Would you want to live in Edward Bellamy’s utopia?Based on your reading of Looking Backward, what was Bellamy’s critique of the world of millionaire industrialists like Andrew Carnegie and John Rockefeller? Why do you think that Bellamy’s vision of the future was so popular in the late 19th-century United States of America?Feel free to pick any of these questions as your essay topic.- 750 words (1.5 pages)-They should consist of three parts1. Exposition. Your first paragraph should describe the book, and briefly explain what you have decided about one or more of the questions that I have posed.2. Development. The middle of your essay should explain your answer. It should offer details about the main arguments and content of the book to support your claims. 3. Conclusion. Your last paragraph should recapitulate your argument, and add some final point that you think bolsters your perspective.-MLA format be sure to citehttp://www.gutenberg.org/files/624/624-h/624-h.htm Link to Edward Bellamy’s p
San Jose State University ?Would You Want to Live in Edward Bellamys Utopia Paper
Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis Expository Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Pharmaceutical Aerosols Systemic physical training and TB prevention Vitamin D in prevention and treatment of TB Conclusion References Introduction TB, a contagious chronic disease that primarily affects the lungs is caused by the inhalation of Mycobacterium bacilli (Hanif
BIO 130 Cuyamaca College Cystic Fibrosis Research Report
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BIO 130 Cuyamaca College Cystic Fibrosis Research Report
Data Analysis and Verification Plan
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Based on the data collection plan developed in week 6, develop the data analysis and verification plan. Write a 5-7-page paper that includes the following:
Sources of data: Refer to Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2006) in week-4 readings, and describe which of the data analysis steps outlined on page 491 and 492 (Figure 3) will be followed. Refer to Adams-Budde at al. (2014) in week 7 readings to describe how each source of data will be used in the analysis. Use other readings as models to discuss data integration procedures.
Refer to articles provided in weeks 7 and 8 to discuss specific verification strategies for proposed data analysis: how will the issues of validity (quantitative data) and trustworthiness (qualitative data) be addressed? Make sure to cite articles from the readings to support your procedures.
Discuss limitations of the proposed data analysis plan and reflect on the potential theoretical and practical significance of your work.
Data Analysis and Verification Plan
Music. Motet’s Inception Through Josquin’s Works Research Paper
Table of Contents Introduction The history of motet The new period of motet Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The Columbia Encyclopedia (2007) suggests the two-fold definition of motet: the one that stands to define the type of musical composition of the XIII century and the one that stands to denote the type that appeared during the Renaissance. In the first case the motet denotes “a polyphonic composition based on a tenor that was a fragment of plainsong (or, later, of any type of melody, sacred or secular) arranged in a brief, reiterated rhythmic pattern called an ordo.” (33042) In the second case it is “a polyphonic, unaccompanied composition” that “had usually from four to six voices” and “but one text.” (33042) The history of motet There are two possible sources of the term: it may either come from the Latin movere (“to move”) or a Latinized version of Old French mot (“word”, “verbal utterance”). Jean de Grouchy, a music theoretician, was one among the first scholars to define a motet, he admitted that the motet was “not intended for the vulgar who do not understand its finer points and derive no pleasure from hearing it: it is meant for educated people and those who look for refinement in art.”(The Development of the Motet) From the beginning of the XIII up to the middle of the XVIII century the motet remained one of the most important forms of polyphonic music. There is no single set of characteristics to give a general definition of the motet. It can only be treated in historical and regional context. The motet originated in the XIII century: Perotin and his contemporaries at Notre Dame, Paris, added words to the upper voice of a Clausula, with a plainchant tenor. The motet developed from discant (clausula) sections, in a longer sequence of organum, with upper voices added to it. As a rule, the discant was a strophic sequence in Latin and was sung as a discant over a cantus firmus (typically, a Gregorain chant fragment with different words from the discant) This practice marked the beginnings of counterpoint in Western music, which meant the technique involving the simultaneous sounding of two or more parts or melodies. These first motets gave way to a medieval tradition of secular motets: two or three part compositions with several texts sung simultaneously over the cantus firmus. Soon the motet developed into the pre-eminent form of secular art music during the late Middle Ages. The medieval motet was a polyphonic composition in which the fundamental voice (tenor) was usually arranged in a pattern of reiterated rhythmic configurations, while the upper voice or voices (up to three), nearly always with different Latin or French texts, generally moved at a faster rate. The new period of motet The stylistic period in music of the Late Middle Ages is called Ars Nova. The term refers to music centered in France and embraces the period from the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel (a huge compilation of poetry and music, 1310 and 1314) until the death of Machaut (1377). The Roman de Fauvel comprises numerous medieval motets most of which are anonymous. Still, there are several pieces by Philippe de Vitry, one of the pioneers of the isorhythmic motet, a development of the fourteenth century motet history. Guillaume de Machaut, the finest composer of the time, achieved perfection in this motet type. The new techniques and forms were intended to add more expressiveness to music and create variety as compared with the XIII century. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the first half of the XV century motet’s liturgical ties were restored, and it continued to evolve by adapting a number of forms and styles borrowed in part from the chanson, tenor mass and, later, the madrigal. Though during the transition from medieval to Renaissance music the name of the composition remained the same, its character changed significantly. Composers of this time gradually abandoned the use of the cantus firmus. A transitional figure of the period is Guillaume Dufay who wrote one of the last motets in the medieval isorhythmic style. The Renaissance motets were not specifically connected to liturgy of a given day, thus, they could be used in any service. Normally, these were short polyphonic musical settings for chorus of a Latin text. The texts of antiphons served as the basis for motet texts. The Renaissance motets were sacred madrigals. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina is the author of numerous madrigal-like compositions. The language of the text helped to differentiate between madrigals and motets: if it was in Latin, it was a motet, if in the vernacular, it was a madrigal. Renaissance motets developed in episodic format: separate phrases of the source text were given independent melodic treatment and contrapuntal development, monody often replaced contrapuntal passages. During the Renaissance period secular motets continued to be written. Their Latin text praised a monarch, some public event or music itself. Contrary to the medieval motets the Renaissance motets did not disclose the theme of courty love. “Ceremonial motets” was one of the forms of secular motets of the Renaissance period. It was characterized by a clear diction (as the audience was not expected to be familiar with the texts) and a clear articulation of formal structure. The most prominent representatives of this genre are Adrian Willaert, Ludwig Senfl, and Cipriano de Rore. The late XV and early XVI centuries in the history of motet are marked by the name of Josquin des Prez. He was the key figure of this age. His compositional style embraces both the Medieval and Renaissance traits. Actually, his works represent a vast range of styles. They vary from homophonic settings with block chords and syllabic text declamation to highly ornate contrapuntal fantasies. He wrote motets with additional rhetorical figures and text-painting that rendered the later trends in madrigal development. Many of the composer’s works were written for four voices. This ensemble size became the compositional norm of that time. Also, Josquin is considered to be an innovator in writing works for five and six voices. The composer resorted to various methods to create his works: the works were either unified by the cantus firmus, or they were canonic, or they used a motto which repeated throughout, some works were based on the mixture of these methods. Josquin’s motets that use canon fall into two groups: the motets with canon used to be heard and appreciated as such and the motets in which canon is present but appreciated by the eye and connoisseurs as it is almost impossible to hear. Imitation, especially a paired one, was one of the favorite devices Josquin resorted to in his works. He set the text with sections akin to fugal expositions occurring in successive lines (as in Dominus regnavit for four voices). We will write a custom Research Paper on Music. Motet’s Inception Through Josquin’s Works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Josquin was a pioneer in writing polyphonic settings for psalms, few composers prior to him had written the works of this type. Misere, Memor esto verbi tui, De profundis are considered to be the most significant achievements of Josquin. If we consider his Ave Maria we should say that here his technical technique reaches its climax. Imitative polyphony is combined with a perfect reading of the text that Josquin gets. In this work lyricism goes along with fine musical lines and dazzling harmonies. De profundis clamavi renders the depth of emotion that cannot but fascinate the listener. It is sung in a low register. Descending motives the work begins with and a dark minor tonality it is written in denote the despair that the text conveys. Other woks of Josquin are also characterized by a wide range of emotions and exuberance that they convey. Tone, balance, dynamics of the works are highly professional and make the author a significant figure in the genre. By the composer’s death in 1521, the musical form of the XVI century motet was essentially shaped. Baroque motets fall into two types: petits motets, sacred choral compositions whose only accompaniment was a basso continuo; and grands motets, which included instruments up to and including a full orchestra. Jean-Baptiste Lully, Pierre Perrin, Johann Sebastian Bach are the names to represent this period. In the XVIII century few motets were written, Mozart’s Ave verum corpus is created in this genre. The XIX century in the history of the motet is marked by the names of Johannes Brahms, Anton Bruckner, Camille Saint-Saëns, César Franck, Charles Villiers Stanford. Most of their works were a capella, but some were accompanied by organ. Charles Villiers Stanford, Edmund Rubbra, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Hugo Distler, and Ernst Krenek are the composers of the XX century motets, though their works are not marked by some innovative techniques, the authors simply imitated what was created before. Conclusion Thus, the motet has a long history with each époque adding some new peculiarities to the style. Though the compositions never became a popular genre, their contribution to the overall history of music cannot be underestimated. Works Cited “Motet.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. “The Development of the Motet.” The End of Europe’s Middle Ages. 1998. University of Calgary. Web. Baines, Anthony. Musical Instruments Through the Ages. New York: Walker and Company, 1975. Not sure if you can write a paper on Music. Motet’s Inception Through Josquin’s Works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Blanche Gangwere. Music History During the Renaissance Period. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger Publishers, 2004. Fenlon, Iain. The Renaissance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Munrow, David. Instruments of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. London: Oxford University Press, 1976. Seay, Albert. Music in the Medieval World. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1965. Strunk, Oliver. Source Readings in Music History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1950.