATP production. Describe the structure of a chloroplast and give a brief summary of its evolutionary origin. The chloroplast is the organelle where photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic eukaryotes. The organelle is surrounded by a double membrane. Inside the inner membrane is a complex mix of enzymes and water. This is called stroma and is important as the site of the dark reactions, more properly called the Calvin cycle. Within in the stroma is a network of stacked sacs. Each stack is called a granum and each of the flattened sacs which make up the granum is called a thylakoid. Each thylakoid has a series of photosystems and associated proteins. The photosystems contain chlorophyll and other pigments and all these associated structures in the thylakoid membrane are the site for the light reactions in which light energy is converted to chemical energy needed for the Calvin cycle in the dark reaction. Chloroplasts are believed to have arisen as free living bacteria that became endosymbiont with the ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes. An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism. Briefly describe the experiment performed by Ruben and Kamen and describe what this experiment helped to prove. Ruben and Kamen bombarded graphite in the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator,in hopes of producing a radioactive isotope of carbon that could be used as a tracer in investigating chemical reactions in photosynthesis. Their experiment resulted in production of carbon-14. What is the photosynthetic role of the light-harvesting antenna pigments? In photosynthetic systems a variable number of pigments act as light-harvesting antenna to absorb and direct solar energy to photochemical reaction centers. The effectiveness of the reaction centers depends on the efficient transfer of excitation energy from these antenna molecules. In plants, what are photosystems, what is the significance of the primary P680 and P700 pigments, and how do these fit into the Z scheme arrangement depicted in Figure 6.10 of your text? Photosystems are protein complexes that are found in the thylakoid membranes of plants. They are involved in photosynthesis as enzymes which use light to reduce molecules. There are two families of photosystems. Within photosystem type 1 is the P700 reaction center. Its absorption spectrum peaks at 700 nm. When photosystem I absorbs light, an electron is excited to a higher energy level in the P700 chlorophyll. These electrons are moved in pairs in an oxidation/reduction process from P700 to electron acceptors. Within photosystem type II is the P680 reaction center. Its absorption spectrum peaks at 680nm. What is photolysis and what is its significance during photosynthesis? Photolysis is defind as the splitting or decomposition of a chemical compound by means of light energy or photons. Photolysis is the part of photosynthesis that occurs in the granum of a chloroplast where light is absorbed by chlorophyll, turned into chemical energy, and used to split apart the oxygen and hydrogen in water. The oxygen is released as a byproduct while the reduced hydrogen acceptor makes its way to the second stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle. What is photophosphorylation and how is this accomplished by PSII and PSI? Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. In photophosphorylation, light energy is used to create a high-energy electron donor and a lower-energy electron acceptor. Electrons then move spontaneously from donor to acceptor through an electron transport chain. When a special chlorophyll molecule of PSII absorbs a photon, an electron in this molecule attains a higher energy level. Because this state of an electron is very unstable, the electron is transferred from one to another molecule creating a chain of redox reactions, called an electron transport chain (ETC). The electron flow goes from PSII to cytochrome b6f to PSI. In PSI the electron gets the energy from another photon. The final electron acceptor is NADP. Cytochrome b6f and ATP synthase are working together to create ATP. This process is called photophosphorylation What is the function of Rubisco? In the Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis, the enzyme rubisco grabs CO2 and incorporates it into RuBP (commonly called carbon fixation). The cycle continues until one G3P is made; a precursor to glucose. What is the usefulness or function of the the 12 GAP molecules produced by the fixation of 6 CO2 molecules via the Calvin cycle? The function is for the manufacturing of carbohydrates What is the function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and what advantage is given to plants that contain this enzyme? Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases that catalyzes the addition of CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate. Carbon fixation via PEP carboxylase assimilates the available CO2 into a four-carbon compound (oxaloacetate, which is further converted to malate) that can be stored or shuttled between plant cells. This allows for a separation of initial CO2 fixation by contact with air and secondary CO2 fixation into sugars by RuBisCO during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. In succulent CAM plants adapted for growth in very dry conditions, PEP carboxylase fixes CO2 during the night when the plant opens its stomata to allow for gas exchange. During the day time, the plant closes the stomata to preserve water and releases CO2 inside the leaf from the storage compounds produced during the night. This allows the plants to thrive in dry climates by conducting photosynthesis without losing water through open stomata during the day. The Mitochondria: Structure, Functions and Reactions

Rational Choice And Deterrence Theory Criminology Essay

Since Marchese Beccaria who, as one of the first mentioned that the real purpose of punishment is “is no other than to prevent the criminal from doing further injury to society, and prevent others from committing the like offense” (Baccaria 1764), many researchers as well as general community have begun to concentrate on the notion of personal choice when explaining what pushes offenders to commit crimes. Rational Choice Theory became one of the most popular concepts which support the deterrence philosophy. Although, the association between those two theories was welcomed by many, it also had its critiques and opponents. In this paper, I will explain how and to what degree, Rational Choice Theory supports the concept of deterrence. I will also discuss some of the contradictory theories and criminal behaviors that do not support Rational Choice Theory and state my opinion on consequences that this study may embrace on “guilty mind” concept which is, according to the criminal law, one of the necessary elements of the crime. The concept of Rational Choice Theory is rooted in the analysis of human behavior that was established by Italian scholar named Marchese Beccaria. The main point of his examination describes the human being as a rational actor who calculates rationality using ends and means formula. According to Beccaria “People (freely) choose all behavior, both conforming and deviant, based on their rational calculations, the central element of calculation involves a cost benefit analysis: Pleasure versus Pain,” (Beccaria 1764). In his line of reasoning, Beccaria determined that in order to prevent the criminal or wrongdoing behavior, the form of punishment equivalent to the severity of crime committed should be implemented. The concept of punishing criminals in accordance to the crime they have committed in order not only to prevent the criminal from committing the similar act in the future(special deterrence), but also to warn the general public of the possible consequences of such behavior(general deterrence), became known as Deterrence Theory. In today’s world of criminal justice, it is still seen as one of the most important aspect in the whole idea of punishment. Due to the failure of rehabilitative theories and major increase in crime rates in 1970’s and 1980’s, the concept of free, rational choice, based on the calculation of cost and benefits began to interest criminologist and researchers across the country. Examination of illegal decision making process began to be perceived as the key to understanding the real purpose of crime and what motivates it. During those years, Modern Rational Choice Theory emerged. Contemporary criminologist began to rely on the idea which claimed that threat of punishment tends to deter the individual from wrongdoing just as rewards tend to encourage pleasing behavior. Because of this new trend of thinking, many laws that increased mandatory sentences for numerous crimes, mainly those drug-related have been passed and executed. Did wide use of deterrence as the tool of discouraging people from committing crimes accomplished its initial goal? The answer is double sided. Violent crime rates began to indeed, drop in mid-1990’s as well as did drug offences. It was however, also due to changes in many other aspects like increase police recruitment across the country, good economic prosperity that discourages criminal behavior as well as change in mentality of people that had been subjects to violent behaviors. On the negative side, because of the fact that mandatory sentences for non-violent, drug related offences were increased significantly, the prison population also augmented significantly burdening the pockets of taxpayers. As this happened, more and more researchers began to criticize the method of punishment supported by Rational Choice Theory. Does fear of severe punishment really discourage criminals from committing crimes? Wasn’t it only the philosophy of Rational Choice Theory of punishment that put the concept of deterrence in such an advantaged position in our criminal justice system and which still has such a massive impact on current crime control policy? Without any doubt, the strong connections between these two makes both theories stand out and seem very balanced and reasonable. However, as the frustration caused by some of the negative effects of their usage increased, contradictory theories began to emerge. Moreover, some criminal behaviors such as rapes and even in some cases, murders seem not to be positively affected by increased punishment as the form of deterrence for these crimes. Rational Choice Theory differs from many other criminal theories mainly because of its main principal that defines crime as a solely individual choice. The concept does not focus on other, crucial factors like individual traits, criminal associations and inner strains that may also play a huge role in pushing an individual to committing certain crimes. One of the most known models that oppose the Rational Choice Theory is Classical Theory introduced by Clarke and Cornish. Both authors agree that, while committing the crime, people are not perfectly rational and in some cases they are completely unreasonable. Moreover, they touch upon the costs and benefits of crime very broadly including only official and unperturbed permissions. According to their views, “A range of factors influence and individuals’ estimates of costs and benefits of crime: self-control, moral beliefs, strains, emotional state, association with delinquent peers.”(Clarke and Cornish, 1986). In addition, many researchers have also found that the severity of punishment is far less important for potential criminal as oppose to certainty of that punishment. Some extreme opponents of Rational Choice Theory even believe that, “People are not usually aware of certainty and severity of punishment for the area in which they live, therefore increasing certainty of punishment may reduce crime, but the effect will be short-lived and localized.”(Class PPT). This opinion creates another argument which indeed questions and doubts the entire purpose of severe punishment as a successful method of deterrence and it is valid to a large extent. Besides the theoretical aspects that oppose the Rational Choice Theory, there are many practical ones that are against it as well. According to numerous scholars, individuals are much less likely to be affected by initial benefits of certain crime when they are intoxicated or mentally disturbed. Many people that commit crime are very low in self-control and often perceive the crime as simply “not wrong”. These individual however, are more likely to be discouraged from doing something illegal by the threat of punishment. Another study suggest that, the more severe the punishment is for a certain crime, the less likely it is for jury to execute a specific sentence; therefore it seems that as severity of the crime increases, certainty of harsh sentence decreases. If one would want to push the rational choice model to its extent, he or she may even argue that more severe and direct the punishment for the crime is in combination with negative experiences with law enforcement may actually increase the likelihood of subsequent crime. In today’s world, where the access to illegal substances and alcohol is still fairly easy and domestic violent rates are still high, one could assume, without a big doubt, that offenders often commit crimes on an impulse, while intoxicated or under some emotional or mental pressure caused by, for example bad financial situation or difficult, inner family condition. What many call “crime overload” is certainly another problem. As crime rates increase, police forces are strained and the certainty of possible arrest decreases. As crime rates decline, police activity usually strengthens and certainty of arrest increases. The fundamental apparatus is what should be examined here. Does certainty of possible arrest daunts individual from committing a crime or does the small level of crime increase certainty? According to researchers like Marcus Felson, Stephan Pfohl and Alan Liska, some crimes and deviant behaviors, especially those considered capital offences like murder or rape with additional bodily harm are not affected by more severe punishment. The above mentioned scholars argue that capital punishment shows that anticipated, overall deterrent effect may not be present. As Pfohl claims, “There appears to be little, if any, difference in rates of capital offenses between states which impose the death penalty and those that do not. In fact, an inverse correlation has been documented; when states abolish the death penalty a corresponding drop in capital crimes is reported (Pfohl, , 1994). Finally, issue regarding the effectiveness of deterrent policies and particularly the suitability of incapacitation and revenge bring up moral and official worries. How far do we really want to go in punishing criminals? Is incapacitation the most concrete use of common capitals? Looking at the widespread understanding among criminologists that considers “aging out” as one of the most important elements of crime process, increasing mandatory sentences for all crimes that are believed to have been committed by perfectly rational individuals who have accurately weighted out all the costs and benefits of the crime they wished to commit, the incapacitation alone seems merely impractical. Without proper rehabilitation these individuals are very likely to commit these crimes again in the future. Great example of the modern use of punishment in accordance with Rational Choice Theory is present in the files from Atkins vs. Virginia Court Case that took place in the year 2000. Despite the fact that Atkins was diagnosed as “mildly-retarded’ with a full IQ of 59, he was sentenced to death for committing crimes of armed robbery and murder. The case was particularly controversial because many believed that under 8th amendment which prohibits “Cruel Punishment”, Atkins shouldn’t be sentenced to death but rather to long imprisonment. After the verdict was released, many scholars, lawyers and policy makers began to ask themselves what is the real role of 8th amendment after all? It seemed as in our country, pressure of public opinion and swiftness of prosecutors may push some cases above the “supreme law” of our land. I believe that the criminal research that evaluates the deterrence with the connection to the Rational Choice Theory may hold many consequences for one of the most important and valued standards in criminal law-mens rea, or in other words “guilty mind”. The main concept of “guilty mind” standard requires that a person cannot be convicted of a crime unless that person intended to commit that crime. Unfortunately, when looking at the case described above, I am wretched to admit that mens rea isn’t always executed and respected. The study assessed in this paper, proves that a big portion of all crimes is committed by individuals that aren’t fully aware of their actions, as in the case when they are intoxicated or under tremendous mental strain. Moreover, many mentally disturbed and/or retarded criminals, even though conscious about the fact that they are taking part in criminal act, are often influenced by others who are often “brains” of entire process of wrongdoing. Atkins involvement in the murder for which he was sentenced to death is a great example of such situation. The measure of someone’s guilt is perhaps the most important factor in determining the appropriate sentence for crime that has been committed. How do we measure someone’s guilt? It is the moment that the principal of mens rea comes into play. Mens rea represents the amount of intend that an individual had while committing his offence. If we took Rational Choice Theory and traditional Mens rea concept and combine them together, we would get one of the most sophisticated and perfectly formulated theories that deal with understanding of criminal behavior. It could be written as follows, “Since the criminal is a perfectly rational human being who, while committing the crime is fully aware of what he/she is doing and decides that benefits that will come from the crime outweigh the costs associated with punishment for this crime, than this person is guilty without the smallest doubt, intend is 100% in all the cases”. As much as I would wish this theory was correct, it only reflects a utopian dream in which all crimes and consequential punishments for them are perfectly clear and comprehensible. Reality however, is totally different and much more complex. To understand the importance of theories such as Rational Choice Theory one must often think “outside the box”. While the theory itself is quiet practical and compelling, without taking into consideration other aspects of crime and criminal behavior mentioned earlier in this paper, it becomes completely useless and invalid. It is because of the principal of mens rea that we need so many people in our courtrooms today, beginning with prosecutors, judges and jury, ending with psychologist, forensic scientists and psychiatrists in order to solve cases, especially those that involve murder. It is often very difficult to measure someone’s guilt and intend to commit such offence as murder looking solely on the crime itself and basing the explanation for it on Rational Choice Theory. Concurring with other critiques of the Rational Choice Theory I believe that the theory alone is quite misleading and all those who support it fully should consider studying it with comparison to mens rea or compare it to other counter theories like Classical Theory. If we want to respect principals of our criminal law which mens rea is a great example of, we should definitely stop the ongoing process of generalization and simplification of our legal norms and standards and apply and more ethical and just standards of practicing law in our courtrooms.

Competition in an Oligopolistic Market Cause and Effect Essay

essay helper free Oligopoly is a market system that is intermediate between monopoly and perfect competition. It is a type of market that is dominated by only a number of firms. These firms control the prices of the commodities they sell and the industry they dominate is characterized by significant barriers to entry. Oligopolistic markets are also characterized by similarities of the products they sell and thus the firms practicing oligopoly are normally interdependent in terms of policy formulation and competition strategies. The competition strategies are normally meant to make the minor differences in their products attractive to their customers so that the particular firm may have a competitive edge. Examples of oligopoly markets here in the United States are the automobile and the steel industry (Friedman 11 – 14). Since oligopoly is characterized by a few numbers of firms in the industry, each individual firm must predict the response of rival firms before it formulates output or pricing strategies. This leads to the aforementioned interdependence and thus the firms are forced to engage in what is termed as non-price competition. This kind of competition involves differentiation of virtually similar products by using means that are not price-based for fear of price wars. Therefore, companies achieve their competitive advantage by investing in promotions, improvement of the quality of their goods and services, offering of special services like delivery, provision of their goods/services at locations that are convenient for the consumers etc (Hannaford 1). Firms in oligopoly markets also practice price discrimination to maximize on their profits or win a larger proportion of the customer base. As mentioned earlier, the firms in oligopoly engage in the manufacture and/or sale of goods that are not easy to manufacture. The goods may be difficult to manufacture due to large capital requirement like in the automobile industry, unavailability of raw materials like in the steel industry, etc. The above stated reasons act as barriers to entry together with a number of other factors. Since the products are normally of high value, the industry is characterized with a high elasticity of demand. It is this elasticity of demand that makes price discrimination possible in these markets. For instance, different people pay different amounts of money for the same car depending on the amount they are willing to pay for the car and their skills in bargaining. The above described price discrimination is one of three possible price discrimination strategies. It is known as first degree price discrimination. The other price discrimination strategies used by oligopoly markets are second and third degree price discrimination. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second degree price discrimination involves charging of higher prices for larger quantities of goods while third degree price discrimination is the most common and it depends on the firm’s understanding of its market. The latter takes many different forms and it is the one commonly used for achievement of competitive advantage by oligopolies (Pietersz 1). Some of the possible forms it may take include the ranking of customers into groups depending on their income and selling goods to different groups at different prices. The competitive strategies used by oligopoly markets have a lot of effects on the industry. For instance, price discrimination leads to the reduction of consumer surplus and thus it negatively affects the welfare of the consumer. On the other hand, the extraction of consumer surplus makes the firms make supernormal profits which are in the interests of the firms. Such price discrimination is, therefore, advantageous to the firms since the primary concern of any business enterprise is profit maximization. Some firms may also set prices below cost for some customers in a bid to have a competitive edge in terms of market share. This kind of price discrimination will be advantageous to the consumers and disadvantageous to the suppliers. Similarly, non-price competition has a lot of influence on consumer behavior in an oligopoly market. Consumers tend to prefer goods that have been promoted and those that are convenient in terms of delivery or those goods, whose minor details, like color, match the preferences of the consumers. Non-corporative strategic behavior also has numerous effects on the industry. It mostly results to unhealthy competition between the involved firms and tends o be advantageous to the consumers (Friedman 19). As evidenced in the discussion above, oligopolistic firms have a major challenge in laying down competitive strategies and policies. This is because price competition in this industry is disastrous and can, possibly, drive all the firms out of business. The firms also sell virtually identical products and this magnifies the difficulty that they face in achieving a competitive edge. As mentioned earlier, the firms settle for competition strategies like non-price competition, non-corporative strategic behavior etc. This is normally due to the interdependence of the firms. These competition strategies have the aforementioned injurious and beneficial effects on the consumers and the suppliers. It is therefore of, essence, that oligopolistic firms set policies and competitive strategies that are beneficial to both the firms and their consumers. Works Cited Friedman, James. Oligopoly Theory. New York. Barnes

Painting Art: Pablo Picasso – the 20th Century Genius Research Paper

The life and times of Pablo Picasso Born Pablo Ruiz in Malaga in 1881, Picasso received early training in arts from his father Don Jose Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher in a local school of fine arts and crafts (Cirlot, 2009). The mother, Maria Picasso Lopez, also played an important role in modeling Pablo Picasso’s career. In Malaga, Picasso spent only the first ten years of his life, but he produced his first work in the city (Cirlot, 2009). The Blasco family was not financially stable at the time, especially because Don Blasco’s salary was not enough to cater for the family. Therefore, when he was offered a better job in La Coruna, he moved with his family. Apart from Pablo, the family included two other children- Dolores (born in 1884) and Conchita (born in 1887). Here, the family lived for four years (Cirlot, 2009). By 1894, Blasco had been convinced that his son was a genius in arts after realizing the talent in him. Despite his age, Pablo was producing amazing paintings. History states that Blasco handed over his brush and palette to the young boy in 1895 and declared never to paint again. In the same year, Don Blasco became a professor of arts in the Barcelona School of Fine Arts, where he settled with his family (Cirlot, 2009). Here, Pablo Picasso enrolled as an art student and excelled in painting, which marked the long career of a 20th-century arts genius. For instance, his two famous works “The First Communion” and the “Science, and Charity” became popular in the institute as “academic oil paintings” (Cirlot, 2009). Pablo’s uncle also sponsored him to study at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Barcelona, but Picasso decided to drop from the institute within a few months of enrollment. Pablo Picasso’s work: Examining the Genius in Picasso’s Modernism and influence on Pluralism Noteworthy, Pablo Picasso was interested in themes that reflect modern life in Barcelona and the world in general. In this way, he promoted the idea of modernism in painting. For instance, his 1901 painting “Death of Casagemas” reflects the death of Case games, his friend who committed suicide after a girl he loved denied him the love expected (Cirlot, 2009). The tragedy shocked Picasso such that he depicted the death in his painting that used blue color. In addition, he produced another painting “Evocation- the burial of Case games”. The two paintings are important in the evolution of modernism in European arts (Cirlot, 2009). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They were made on canvas and reflected the stylistic influence on the paintings of the time. For instance, they were made in blue color with only a few other colors like black. In addition, the paintings reflected the sad mood of the events, especially because Case games was a minor (FitzGerald, 2006). During the Blue era, Picasso moved between Paris and Barcelona and made various paintings in blue color, attempting to show the “sad mood” of the population. He selected such themes as despair, isolation, unhappiness, old age, and poverty (FitzGerald, 2006). These themes reflected the true nature of the society at the time, especially because Europe was transforming economically, socially and politically. Most families experienced isolation because male parents were required to work for many hours in industries and other areas in order to provide for their families (Berger, 2011). The blue paintings of the era depicted gaunt mothers and children in the city. For example, Picasso’s painting “The frugal repast” of 1904 depicts an emaciated woman and a gaunt blind man seated at a bare table, probably hoping to get food (Cirlot, 2009). In addition, the blue paintings represent the evils caused by a number of socioeconomic factors. For instance, the subject of beggars and prostitutes is represented in some of Picasso’s paintings because they were some of the most common aspects of the transforming society (FitzGerald, 2006). Picasso’s Rose period lasted between 1904 and 1906. The paintings in this era had a cheery style and often depicted French acrobats. In addition, they depicted harlequins, a common feature in Paris. These represent modern life in European cities, especially Paris, where acrobatics and other comic arts were popular. Cubism is perhaps one of the most important artistic movements that define Pablo Picasso’s contribution to the modernism in arts. Picasso and his friend Georges Braque developed analytic cubism, which lasted between 1909 and 1912. They used monochrome brownish as well as neutral colors in most of the paintings (Berger, 2011). The analytical nature of cubism is characterized by the analysis of parts of objects in terms of their shapes. We will write a custom Research Paper on Painting Art: Pablo Picasso – the 20th Century Genius specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, Picasso’s 1909 painting “Femme assize”, made of oil and canvas, provides a good example of the works in this era. It depicts a woman sitting on a comfortable chair placed in a small room (Cirlot, 2009). She is looking at something or someone in front of her. It is likely that she was Marie-Therese Walter, Picasso’s mistress who played a significant role in promoting his career (Berger, 2011). The brightness of the green-yellow sunlight is an indication of the freedom of color use, a major characteristic of cubism style. In addition, each of the elements of the figure, including the garments the woman is wearing, the exposed parts of the chair and the background have different colors and shapes, which is an example of the style of cubism that involved analyzing each element of an object according to its shape. Lines and color are used to show different shapes of different objects. These aspects are also evident in several other works by Picasso in the cubism era such as “Figure dans un fauteuil,” “La Femme au pot de moutarde” and “Fanny Tellier”, which were made on oil on canvas (Berger, 2011). Also, surrealism attempts to resolve the previously ignored contradictory conditions of reality as well as dreams. Picasso included aspects of cubism in surrealism, which increased the ability of artists to express themselves emotionally. Picasso’s work “Guernica” (1937) is a good example of his ability to apply cubism in surrealism. These evidence prove that Picasso’s work influenced the existence of more than one social and arts culture in the 20th century. For instance, while it is agreed that he was aligned to cubism and surrealism, it is evident that Picasso never practiced his painting exclusively based on the two styles. For example, his painting “Harlequin” was in synthetic cubism, whereas “the drawing of Vollard” was executed in the Ingresque style, which emulated the works of Jean August Dominique, a 19th-century neoclassical artist (Berger, 2011). Picasso’s impact on modern arts and culture Pablo Picasso’s role in promoting the 20th-century artistic movements is the work of a genius in the profession (Berger, 2011). Unlike other artists, Picasso’s first work was produced when he was a child. In fact, he created two important movements- the blue and rose movements- when he was still a young person. In addition, Picasso never aligned himself to a single style- he founded and promoted analytical and synthetic cubism, supported realism and heavily influenced pluralism. In fact, he believed in injecting ideas and philosophies of one style into another to improve the outcomes. Not sure if you can write a paper on Painting Art: Pablo Picasso – the 20th Century Genius by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he believed in reflecting the prevailing social, cultural and political issues affecting his society (Berger, 2011). These aspects explain why Pablo Picasso should be considered “the genius of the 20th-century arts”. References Berger, J. (2011). The success and failure of Picasso. London: Pantheon Books Cirlot, J. E. (2009). Picasso, birth of a genius. New York and Washington: Praeger. FitzGerald, M. C. (2006). Making modernism: Picasso and the creation of the market for twentieth-century art. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press

Problem Set

Problem Set. Paper details A between-group one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) compares the mean values of more than two groups. In this assignment, you will review the SPSS output for an ANOVA and use it to answer questions about the means of the groups. General Requirements: Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment: Review “SPSS Access Instructions” for information on how to access SPSS for this assignment. Download “SPSS Data Set Legend” for use with this assignment. Download “Module 5 SPSS Output” for use with this assignment. Directions: Review the SPSS output file, which reports the results of the between-group (independent group) one-way ANOVA to see if the mean alcohol by volume (%) of the beer differs as a function of quality of the brand as rated by a beer expert (in 2012). Answer the following questions based on your observations of the SPSS output file: Looking at the descriptives (first information), do you see differences in the mean alcohol contents for the three levels of quality? Explain. Looking at the Test for Homogeneity of Variances (Levene Statistic), is it reasonable to proceed with the ANOVA? Is the assumption met, or violated? How do you know? Looking at the results of the ANOVA, is there a significant difference in the mean alcohol content for beers in the three quality groups? How do you know? Write the results in the following format: F(df value) = ___, p value = ______. The pairwise post hoc tests indicate which quality groups’ means are statistically significantly different for the others. Using the results of the Tukey HSD post hoc test, what two quality rating groups had significantly different mean alcohol by volume levels? How do you know?Problem Set