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San Jose State University Inferential Statistics and Analytics Discussion

San Jose State University Inferential Statistics and Analytics Discussion.

A:Independent measures design, also called between groups, explain how participants are placed in different experimental groups. The paired design, also called the dependent sample t-test, compares two sets of groups (Derick et al., 2017). A paired t-test is used to compare the same groups’ means under different circumstances, while an independent design compares the mean of two unrelated groups. In a paired t-test, the groups’ samples are assumed to be unequal, while the independent design samples are assumed to be equal. The advantage of using independent measures is that orders cannot be affected due to some factors such as fatigue or boredom. The advantage of using dependent measures is that the differences between participants are not considered.Influence of type I and II errors on the construction of a hypothesis.Type I analysis can reject the correct null hypothesis conclusion or finding. Type II errors cannot reject a false null hypothesis conclusion or finding. A hypothesis is a conclusion of an idea proposed to be discussed and tested to know if it is true. Type I ensures that the hypothesis supports th data tested and provide evidence for the case (Derick et al.). It is incorrect to reject a null hypothesis that shows no relation to test subject, outcome and. Type II error can be reduced by strictly following the procedures, rules and details, increasing the chances of getting a false positive.B: As per (Glen, 2021), In the independent experimental design the separate groups are created for each treatment associated in the design. This does make each of the participant to be only in one treatment group and that is why this type of design is called the independent measures design. The advantage this design brings is that multiple treatments and treatment levels can be tested at the same point of time. As per (Glen, 2021), This type of design provides quicker completion of the task. As per (Glen, 2021), While in the paired design the two treatments are assigned to the homogeneous groups of subjects which does maximize the homogeneity in each of the pairs. This type of design sometimes called special case of the randomized block design. The pairs are being set as similar as we can in this type of design. The block contains the matched pairs which are randomly assigned a treatment. During the time of hypothesis testing the two type of the possible errors is associated which are the type I and type II errors, which are most likely to happen in the hypothesis testing(Taylor, 2019). As per (Taylor, 2019), the type II errors are tend to occur when we do not reject the null hypothesis which is indeed false in nature which postures their behavior similar to the false negatives. This type of error is called the an error of the second kind. The Greek letter beta is used to denote the Type II errors, and it relies on the power of sensitivity of the hypothesis test. As per (Taylor, 2019), type I error is the error which can be occurred when we reject a null hypothesis which is indeed true and it makes the type I error. This type of error is called an error of the first kind. It is close to the false positive. This kind of errors are possible to control and the level of significance we select here is in the direct relation of the value of the alpha and that makes direct relevance to the type I errors. Alpha value is the maximum probability that we have type I error.Note:Must be entirely focused on the specific content.Add some generic points that could applyPlease check plagiarism, GrammarlyAPA FormatRecommended Textbooks:1.Discovering Statistics and Data, 3rd Edition, by Hawkes. Published by Hawkes Learning Systems.2.Lind, Marchal, Wathen, Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics, 16th Edition.
San Jose State University Inferential Statistics and Analytics Discussion

Campbellsville University Project Management Discussion.

Reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Identify what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:Identify and discuss some of the problems or dangers in using project networks. Under what circumstances can they be beneficial, and when can they be dangerous? Respond to the post of at least two peers, using 100 words minimum each.[Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion]. [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review]
Campbellsville University Project Management Discussion

Table of Contents Introduction Analysis Conclusion References Introduction The conflicts between the bureaucracies and the citizens affected by their new policies arise quite frequently. However, in the higher education sector, these issues are relatively novel. McCann and Perez-Pena (2016) describe the strike started by the faculty members of Pennsylvania state educational institutions: “Thousands of faculty members went on strike Wednesday at 14 Pennsylvania state colleges and universities — a rare escalation in higher education, but one that reflects increasingly widespread tensions between administrators and their faculties” (para. 1). They stress that the walkout situation is entirely new to the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education and is also “one of a handful of faculty strikes around the country in recent years” (McCann and Perez-Pena, 2016, para. 2). The strike and its consequences can be used to illustrate the core concepts of public administration, such as bureaucracy, bureaucratic power, and accountability. Analysis The primary cause of the walkout was the unfairness of the working conditions of the faculty members. For instance, as McCann and Perez-Pena (2016) explain, unionized faculty members have been working without a contract since the end of June 2015. However, when new contracts were reached, the education workers found the new conditions unacceptable: low pay and benefits and the high price of health insurance were among the newly proposed conditions (McCan and Perez-Pena, 2016). As a result, “more than 5,000 professors and coaches at 14 institutions across the state with a combined enrollment of more than 100,000 students” (McCan and Perez-Pena, 2016, para. 5) went on strike for three days, until the tentative agreement was reached. In the end, even though “the union would not get raises as high as those of other unions representing state workers that recently settled contracts” (Mele, 2016, para. 6), the strike still managed to grant employees some raises and new ways to save on health care costs. So, how do the concepts of bureaucracy, bureaucratic power, and accountability apply to this example? As a structure that administers the workings of educational institutions on a state level, the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education is a bureaucracy. It has a certain sector of expertise (education), as well as governmental support, and thus it has bureaucratic power, which gives the System the right to enact new policies and regulations that affect the state education system and its citizens. Finally, accountability is defined by Milakovich and Gordon (2013) as “a political principle according to which agencies or organizations, such as those in government, are subject to some form of external control, causing them to give a general account of, and for, their actions” (p. 59). Clearly, the State System is accountable to higher administrative levels, for instance, the state government. However, it is also answerable to the citizens affected by its policies and regulations. Despite the fact that the citizens do not have any formal control over the State System, they can still influence its decisions, as we have seen in the example above. Conclusion The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education aims to expand and improve the field it administers, and sometimes weak strategies, such as cutting the faculty members’ benefits in order to save budget, are employed to achieve its goals. However, the accountability of the State System to the affected education workers provides some protection against those decisions and, thus, facilitates a smoother working of the bureaucracy. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Milakovich, M. E.,

FIU Week 7 Health Care Licensure and Professional Regulations Discussion

FIU Week 7 Health Care Licensure and Professional Regulations Discussion.

Based on the information provided to you in Chapter 7 of Health Care USA: Health Care Personnel, you are to discuss one of the following: Fewer nurses taking care of more severely ill patients during shorter hospital stays and the need to supervise non-professional personnel has increased nursing workloads, lowered morale, and raised concerns about the quality of care.Compare and contrast your education and training with other two other health occupations. Do licensure and other professional regulations serve the public as much as they serve the self-interest of those already in the various regulated professions? Explain your answer.…
FIU Week 7 Health Care Licensure and Professional Regulations Discussion

The Fight how Things Are Done and How Society Perceives Things Discussion

essay writing service free The Fight how Things Are Done and How Society Perceives Things Discussion.

I’m working on a literature writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

In Section 6 of “The Fight”, Dana says that Tom Weylin “wasn’t a monster…[he was] just an ordinary man who sometimes did the monstrous things his society said were legal and proper”.In two well-developed paragraph, complete the following:Explain what Dana’s statement means and how this statement can apply to Rufus and/or Tom Weylin.Discuss to what extent you agree with Dana’s statement. Comment on what bigger statement about society Butler is making with this idea.Make sure you have zero plagiarism and zero grammar mistakes. This must be written in two well-developed paragraphs (no more than two)
The Fight how Things Are Done and How Society Perceives Things Discussion

The controversial issue of animal testing

The controversial issue of animal testing. Animal testing is categorized into three main groups which are chemical testing, medical testing and research testing. Using non-human animals for such tests is a controversial issue that may lead several opinions whether on experts and non-expert views. Experts might say it is beneficial to human because without the non-human animals, where would science be now? Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) were among the first to perform experiments on living animals. The physician operates and testing surgical procedures on to the animals before implementing on to human. Long ago, research in animal testing had helped people in curing their illness and seemed like the animals died for a good cause. On the other hand, people who stand up for animal rights would see this as cruel and injustice act for the animals. They claimed that animals have feelings and they can feel pain too. The pros and cons are still in consideration by most animal-testing industry in order to keep the consumer needs. But, is it morally acceptable to experiment on non-human animals to develop products and medicines that benefit human beings? No, it is morally unacceptable. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 5th edition, moral is based on one’s sense of what is right and just, not on legal rights and obligation; able to understand the differences between right and wrong. Billions of animals have died to advance science. To test one chemical whether or not it is carcinogenic which means any substance that produces cancer, it takes 500 to 1000 animals to be tested and to make sure that the chemical is free from cancer -causal. We rather let the animals die because of expected cancer from the chemicals just to satisfy human needs in cosmetics, household compound and pharmacy. Not that on the other hand it meant that we rather see human died because the chemicals are not tested but logically, the scientists should have known the cause of cancer, why would they put the chemicals in the product at first place? If science is advance enough, why use the innocent animals? Humanity should speak by itself. From the definition itself and the question asked, the answers would be a definite no because it is wrong to experiment on animals because animals are living things that have emotions. Animals do not just suffer from physical pain but also mental pain. We can notice a person’s emotions without him saying anything because of non-verbal language or body language he expressed. If we can examine body language in human, then we are also able to observe non-verbal language of animals. Love an animal, it will love you, hurt the animal, it will hurt you. Pictures of vivisections of animals (Appendix 1), their eyes were filled with pain and innocent faces are enough to upset us human. When we experiencing on animals, it is likely to experience on humans, the difference is just animals do not speak human and we cannot understand them. We might as well pictured the animals being tortured, in great pains, yelling for help and trying their very hard to escape from that ‘evil’ experiment. Experiment is what we called a scientific test done carefully in order to study what happens and to gain new knowledge, quoted from the dictionary. Any side effects will result in failure and poor animals, another hundreds or thousands of them will be used in the experiment to get better results. Consider yourself being experimented by another form of species and they treat you the same way as human did to non-human animals (Appendix 2). Allegedly, there is ‘animal euthanasia’ which means the act of unpainful killing. How can we ever know that it is not painful? How can we know that the animals used in so-called painless death tests died peacefully? Before a new aftermath shown in your local stores, the goods have gone through a complicated and long process which leaves millions of tested animals damaged, poisoned, undergo mutation, and other unnecessary tests. Animal testing is cruelty to them, forcing them to endure the frightful side effects just so a new product can be released. Chemical testing on animals are not 100% accurate because animals do not respond the same as human does. In reality, animal research and scientists never guarantee that medication, cosmetics and other products will be safe and effective for human. There are products that have been pulled out of the market because of consumer complaints of irritancy on skins and some were severe illness and death but were previously tested on animals. Although the tests on medicine seemed safe for consumer use, “two million Americans become seriously ill and approximately 100,000 people die every year because of reactions to medicines they were prescribed” extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 2. The statistics occurred because of the inaccurate animal experimentation which results inadequate evaluation the effects of chemicals on humans. Different animals have different body system and it reacts differently. Animals and human obviously have different condition of body system and it is the entire issue of the failure. Biologically speaking, different body system would result in different drug metabolism and thus dissimilar effects take place. Innumerous animals have been sacrificed and suffering from animal abuse during medicine testing. This situation is very unfair. While humans are cured, animals are slaughtered. The alternatives would be computer simulations and modeling which have the entire database from previous animal testing subjects. Millions of animals were used onto the same type of product. Researchers should file the report of the experiment and if it is proven safe to human, other industry that wants to do the same product, they should use the same chemicals or whatever materials they required but not the animals testing. The software can be used in major research centre to do such test with any chemical involve in creating a product that benefit human. Such synthetic skin would be great to test products on skin. Besides that, government and non-government could create great awareness by advertising such ads that directs the realization to the consumer (Appendix 3). Advertisement that has subtle messages creates no awareness among people because somehow it did not touch their heart. When the main point of the advertisement is being straight-forward, people would realize and immediately take effect. As for closure, animal testing is an immoral act. Animal suffering is a cruel act. Yes, it benefits humans to be beautiful and healthy but not to kill them in return. The scientists and researchers should have other way that is more humane. Animals are living things create by God and they can respond the same as human do. The effectiveness of the products tested on animals can never be guaranteed 100% because the products still harm the consumer even though it has been proven safe. Even the effects only affect small number of people, still we are putting the humans in danger. There are other possible options as alternatives for animal testing. Any industry can be science-advance without animal testing. If animal-testing is being prolong, will our future generations still be able to learn about the animals? Do you think the animals-tested will extinct? References Darshini Kandasamy “Animal-testing centre to be set up in Malaysia.” Malay Mail Friday, April 2nd, 2010 “‘No’ to animal testing lab plan.” The Star Online Thursday June 10, 2010 Pete Harrison “”Great apes protected as EU restricts animal testing.” The Star Online Wednesday September 8, 2010 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 16 September 2010 S.O.S at the University of Georgia “Animals used in experiments” Janet Babin “Taking the animals out of testing” Thursday, May 24, 2007 Nun ‘Adilah 6 “Animal Testing” June 8, 2010 The National Anti-Vivisection Society “Animals in Product Testing”> “The Human Cost of Animal Experiments” Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 2 “Animal testing” 7 April 2010 Doris Lin “Why It’s Wrong to Test on Animals” Haris Amin “Animal Testing: Is Animal Testing Ethically Incorrect” Haris Amin “Animal Testing: Are there any alternatives” Nun ‘Adilah 7 BMJ “Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans?” 28 February, 2004 Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 5th edition, International Student Nun ‘Adilah 8 APPENDICES The controversial issue of animal testing

How does Addiction Affect Families Essay

Summary The proposed paper will revolve around the problem of addiction and its impact on families, their functioning, relations between members, and children. At the same time, the importance of emotional support and empathy in families in treating individuals with this problem and reducing the number of relapses is also outlined. In this regard, the following thesis will be offered: Addiction has multiple adverse effects on families and all members preconditioning deterioration of relations and high risk of the development of abuse among children, while emotional support and empathy can help to decrease the number of relapses and help to treat patients. To prove the given statement and provide credible evidence, peer-reviewed articles will be used as the central source of information. It will guarantee the relevance of findings and their practical utility. The presented work will offer a detailed analysis of the problem, along with its discussion. Introduction Family is a basic institution of society as it guarantees its functioning and evolution. For this reason, there is much attention devoted to the peculiarities of this unit and factors that have both negative and positive effects on it. The sober fact is that the health of all members of the family is a key aspect of the improvement of relations between all individuals belonging to it and the evolution of this institution. At the same time, some stressors or undesired behaviors might have a pernicious impact on families and all their members. For this reason, it is essential to assess all possible factors related to the functioning of households with the pivotal aim to determine their effects and offer ways to avoid undesired consequences, and establish a paradigm that will foster the evolution of this unit. Addiction can be related to the factors mentioned above, as its negative effects are apparent today. In this regard, the paper will delve into the problem of substance abuse and its influence on families. Background The problem of addiction remains one of the major concerns for the modern healthcare sector. The threatening statistics demonstrate the growing number of adults and children who engage in these undesired behaviors and acquire different kinds of issues related to the adverse effects of substances on mental and physical health (Atadokht, Hajloo, Karimi,