I’m working on a history question and need guidance to help me learn.
Next, discuss your reactions to Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s TED Talk. What points from her talk stood out to you? Why do you think we’re beginning our American Indian Studies course with this video? In other words, how do you think this talk might relate to our course subject matter or serve as a lens through which we can approach the subject matter?Lastly, what did you learn or what stood out to you in our reading about the Kumeyaay of Southern California? Why might it be important to begin our course learning about whose land our own campus occupies? Upon whose homelands does your hometown occupy( my hometown is San Diego California, idk if that will help)? Did you know this information previously? Please share your thoughts/reactions to this information (or lack of!)answer them in numerical order and each must be 150-180 words each. http://viejasbandofkumeyaay.org/viejas-community/k…
San Diego State University TED Talk by Chimanda Ngozi Adichie Discussion
The discussion assignment provides a forum for discussing relevant topics for this week on the basis of the course competencies covered.For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use the Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.TasksJava supports many prewritten classes such as Math and the Gregorian Calendar. Explore the Java documentation at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/index.html and find at least three other built-in classes you think would be useful. Describe these classes and discuss the types of applications in which you would employ them.Most computer games today are very complex. If you are not familiar with them, find descriptions of the games Grand Theft Auto and Stubbs the Zombie. Why are some people opposed to these games? Do you approve of playing them? Would you impose any age restrictions on players?
Health care organizations have always searched for ways to identify and reduce risks. An organization’s ability to identify and analyze its risk exposure is a determining factor in the effectiveness of its risk management program (Hoarle, 2015). Early identification and analysis are essential. Current health care risk management practices developed in the mid-1970s as a result of a surge in malpractice suits. These suits caused rapid increases in claims costs for the industry and later in insurance premiums. Today, health care delivery systems and organizations realize the value of risk management and have developed formalized programs (Hoarle, 2015). In addition, organizations have established mechanisms to review potential incidents of risk and safety concerns (Pelletier & Beaudin, 2018). While risk management programs are responsible for daily management and risk operations, all health care stakeholders are responsible to participate in activities that will reduce unnecessary risks and improve safety and quality (Hoarle, 2015). This second course assessment consists of two parts. You are to assume the role of a new risk manager within your organization’s risk management department. According to your director, employees lack awareness of the organization’s risk management program. Likewise, departments inconsistently apply risk management principles. As a result of these deficiencies, your director has given you your first assignment. Part One: Risk Management Policy and ProcedureYour director has asked you to write a formal risk management policy and procedure for the organization. Part Two: Application of Risk Management Principles to a Specific IncidentIn addition to the policy and procedure, your director has asked you to apply your knowledge of risk management principles to a specific organizational risk that has occurred. You will select one of the three incidents from the Vila Health: Patient Safety media piece from Assessment 1. These incidents included a patient identification error, a medication error, and a HIPAA/privacy violation. Select the risk that holds the most interest for you. Your director believes that the organization’s newly written risk management policy and procedure, coupled with your analysis from a risk management standpoint of a recent, specific incident that occurred, will help employees (and the organization) recognize how the hospital’s risk management program contributes to the overall organization’s safety and quality improvement efforts. ReferencesHoarle, K. (2015). Risk management poised to grow as healthcare evolves. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology, 49(6), 433–435.Pelletier, L. R., & Beaudin, C. L. (2018). HQ solutions: Resource for the healthcare quality professional (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.Demonstration of ProficiencyBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria: Competency 1: Analyze the quality and performance improvement activities within the health care organization.Propose evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk. Competency 2: Explain the risk management function in the health care organization.Explain the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations. Define key risk management terms.Describe the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques. Competency 4: Apply leadership strategies to quality improvement in a health care organization.Analyze the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program.Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.Write a clear, organized risk management policy and procedure that is generally free of errors and is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Provide citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format.PreparationTo help prepare for successfully completing this assessment:Conduct independent research on policy templates. You will find multiple policy templates from which to choose as you write your risk policy and procedure. Select one of the organizational risks from the Vila Health: Patient Safety simulation from Assessment 1. These included a patient identification error, a medication error, and a HIPAA/privacy violation. For Part Two of your assessment you will conduct an in-depth analysis of the organizational risk you selected. InstructionsPart One: Risk Management Policy and Procedure (3–4 pages)As the new risk manager in your health care organization, your director has assigned you responsibility for drafting the organization’s risk management policy and procedure. This assignment stemmed from your director’s perception that employees lacked knowledge and awareness of risk management’s contribution to furthering the organization’s safety and quality improvement efforts. Likewise, your director also saw evidence that departments within the organization were inconsistently applying risk management principles to their daily work practices.The guidance you have received from your director about writing this policy and procedure is that it needs to include all of the following headings. It also needs to answer all of the questions underneath each heading: Purpose Statement:How can a risk management program help this organization advance its strategic safety and quality goals? Key Risk Management Terms:What is the definition for each of these risk management terms? Risk prevention.Risk reduction.Regulatory compliance.Patient safety.Adverse event.Near miss.Risk Categories and Risk Identification Techniques:What are the major risk categories in health care? In your answer, be sure to explain each risk category and to provide relevant examples from the literature to illustrate your points.What risk management strategies will the organization use to identify potential organizational risks? Be sure your narrative identifies and describes such risk identification techniques as concurrent, retrospective, incident reporting, and previous trends. Note: These are only a few of the risk identification techniques to address in your policy and procedure. Be sure to include other examples you are aware of from your professional experience or from reviewing your suggested resources. What are examples of risk categories and their appropriate corresponding risk identification techniques? For example, coding errors are a type of financial risk. Retrospective auditing is the risk identification technique used to identify this risk type. Risk Manager’s Role in Program Implementation and Compliance:What is the risk manager’s role in risk management program implementation and compliance? How can a risk manager impact effective management of the organization’s risk management program?What is one example from the literature that shows how the risk manager role can positively impact a health care organization’s management of its risk management program?Part Two: Application of Risk Management Principles to a Specific Incident (3–4 pages)To further help employees and the organization at large see risk management’s contribution to helping the organization achieve its safety and quality goals, your director has asked you to analyze and apply risk management principles to a recent incident that occurred in the organization. Your director has asked you to include all of the following headings in your analysis and to address all of the questions underneath each heading.Risk Description:Which potential risk to your organization from the Vila Health: Patient Safety simulation are you analyzing? These included patient identification error, medication error, and a HIPAA/privacy violation.Risk Implications:What are the risks to patients, employees, and to the organization if this particular risk is not addressed? In other words, what could happen if the organization chooses to do nothing? Risk Identification:What risk management strategies and techniques will the organization employ to identify this type of risk in the future? For example, will the organization identify this type of risk by analyzing incident report data? What other strategies might the organization employ to identify the risk? Be sure to include your rationale for choosing the particular strategy(ies). Risk Reduction/Elimination:What risk management best practices could the organization employ to eliminate or reduce the risk in the future? For example, if you plan to identify the risk by analyzing incident report data, would you conduct a drill down to determine what is causing the risk? What other best practices might you employ? Consult your suggested resources for guidance on best practices for eliminating and reducing risk. What steps would you take to implement your plan to eliminate or reduce your selected risk? Additional RequirementsLength: Your risk management policy and procedure assessment will be 6–8 double-spaced pages, not including title and reference pages.Font: Times New Roman, 12-point.APA Format: In the health care environment, typically a policy and procedure and analysis document would not be written according to APA style and format. To make this assessment as authentic as possible to what you might actually encounter in the workplace, the body of your assessment does not need to conform to APA guidelines. Do make sure that it is clear, persuasive, organized, and well written without grammatical, punctuation, or spelling errors. At the same time, health care is an evidence-based field. As such, your title and reference pages need to conform to APA format and style guidelines. Likewise, you also must cite your sources according to APA guidelines. Your leaders may question you about the sources of the information you are providing them.Scoring Guide: Please review this assessment’s scoring guide to ensure you understand how your faculty member will evaluate your work.SCORING GUIDEUse the scoring guide to understand how your assessment will be evaluated.VIEW SCORING GUIDECRITERIANON-PERFORMANCEBASICPROFICIENTDISTINGUISHEDPropose evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk.Does not propose evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk.Attempts to propose evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk, but recommendations are not always evidence based or appropriate for the particular risk. Omissions and/or errors exist.Proposes evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk.Proposes multiple evidence-based risk management strategies and techniques to identify and eliminate or reduce a particular risk. Includes multiple examples, specifics, and references to the professional literature.Explain the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations.Does not explain the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations.Attempts to explain the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations; however, omissions and/or errors exist.Explains the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations.Provides a comprehensive explanation of the importance of a risk management program to health care organizations. Includes multiple examples, specifics, and references to the professional literature.Define key risk management terms.Does not define key risk management terms.Attempts to define key risk management terms; however, omissions and/or errors exist.Defines key risk management terms.Provides comprehensive definitions of key risk management terms. Definitions include multiple examples, specifics, and references to the professional literature.Describe the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques.Does not describe the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques.Attempts to describe the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques; however, omissions and/or errors exist.Describes the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques.Describes the major risk categories in a health care organization, along with their corresponding risk identification techniques. Includes multiple examples, specifics, and references to the professional literature.Analyze the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program.Does not analyze the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program.Attempts to analyze the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program; however, omissions and/or errors exist.Analyzes the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program.Provides a comprehensive, accurate analysis of the risk manager’s role in effective management of the organization’s risk management program. Includes multiple examples, specifics, and references to the professional literature.Write a clear, organized risk management policy and procedure that is generally free of errors and is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Does not write a clear, organized, risk management policy and procedure that is generally free of errors and is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Attempts to write a clear, organized, risk management policy and procedure that is generally free of errors and is reflective of professional communication in the health care field; however, significant omissions and/or errors exist.Writes a clear, organized risk management policy and procedure that is generally free of errors and is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Writes a clear, organized, and error-free risk management policy and procedure that is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Provide citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format.Does not provide citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format.Attempts to provide citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format; however, omissions and/ errors exist.Provides citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format.Provides citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format, without errors.
Risk Management Policy and Procedure Discussion
Write in imitation of As I lay dying style. The goal is to sound as much like Faulkner as possible. At the end of the chapter, include a two paragraph analysis of your choices as a writer, entitled “Why i did what i did,”(WIDWID) in which you explain why you wrote as you did making specific reference to Faulkner’s work, ad to your own,Follow MLA format for the citations of Faulkner in your WIDWID.Each chapter of the book is named by a character. Each chapter is taking about the story in that person’s point of view. My character is Addie. And WIDWID two paragraph at the end.Writing a missing chapter using our own words and sounds like what does the author write. and the WIDWID is talking about how we does that and What I do in the paper which sounds like the author write.
Write a new chapter of a book. and sound as much like the author
Social Issues: Appropriateness of Affirmative Action Essay
Affirmative action can be discussed as a policy developed to address the issue of racial discrimination in American society. The problem is in the fact that the focus on affirmative action as the way to respond to the minority’s needs is often considered as a controversial idea because of different attitudes to the policy represented by the members of the racial majority and minority. Affirmative action in the sphere of education can be discussed as the appropriate approach to evaluate the admissions of college students because it can guarantee the equal access to the limited educational resources for students of color and the white majority. The main legal issues associated with affirmative action in the college admission process are based on the opposite ideas that racial quotas similar to the affirmative action policy are illegal and that affirmative action is effective to promote diversity in the student body of elite and selective institutions and serve the community’s diverse needs. On the one hand, affirmative action can contribute to discriminating against white students because of the promotion of racial quotas in the college admission process. The argument for this position is that the incorrect use of affirmative action in evaluating students’ admissions can lead to biases, unfair competition, and to the overuse of racial criteria. The strength of this argument is in the fact that the policy cannot work to correct the racial imbalance in institutions, but it can provoke stronger discrimination. As a result, affirmative action is seen as the illegal approach to evaluating the students’ college admissions. On the other hand, affirmative action provides the opportunity for the underrepresented students to compete in the sphere of education as equals because of avoiding race domination in the process. The focus on the non-white students’ qualifications, performance, and grades promoted with affirmative action become legally supported with two compelling arguments for such an approach in evaluating the students’ admissions. Thus, affirmative action serves to address the educational institutions’ focus on promoting diversity in the student body. Non-white students receive the opportunity to enter elite and selective institutions in spite of the limited access to resources and because of their qualifications and grades. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next compelling argument is the focus on institutions’ responses to the diverse needs of the community. Fixation on grades of students is possible for addressing the excellence of colleges, but it should be supported with making non-white students eligible for joining the college community. Affirmative action can be discussed as the legal initiative which contributes to admitting the fact of the non-white students’ eligibility. Although there are still debates regarding the effectiveness of affirmative action in the sphere of education, it is possible to state that affirmative action is appropriate to evaluate the college students’ admissions because this policy provides students of color with the opportunity to compete in the college admission process along with the white majority and because affirmative action allows decreasing the gap between the evaluation of students according to their performance and qualifications and evaluation of students according to their grades. From this point, affirmative action operates the idea of eligibility as the focus on grades and performance, but affirmative action is also the way to create a diverse student body. Thus, this idea can be discussed as a compelling interest in many elite and selective institutions which need to support their high status.
How Built Environment Can Participate in Conversation
assignment writing services How Built Environment Can Participate in Conversation. SUBJECT AS CLIENT How literature architecture can encompass other than human perspectives Architects have the potential to use design to manifest a platform that enhances not only a human’s experience, but an animal’s, plant’s and organic material’s experience as well. This essay will research how a built environment can facilitate and participate in a “conversation” with all of the inhabitants. Literature and architecture are examined to understand how these arts can encompass other than human perspectives. This is a reaction to the foundation of the built world, as it is typically based on ergonomics and the study of the human scale. For architects, this often leads to the purpose of manifesting a safe, comfortable and inspiring habitat for mankind while overlooking the rest of the ecological system. This essay asks what would happen to our design and architecture if we shift the perspective towards animals and their natural habitat, well-being and social interactions? Animals already construct their own architecture; a termite’s mega-cities, a beaver’s great wall, and a bird’s sky condominium. In this environment each species or subject is enclosed in one’s own realm. Depending on the subject, the objects within its realm are entirely dependent what is relevant to the subject. Their differences in size, appearance, requisites, and perspective will justify that all subjects have their own “umwelt” or surrounding environment. A better understanding of the importance of a multi-perspective space will be illustrated through examples of architectural and literature projects that substitute an anthropocentric perspective for a biocentric perspective. SUBJECT AS CLIENT Literature, philosophy, technology, and science intellectuals have implemented other than human perception into their work. Non-human perspectives include other species, the built environment, plants, and more recently technological objects. An individual’s perspective of space or an object varies depending on the subject’s own form, senses, emotion, memory, methods, and intent with the space or object. By doing so, one will gain a better understanding of the subject’s actions instead of understanding from a human’s skewed impression of the intent. The experiences humans have versus what nonhumans have during the same moment are different. What is consistent throughout the study of all non-human perspectives is the pivot from an anthropocentric mindset, which privileges the human actors, to a biocentric mindset that considers the human actor as an equal among an entire ecological system. Biocentric individualism is understood as the “belief that all living things deserve some moral respect, and the ecological ethic, the belief that ecosystems deserve moral respect as wholes.”(p. 422) This non-anthropocentric perspective involves relations and interactions between humans and non-humans in a non-categorical manner. What is important is how the capabilities and limitations of all the subjects work against or complement each other in any given moment.  One often confuses the biocentric perspective as a view that is in favor animals, excluding the human species. It is essential to understand that the human does not disappear in a non-anthropocentric perspective, it becomes an individual entity in an amalgamation of entities. All entities are legitimate and equal in this mix of “radical pluralism”. The purpose of this essay is to form a better understanding of the biocentric perspective. After forming a basic understanding, examples of theoretical and built projects will be analyzed to allow one to comprehend how literature, architecture and technology may incorporate an other-than human perspective. Such examples highlight the potential design possibilities, material agency considerations, analyze forms, and explore potential senses. Jakob von Uexküll describes subjects’ “umwelt” or unique environment in A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans: with A Theory of Meaning by writing “…for everything a subject perceives belongs to its perception world [Merkwelt], and everything it produces, to its effect world [Wirkwelt]. These two worlds, of perception and production of effects, form one closed unit, the environment…These environments, which are as diverse as the animals themselves, offer every nature lover new land of such richness and beauty that stroll through them will surely be rewarding, even though they are revealed only to our mind’s eye and not our body’s.” (p. 42 ) Although there seems to be development in non-anthropocentric perspectives, human-centeredness continues to dominate literature and design projects. There are obvious implications and hurdles involved when shifting away from a human perspective, however this essay provides an argument towards the non-human perspective and the rewards for exercising this alternative perspective. Concepts may be discounted when implementing only a human-centered perspective. A non-human approach expands the scope requirements of the project and its research as it incorporates the humans needs and wishes as well as other subjects involved. By realigning one’s perspective, new opportunities for a phenomena experience in design, literature and research are created. “…there is a continuous communication not only between living things and their environment, but among all things living in that environment. An intricate web of interaction connects all life into one vast, self-maintaining system. Each part is related to every other part and we are all part of the whole, part of Supernature.” -Lyall Watson Material agency acknowledges how humans and materials interact relationally, not the intentionality attributed to materials. A non-anthropocentric perspective understands that one is in constant dialog with non-human subjects through materials. In the journal article, Non-anthropocentrism and the Nonhuman in Design: Possibilities for Designing New Forms of Engagement with and through Technology, Carl DiSalvo and Johnathan Lukens write: “When considering material agency, it is important to remember that actors interact with other actors regardless of our pre-existing ideas of agency. For example, the DNA of a particular plant may not want or will itself to make copies of itself. We do not think of plants as entities that have desires. Yet fruit is produced that affords us sustenance, and more directly, that affords the plant the ability to distribute its genetic material. As DeLanda (2007b) reminds us, “Capacities are relational: a capacity to affect always goes with a capacity to be affected. This is why a given distribution of opportunities and risks depends both on an environment’s materiality as well as on the behavioral capacities of an animal.”  The human perception is clearly our most relatable and automatic form of perception when manifesting art for humans to enjoy within their own culture. The rapid development of humans over time has created built-environments, social realms, measurements, and material indulgences that undomesticated species do not perceive as important. A simple exercise in comparing a horse interacting with its environment to a human interacting with its environment justifies this. There is a clear difference in an “other-centered” perspective to a generally “self-centered” perspective. As a prey animal, a horse’s senses and awareness to its surrounding environment are extremely acute in comparison to a predator such as a human. Physically, a horse’s eyes are farther apart than a human, creating a different range of vision and perception depth. What may be left, right, up, down, forwards, and backwards to a human is different to a horse. A human may determine a chair as an object to sit on, where a horse may think it’s a predator. A human may use a fence or signage as a boundary line to express their territory, where a horse may use scents and body language to demonstrate what is their territory. A subject’s level of interaction with their surroundings depends entirely on if they have had a previous encounter or a hardwired connection within the space.  Jakob von Uexküll justifies this idea in his writing, “With the number of actions available to an animal, the number of objects in its environment also increases. It increases as well in the individual life of any animal capable of accumulating experiences, for each new experience conditions a new attitude toward new impressions.” (Pg 96)  Humans are imprinted with the belief that our species is are the top of a scala naturae. It is a myth that has been contrived and widely understood by humans that we are superior in all ways to other subjects and that our perception is the most interesting and important. This quotation by Jakob von Uexküll illustrates this myth humans collude with, “… it begins to look increasingly ridiculous for us to indulge our delusions of possessing a radical cleverness, some sort of un-Umwelt that would separate us as if by an “abyss” (as Heidegger puts it) from other animals.”( p. 23) To overcome this position, one can start with exploring non-humans and their abilities to have the capacity to express themselves. Another way to shift one’s perspective would be to visit, meditate or inhabit the natural environment. Returning the roots of all species initial “home” creates sublimity that provokes one’s imagination to recollect a perspective before there was differentiation from other forms of life.  Literature has been successful in exploring a setting from multiple perspectives. Often using symbolism and word play to compare subjects to their objects. Literary scholars often embody non-human subjects as a mechanism for further developing or explaining a character in the story. Although literature is a purely anthropocentric activity, it can be successful in shifting non-human perspectives. This change in perspective triggers phenomena and allows for potential imaginative engagement with the literature. However, incorporating a biocentric perspective in literature is still only beneficial for humans, as they are the one’s engaging in literature. Yet at the same time, it allows for a lesson in understanding one’s surroundings and the plethora of other perspectives in the physical world. “In Tibetan Buddhism lojong is the art of putting yourself in another’s shoes. Thus, while assuming the sensorium of other organisms has long been claimed in shamanic circles, and has been explored in fiction… such explorations, such as “embodiments” remain rare in scientific literature.” (p. 21)  An example of a multi-perspective literature is Mrs. Dalloway. It is a fictional novel that covers a day in London, England. The author, Virginia Woolf, jumps from the main character to secondary characters perspectives to gain a more developed understanding of what is happening in the novel. The constant back and forth perspectives clash, relate and compliment the main character, Clarissa Dalloway and her portrayal of the city. The author’s style of writing in detail, through multiple perspectives allows the reader to visualize the story more clearly. Virginia Woolf’s use non-human subjects as comparisons to the characters is an essential part in the literature as it allows the reader to use their imagination and put themselves in the subjects’ position. The metaphors and symbols are all derived from how a human would perceive the non-human subject, the non-human subjects are not expressing themselves. It is an example of anthropocentric encounters with the environment. There are moments in Mrs. Dalloway where they are imagining themselves as animals, however it is clear that they are using a skewed human perspective on how the animal is encountering its surroundings.Virginia Woolf uses naturalistic imagery to convey her message in a vivid and visual way that assists the reader in understanding the complex and often wordy poetry. The literature often uses nature when describing one’s experience of the city. This language includes the use of flowers, gardens, trees, animals and water as symbols to the characters emotions, the scene or appearance of something. The symbolism and metaphors create a successful experiential space as they enhance one’s meaning/event by bridging one’s imagination with reality, temporally and spatially. This gives potential for the reader to be active personal imaginative participation, making the writing more interesting and experiential. “. . . how fresh, like frilled linen clean from a laundry laid in wicker trays the roses looked; and dark and prim the red carnations, holding their heads up; and all the sweet peas spreading in their bowls, tinged violet, snow white, pale–” (p.13)  Natural Imagery is used as a mechanism to create a distinction that allows the reader to distinguish each character’s authentic feelings from what is not. An example is the symbolic use of flowers. One can tell that in contrast to Richard and Lady Burton, who “bunch up” the flowers, Clarissa is very comfortable with flowers. Clarissa uses flowers as a source of joy for her as she is going about her daily activities. In this instance, the flowers represent a source of emotion for her as they reminded her to cherish the beauty of everyday life. For Richard on the other hand, the flowers were a source of communication as he relied on them to prove his love to Clarissa. The flowers show the lack of courage for human emotion and passion in Richard. Virginia Woolf uses flowers to allow the reader to understand the level of human emotion and expression in each character. During the fiction, the flowers or non-human subjects do not express their inner self, there is no biocentric perspective. They beckoned; leaves were alive; trees were alive. And the leaves being connected by millions of fibres with his own body . . .” (p.22) “Well, and what’s happened to you?” she said. So before a battle begins, the horses paw the ground; toss their heads; the light shines on their flanks; their necks curve. So Peter Walsh and Clarissa, sitting side by side on the blue sofa, challenge each other.” (p.44) Eileen Scarry writes with passion for both the natural world, specifically flowers, and the literature world. She discusses how flowers are uniquely attuned to human perception and how the phenomena which is most evocative in literary language, to describe space, shares qualities with flowers. Scarry explains that just as architects understand how to manipulate buildings, writers understand how words are their material palette to influence the human brain. Scarry explores the world from all perspectives and use this as a tool to enhance writing, theories and the built environment. In David Abram’s, The Spell of the Sensuous, Abrams divides his explanation for his studies in a personal and scientific chapter. His main argument is that “we are human only in contact, and conviviality, with what is not human.” (pg. ix) In other words, consciousness and mindedness emerge from environmental attunement. He argues that our present society participates almost exclusively with other humans and with our own human-made technologies. Abrams is shifting this attention back to non-human nature and through hissurroundings, specifically the organic world. His spatial recognition depends entirely on the relationship to the landscape and ones ability to engage, participate, sense the surrounding world. He defines the act of perception of being seen and seeing others. To Abrams, Participation is being in one another’s existence, influencing each other and being influenced in turn. The Spell of the Sensuous has a vividdescriptive writing style that eloquently relates and contrasts nature from a non-human and human perspective. Real life experiences are shared explaining how he truly attuned himself to animal perception and constantly compared one’s structured opinions or built surroundings to something more organic. During a night walking alongside the fireflies and stars in the rice fields, Abrams has a bodily experience with the landscape. “I was no longer beneath the nights sky but also above it – the immediate impression was of weightlessness” (p. 4) In this experience, Abrams exclaims that he was a part of a systematic whole in his surroundings.Mirroring Jakob von Uexküll’s attitude towards a biocentric perspective, Abrams explains that if we shut ourselves off from the other voices like the landscape and other animals, we our robbing ourselves of humanity.  Architects have a responsibility to design spaces that are experiential, enlightening and engaging to the subject inhabiting it. In order to do so, designs are strategically thought through based on the target occupant. The objects and attributes within the designed space must resonate with the subjects. James Gibson definition of affordance explain the concept further as “a combination of physical properties of the environment that is uniquely suited to a given animal—to his nutritive system or his action system or his locomotor system.” Carl DiSalvo and Johnathan Lukens reflect on Gibsons definition with design. “As is commonly held, then, the space of possibilities and limitations within any design context includes all of the affordances in an environment….By cataloging and considering the affordances of the multiplicity of actors in the environment—and, by way of ANT [Actor-Network Theory], extending the role of “actor” to all of the entities in the environment, both human and nonhuman—we can imagine, and design for and with, a much broader range of action.” (p. 425) For example, a city park may have many affordances that different subjects may engage with. An adult may walk along the asphalt pathways and sit on benches while watching a child play in pond, where a squirrel does not perceive the asphalt from the grass but responds to the benches as “feeding” zones, the pond as a bath and trees as seating platforms for viewing other subjects. A non-anthropocentric perspective provides new opportunities for experience and design as it involves looking at the appropriation of non-human form, construction, or material of a space. Biomimetic architecture is becoming increasingly popular and is always developing as technology develops. Prototypes where qualities of a plant or other organic subject are being studies for their shape and function and are applied to potential architectural structures and facades. Sensors and other technology are usually also incorporated as the new material and structural properties are intended to be a bio-animate environmental participant and sensor. By shifting the perspective of the human towards the perspective of the morphology of plants, one achieves new forms to investigate with. Ethical organizations in architectural practice are providing motivation for design that considers a better environment for all subjects. Precedents may include the birdhouse, salmon runs built into dams, and artificial reefs. Although these examples are largely for the humans benefit, there are marginal hints towards possibilities for nature-restoring architecture and architecture that serves other than-human interests. This concept advances the notion of environmental remediation by introducing nonhumans as the client for the design. In 2007, Natalie Jeremijenko’s project called OOZ exhibited this thought. The project consisted of spaces where humans and willing animal participants would interact. The sites of the interactions were to be designed to attract and accommodate the animal’s interests before the humans. Jeremijenko listed several design goals for the sites of interaction that included providing shelter, food, species-specific comforts and conveniences, and technologies that the animals could master. Carl DiSalvo and Johnathan Lukens justify this project as a non-anthropocentric design perspective. “Interspecies interaction at these sites is intended to be reciprocal—for example, “the light switch in the preliminary beaver home would be operable by both the beavers and the humans, such that humans may turn the light on to better observe the beaver, however the beaver could turn it off again, or vice versa” (Jeremijenko 2007). This allows conditioning, traditionally performed on animals by humans, to be performed on humans by animals as well.”To acknowledge a multi-perspective space, architects can be use design as a tool in providing individual accommodation spaces for the species, joined spaces for bonding, and zones in between. Architecture must respond to this non-verbal communication between all living things, and example would be creating a space that promotes the use of body language for the equally anxious horse and human. Perhaps architecture could reflect the same 100% honest intention that a horse has. Design should be used as a tool to mirrors the characteristics of the inhabitant. Depending on the purpose of the space, the design should influence the occupants inner self. Experiential qualities that trigger the imagination would welcome this potential phenomena. Exploring how consciously and subconsciously, the built environment effects ones mental state. Mechanisms such as light, scale, form, material, and even aroma are essential. Experiential qualities in architecture will be crucial in creating a comfortable environment for all inhabitants. If one is unable to fully understand the perspective of another subject, technology could be the answer. For example, The Animal Superpowers project created a line of sensory-enhancing toys that allow a human user to experience a non-human perspective that is visible and tangible. All of the explorations demonstrate a consideration for the subject of study, not for the human using it. Some examples of the line include: “an ant costume, which comes with hand-mounted microscope antennas to see the world from the perspective of an ant as you crawl along the ground; a bird costume that provides the wearer with a physical sense of magnetic fields; a giraffe costume that changes the wearer’s voice; elephant shoes that which receive vibrations from other nearby “elephants”; and a helmet that provides children with spatial vision similar to that of an electric eel.”  As Carl DiSalvo and Johnathan Lukens believe that “A move toward more astute recognition of nonhumans and the interplay between humans and nonhumans would be, from that perspective, a move toward a more sustainable society and future. Shifting from a human-centered to a non-anthropocentric approach and granting legitimacy, if not equivalency, to plants, animals, and other biomass, would draw heightened attention to the need to understand and account for the systemic effects of design across species and throughout the environment.”By overcoming anthropocentrism, we are able to view that world outside of our own daily subconscious patterns, like breathing in air, binocular vision or being bipedal. “It involves imagining the perception of wavelengths outside of those visible and audible to us. It involves imagining devices other than the opposable thumb. It involves the recognition that our perceptions of causality, history, morals, and agency all too often assume that they are reciprocated in kind by agent’s incapable of reciprocation. Ultimately, it involves our overcoming the narrative fallacies and rationalizations that we use to place ourselves at the top of a chain, and instead placing ourselves in a web in which the components are impossible to isolate from the whole.” A biocentric perspective would allow one to see and understand and manifest architecture, literature and technology in new ways. The point is to decenter the human from is presumptuous position of importance in contemporary design. However, there seems to be a paradox in creating a non-anthropocentric perspective for something that is deemed important in purlely human terms. Many explorations are to benefit the human for adopting such a perspective. The human is not abandoned, as illustrated in the examples above, a non-anthropocentric perspective is a means to an end of some human benefit.  Notes  Uexküll Jakob von. A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans: with A Theory of Meaning. University of Minnesota Press, 2010.  From Social Butterfly to Engaged Citizen : Urban Informatics, Social Media, Ubiquitous Computing, and Mobile Technology to Support Citizen Engagement, edited by Marcus Foth, et al., MIT Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/lib/oculcarleton-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3339346.  Ibid  Ibid  Uexküll Jakob von. A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans: with A Theory of Meaning. University of Minnesota Press, 2010.  From Social Butterfly to Engaged Citizen : Urban Informatics, Social Media, Ubiquitous Computing, and Mobile Technology to Support Citizen Engagement, edited by Marcus Foth, et al., MIT Press, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/lib/oculcarleton-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3339346.  Suzuki, David T., et al. The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature. AllenHow Built Environment Can Participate in Conversation
Q4: Managing ERP, writing homework help
Q4: Managing ERP, writing homework help.
Option #1: Supply Chain Management SoftwareUse the internet to find two Supply Chain Management software vendors. Once you have selected two vendors, use their websites and analysts’ reports for more detailed research.Write a paper in which you compare and contrast the features and functionality of each vendor’s products. Include in your evaluation any required IT products including hardware, software, and databases. Look for competitive differentiators within the products.Your paper should be 6-8 pages in length not including the required cover and reference pagesI would prefer 1st ERP Vendor to be SAP, the 2nd ERP vendor can be of your choosing.Note:1. Has to be APA format.2. at least two scholarly references in addition to the course textbook (textbook attached).3. Need to have inline citations for the reference.4. Plagiarism is strict, avoid simillarities where possible, else provide quoted citations.5. Provide in simple essay, with introduction and conclusion.
Q4: Managing ERP, writing homework help
Rationale Of Disaster Recovery Planning Information Technology Essay
The need for a disaster recovery plan can be justified on examining; What is a disaster? Thus the DR preparedness in a business scenario can mean a make or break situation where the lack of a backup plan could lead to a total wipe out of the company or corporation. A case in point would be the recent disaster which happened in the Gulf of Mexico, and the unpreparedness’s of BP not only hurt the bottom line of BP by way of expenses that it incurred for the clean up process but the additional money the government took from BP for the environmental cleanup work damage that was done to the region. The effects of this disaster did not end there, and it also affected the livelihood and business prospects of the people living along the coast and specially the effect on the fishing industry. Thus the above example is although an extreme but the point is that if there was a substantial DR plan in place the oil leak could have been fixed before the damage became so critical. Thus a DR plan could turn out to be a critical part of the business which although is not required on a daily basis but there is a definite need for it to be in place. Thus an organization’s vital asset in any circumstance would be its data and thus in order to protect its functionality in case of a disaster, the organization needs to implement a disaster recovery plan. Especially in areas such as insurance, manufacturing, banking, government, education, retail, IT companies and most small and medium enterprises the data plays a vital role in the functioning of the organization and it needs to be secured and there should be a plan in place to recover from any sort of disaster. A disaster recovery plan developed for a company would certainly help the organization in maintaining business continuity and would also cause avoidance to customers and business processes in general. A disaster recovery plan when implemented would ensure the following: Minimizing potential economic loss In the event of a disaster implementing a disaster recovery plan would certainly minimize the financial loss to the company. For instance let us consider the area of banking and in case of a disaster such as an earthquake where the bank loses its only server, apart from the valuable data loss to the bank, it could also lead to an extent where the bank’s share value could also decline. Thus in order to reduce such potential economic loss, we need to implement a disaster recovery plan. Reducing disruptions to operations As a disaster in most of the events leads to damage that often leads to a collapse in the production environment and thus leads to an interruption in the operations. In order to overcome this, the disaster recovery plan implements a strategy that sees that in case of a disaster at least one of the production servers is safe and there is no interruption in the operations. Providing an orderly recovery The disaster recovery plan also ensures that the data is recovered in an orderly manner as an orderly recovery of data is crucial in industries such as banking, insurance and retail as they include a series of transactions which needs to be recovered in order of their occurrence in order to ensure the integrity of the system. Apart from the above stated reasons there are several other reasons which make me support the reason of implementing the disaster recovery plan onto an average business. They are as follows: Protecting the assets of the organization Minimizing legal liability Minimizing insurance premium Decrease in terms of potential exposure to losses or other disastrous outcomes Reduction in the disruptions of day to day operations Ensuring organizational stability Now consider that FDU is in a very tight financial situation and does not have extra funds. Our revenue is less than our expenses. Therefore, we are in a minus category. How can we justify spending additional funds to plan for a disaster which probably will never happen? (13 points) FDU although a university can be considered to be a major business or service provider which offers its educational services to its customers (Students) and so it definitely needs to have a well planned Disaster Recovery plan in place, although the deficit in its financial budgets is a concern but still the need for the DR plan cannot be stressed enough. First of all most of the university functions such as classes, administration, security and such are highly reliant on IT and network based infrastructure, and also the data and records are stored and maintained on the network servers. In an ideal world, and with unlimited budgets, the IT planning team at FDU would like to spend significantly to assure that employees, and customers always have access to business systems and important information and many organizations allocate significant portions of their IT spending each year to assure operational resilience. However in the case of FDU which up till date except for the power outage suffered in the winter of 2009-2010 probably has never experienced a natural disaster or a security threat, or human error, and thus there is a major struggle to justify spending on disaster recovery plan for the university. But the Disaster recovery spending is insurance against the risks of user downtime, data loss, and business interruption just as life insurance, health insurance, and homeowners insurance are pretty much a given, but it’s always difficult to assess how much coverage is enough, and how much to spend. So as every organization knows it needs some level of protection, determining the extent to which to spend is always a challenge. Furthermore as to why FDU needs to consider implementing and putting a disaster recovery plan in place is because as FDU is an educational institute which not only has its operations at two different locations in New Jersey but it also has operations in Vancouver, Canada. Also being the largest privately funded university in the state of New Jersey FDU it has a database that has details of some thousands of students and alumni who are spread all over the world. Moreover some of its major services for the educational and also its administrative branches are located on the university systems and servers, which if affected would critically affect the ability of the university to function and also it would lead to a long time in recovering from a major disaster or catastrophe. Thus keeping in view the mission critical areas of operation and also its foreign campus in Vancouver Canada FDU should ensure that the data of the students is safe in case of an unexpected disaster. So to help in determining and justifying how much disaster recovery spending is needed, the IT team at FDU would should ideally perform a case by case risk analysis and then analyze those scenarios and perform a step wise analysis: To assess the downtime costs for crucial business systems Go on to calculate the potential disaster risks and the corresponding impacts Compare different and alternative plans and then determine the benefits of each proposed solution, and how much spending is enough. Thus after a thorough analysis of all the situations and possible outcomes, and mitigating a significant amount of the risk, while be able to deliver a cost-effective solution. However, it is important to remember that disaster recovery solutions are not selected on ROI measures alone. It’s extremely important to examine the financial and business impact of a potentially disastrous event. Understanding the nature of the risks is crucial, and a good first step for determining the level of protection needed, and demonstrating the business value of such an investment. While disaster recovery solutions can be costly, the risks associated with not having the proper protection in place could be devastating for a company. Thus FDU should go ahead and buy a generalized DR plan where spending huge amounts in developing and implementation of an in house disaster recovery plan would not be wise, especially when there are already products and applications that are available in the market and which can be customized and also additions can be made on top of those existing products depending on the availability of funds. Thus keeping in view of the financial and the human resources that need to be allocated to the development of the disaster recovery plan, I suggest the option of going for a pre designed disaster recovery plan with little modifications and additions as needed. This question involves identifying functions from chapter 4. Explain the concept of “cloud computing”. You can look this up on the Internet but your description must be written in your own words. Your answer must be substantial. (12 points) Cloud computing involves in delivering hosted services over the Internet. They are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-service Platform-as-a-service Software-as-a-service The name was inspired by the cloud symbol that is used to represent the internet in flowcharts and diagrams. A cloud service has three different characteristics that it differentiates it from traditional computing. It is sold on demand by minute or hour. It is elastic-a user can have as much as little of the service as they want at any given time and the service are fully managed by the provider. Innovations in virtualization and distributed computing and improved access to high speed Internet and a poor economy has speed up the interest in cloud computing. Cloud computing is a concept where the network or services are delivered via a virtual network and through the Internet. Under this concept the made the companies pay only for the time or the amount of services which they actually utilize over the virtual network and thus this amounts to large savings for companies both small and medium. The simplicity in cloud computing made it easy for people to use it without any expertise or extra expenditures needed to be made in order to maintain the services. Cloud computing relieves the customers from having the need of owning a physical infrastructure such as servers and thus helps in reducing the money being invested in the infrastructure. The companies instead pay the amount to the third party whoorganizes and maintain the cloud. As the above figure illustrates the cloud consists of infrastructure, and different nodes are using the infrastructure present in the cloud. Clients are often charged upon the services utilized or on subscription. Though it depends on the third party about how they charge their clients. As the peak time of access is often common, good response time is ensured by increasing the bandwidth values. The major advantages in cloud computing include it being very cost effective as the cost to company to use the infrastructure itself as service is very less when compared to that of designing and developing one’s own infrastructure. One more advantage that makes the concept of cloud computing feasible is confinement of staff as the company would not need any data centers and thus people maintaining them. Thirdly the nature of cloud being infinitely scalable makes it easy to expand and thus increase the resources. As every methodology has some pros and cons, so does cloud computing. In cloud computing as the users do not have physical storage space the users need to completely rely on the third party provider. This makes the third party provider responsible for the integrity and security of the data. Another argument that is being strongly made is that this concept doesn’t give the user the freedom to install applications, though a major part of the industry is still inclined towards cloud computing. Infrastructure-as-a-Service provides virtual server instances with unique IP addresses and blocks of storage on demand. Customers use the provider’s application program interface to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed; it is also referred to as utility computing. Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider’s infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider’s platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use application program interface, website portals or gateway software installed on the customer’s computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider’s platform. In the software-as-a-service, the vendor supplies the hardware, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere. Would “cloud computing” help or hurt in developing a DRP? Explain your answer thoroughly. Include in your answer a company’s assets and employees. (13 points) Cloud computing is certainly a concept which would help the DRP being efficient. Since the cloud computing brings the entire responsibility onto the third party, who takes care of the complete infrastructure, it is his responsibility to ensure the safety of data. Thus the third party vendor needs to employ a highly efficient disaster recovery plan as the data responsibility of data of several client lie on him. Thus the concept of cloud computing though makes it easy to manage data at a centralized location; it makes it much more critical. There are several different systems that an organization follows in order to identify assets, each company has its own system in order to identify its assets. Some of the critical assets that a company needs to identify are as following Hardware is the first type of asset one would identify in an organization. In the process of developing a DRP, hardware assets such as servers are given the first preference in identification. Bar code reading is one of the popular methods used in order to identify the hardware assets of the organization. Whenever an operation related to the hardware is performed, the bar code is read and an entry is made into the Meta database. Software is the second type of asset that is identified. Once the assets such as operating system, enterprise database system are identified important internal resources such as the code segment are recognized. In case of a disaster the company often depends upon several software components that help in recovering the disaster. Maintaining an inventory of what software applications are installed in a system help in recovering critical applications. The next important asset of an organization would be the data as the entire functionality of an organization would depend upon its data and in case of a disaster the most vital asset that needs to be recovered is the data. Another asset that would account in an organization would be the human assets which are the employees working in an organization. As the human assets are not like hardware or software they tend to change and thus the organization must keeps it up to date of the employees working so that in case of a disaster, the data that is to be recovered is updated. This question involves establishing the disaster recovery team in chapter 2. Discuss thoroughly the types of team members that the disaster recovery team should have. Explain the function of each team member. (12 points). Disaster recovery planning team is the group responsible for developing a disaster recovery plan and also the group that bears the responsibility of supporting and testing it before deployment. Thus depending on several factors the disaster recovery planning team that would have been designed to include people who could fulfill the key roles as mentioned below and thus this would help in developing an efficient disaster recovery plan. The roles that must be fulfilled in a disaster recovery plan are recovery is that of a Manager, Facilities coordinator, Technical coordinator, Administrative coordinator, Network coordinator, Application coordinator and Computer Operations coordinator. Though in the above case, the bank is unable to allocate seven employees, thus these seven roles would have to be fulfilled by the three people that we are available with. Though in practicality, it is quite impossible for a person to accomplish two roles efficiently. The above roles and the responsibilities which would come along with the given roles would be as follows: Recovery Manager: Is a person who is dynamic and good at both managerial and administrative tasks and also someone who has a broad based knowledge of hardware as well as software functions, and this functional knowledge should not be limited to only the business functions of the company but also have specific knowledge base related to disaster recovery operations. The recovery manager will need to be a hand on person with good problem solving skills. Facilities Coordinator: The skills level of the facilities coordinator are more or less similar to that of the recovery manager but in terms of leadership and managerial capabilities the facilities coordinator is not so much responsible and needs to have more involved approach with close monitoring of the teams and their progress. Technical Coordinator: This position needs the person to be very strong technical capabilities with almost in depth knowledge about different platforms and also be able to communicate with engineers and technical staff with ease Administrative Coordinator: This position the person needs to be well aware of the day to day business processes and business transaction and he should have adequate knowledge of all business functions. Network Coordinator: This position the person requires to have extensive business expertise in maintaining and design of network systems and the person should have a good grip on diagnosing and correction in network errors and problems. Most important is the ability of the current network setup and if need be to efficiently replicate the existing network. Applications Coordinator: This position needs the person to be having and extensive knowledge of the existing applications used currently by the business and he should mainly have a very good knowledge of some of the mission critical systems of the business such as accounts receivable, payroll etc. This person should have good knowledge in the deploying of systems and also experience of maintaining these systems in proper functioning order. Computer Operations Coordinator: This position needs the person to be proficient in the day to day operations of the systems and system software. Also he should be able to skillfully re create production schedules and may be implement new schedules. Also the systems coordinator might he held responsible of creating a temporary help desk in the case of a disaster. Now, suppose we want to establish a disaster recovery team for FDU. We only have funds for three (3) individuals. How would you group the required team members into the three positions? ( 13 points), The Disaster recovery team at FDU would have to consist of dynamic people who would be able to multi task in pressure situations and also ones who have sufficient knowledge of more than one critical aspect of business. Facilities coordinator is a position that needs skills that are similar to that of a recovery manager. This role demands the completion of work as scheduled using minimal amount of resources along with the responsibility of a design of requirements of a data-center. Thus this role of facilities coordinator could also be assigned to the recovery manager in this scenario. Furthermore due to the broad skill set of a manager which would certainly include his awareness on the day to day operations of business and also his ability to deal with people and also skilled technical individuals would qualify him for the role of Administrative coordinator. The role of the Computer Operations coordinator who is skilled in day to day operations of the system and also possessing the knowledge of the help desk support features could be assigned to one or two people. Also it could be considered to take care that the person has knowledge in the functioning of networks and so the same person could also be assigned the role of Network coordinator if at all there is lack of personnel who could be allocated to such a team. Since the role of technical coordinator demands a strong skill set in establishing interface between applications developed on different interfaces, this person would certainly have knowledge in the day to day applications that are used in the company. Thus the roles of being a Technical coordinator and Applications coordinator could be assigned to such a person and the planning process could be started. Though the roles could be assigned between three people, the limitation of work time availability of the other two people to two or three hours a day would lead to a certain failure in developing a disaster recovery plan. Thus among the positions mentioned only the positions of a Recovery Manager could be justified and two other positions could be justified up to a partial extent because of the nature of the work being part time and also depends on the employees skills set and their own motivation to be part of such critical teams. This question involves identifying risks and categorizing them from chapter 3. Explain the process and the need of identifying risks and determining how likely it is that the risk affect the organization. Then list and explain about ten common risks. (12 points) The objectives of risk identification are to identify and categorize risks that could affect the process of an organization and document these risks. Proactive organizations identify risks before hand and analysis is done based on the risk. Reactive organizations react after the problem has occurred and they will try to mitigate the issue before it gets worse. A proactive organization will chart out all the possible risks the company would face in case a disaster occurs and it will be done systematically. This helps them to take immediate action when facing a serious disruptive event. Proactive organizations will have special disaster recovery team to identify and analyze risks; moreover they will plot a possible solution if they are faced with those kinds of problems. On the other hand, reactive organizations will figure out ways to find a solution to a problem that has already occurred. So damage has occurred, and they need to avoid worst case scenarios. Reactive organizations also identify risk but it may not be as detailed and more comprehensive like proactive organizations do because it is done at the last minute. So risk identification differs in proactive organizations and reactive organizations in which time is a huge constraint for the reactive organizations to analyze and make decisions. Organizations vary in the rate at which they respond to organizational problems, even when they have similar task environments. A proactive organization engages in decision making and information gathering whenever possible. A reactive organization waits until if there is a compulsion to gather information and decision making. Proactive and reactive organizations spend the same amount of time on a single search. The decision between these two organizations lies in their coordination. Proactive organizations react to organizational problems faster than reactive organizations. The consequence is that proactive organizations outperform reactive organizations. Proactive organizations are more active; more prepared more cooperative and has better performers. It is important that organizations make accurate and timely decisions at the time of disaster. In many cases time pressure causes errors due to loss of information. When time is short proactive organizations have advantage because they are prepared and ready to make a decision. It is a disadvantage in reactive organization that precious time is spent in problem solving and decision making. But when timing is not a crucial factor, reactive organization can solve their problems more economically as they need less training and lower information processing costs. There are various factors that would help to determine whether an organization should be proactive or reactive such as task environment, stress, and organizational design. The effect of time pressure is crucial in proactive and reactive organization. Proactive organizations treat their data like a corporate asset. They think globally across the enterprise, and act collectively as a unified group. Moving to the proactive stage is very difficult because it not the technology that can bring on failure. But, it is the people, politics, and cultural shifts that can make or break a proactive organization. The organization can concentrate more on process because data is handled and monitored. Being proactive or reactive depends on potential business strategy based on the situation. Proactive means taking steps to contain situations for the long term. It demands that one should analyze the situation thoroughly and then identify alternatives that are best suited for the organization. The most common risks which would warrant a Disaster Recovery plan are: Fire Water logging or flooding Theft Intrusion Mal intent Human error Software failures Hardware failure Power outage. Terrorist attack. Network hacking. Now, identify at least ten risks that are most likely to affect FDU. For each risk come up with a rating system. Use H, M and L. H means highly likely, M means moderately likely and L means least likely. Explain and justify your rating of each risk.(13 points) The risks faced by FDU are as follows: Event: Rating: Fire H The fire is a major hazard and thus it could occur at any time and if it occurs and destroy entire infrastructure would qualify it as a major disaster. Water logging or flooding M In case of water logging or flooding the equipment might get affected depending on its location and the kind of water hazard thus this would be a moderate to low level hazard. Recently two days back some towns in north New Jersey were evacuated because of the flooding and water levels were higher than normal. Theft L Theft is very less likely but still is a remote possibility and thus it is given a rating of least likely. Intrusion L Intrusion could be for any purposes, and be done by a disgruntled employee or any person who is looking to get back at the University or such thus the threat level of least likely. Human error M Human error is also a possibility although the employees know their work well and are well trained in all systems and processes, but still some possible error or mistake could jeopardize the system and so this event threat level is also moderate to less likely. Software failures L Software failures are very much a possibility although most systems are thoroughly tested still there are some remote chances of having a S/w failure, thus the Threat level of least likely. Hardware failure L Hardware failures although are not everyday occurrences but still there are also possibilities of having a hardware failure which gives it a threat level of least likely. Power outage H Even it’s less likely to have an electric outage in NJ but it happened before. I remember last winter storm back in 2009 many cities were out of electric for couple of days even people had to stay at hotels. That affected the FDU because they depend on electric for classes, computer’s labs, servers and buildings. It was inconvenience for everyone. Also this point might join my next point which is the terrorist attack. Terrorist attack. L When the country declares a terrorist attack it’s important to shut down everything for everyone’s safety. It’s less likely to happen to the university but we should consider that because we are close to NY. I also remember an accident back in 2005 when an electric outage happened because of problems in electric company’s computer system. It lasted for almost 40 or 50 min. but the scary thing it was not just NJ but all the states from east coast to the west. So people start panic and chaos because they were thinking they were under attack. Network hacking H The network of the university is very important. So it’s highly recommended to protect the network from any intervenes inside or outside the university. For example student can hack the database and change their grades or just make problems for this data so we should take this matter in consideration.
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