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San Callisto Catacombs – History of Catacombs and the Frescos Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Description and History Artworks Conclusion Works Cited Introduction During the ancient Rome, it was popular to cremate a person once he was dead. The ashes were preserved in urns and then stored in houses and sacred places. However, the Christians did not practice cremation since they believed in resurrection. Thus, they preferred to bury each other just like the early Christians did. Obviously, burying dead bodies required large areas of land (Athnos, 300). At the peak of the Roman Empire, the Christians did not own enough land to be burying their loved ones or even practice farming. So, the next option was to use catacombs. A catacomb is an underground area where the Christians used to bury their dead. Catacombs strengthened the Christians belief in resurrection and also acted as a place for displaying their art and symbols. Later, catacombs were also used by non-Christians to bury their dead too. It was initially thought that the Christians used the catacombs as hiding places. However, this assumption was dismissed since the catacombs were located near the highways. Also, the conditions inside them must have been unbearable due to the rotting bodies (Athnos, 367). The soft rock located in the area made it easy for the Christians to make tunnels or rather catacombs. The use of catacombs changed slightly when Christianity was made legal in the Roman Empire. It did remain as a burial place but also, it was a place of pilgrimage. A couple of centuries later after cathedrals were made; the catacombs were no longer used as a grave since most of the saints were buried in the church. They were now used as a memorial place for those Christians who were murdered because of their faith. By the beginning of the tenth century, the catacombs were no longer in use and eventually forgotten. This changed in 1578 after an unexpected finding by Antonio Bosio. Since then, there have been new discoveries of these catacombs; the recent one being discovered only decades ago. Around forty of these graves have been discovered since their first discovery in 1578. As far as Christian art is concerned, these catacombs are critically important since they contain a lot of different Christian art forms (Gough, 313). Description and History Among the biggest and well-known catacombs is the Catacomb of San Callisto. The catacomb occupies an area of nearly 15 ha with just over 500,000 graves and nearly 20 kilometres long. The catacomb of San Callisto was constructed at the beginning of 150 AD right under the modern Appian road. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The catacomb is named after Saint Callixtus who was overseeing its expansion between 217 and 222 AD. It was further extended in the years between 366 and 384 under the then current pope; Pope Damasus. The expansion was a part of his attempt to boost the adoration of Roman martyrs. During this expansion, basilicas were built in the catacombs so as to make it easy for the worshipers to reach the martyrs’ graves. The San Callisto Catacomb has 4 levels with 5 parts; however, the 2nd is the only one which tourists are allowed. All the rooms are connected to each other with channels. On the walls of the chambers, there are large holes which each were big enough to bury about 2 or 3 people. Figure 1 Other than that, there are cubicles large enough to bury several people. These cubicles were used to bury people belonging to one family (see fig. 1). Perhaps the most famous part is the graves of the popes, saint Cecilia and sacraments. These areas are a treasure of holy Christian memoirs. At the end of the third century, two other areas were built, namely: Saint Gaius and Eusebius (Gough, 389). Early in the following century, the western section was constructed and before the century ended, the Liberian section was complete. All the later sections had pretentious underground structural design. Pope Damasus replaced the stairway to the crypt of the popes with a more contemporary one. In the crypt of the popes, 9 affiliates of the major seminary of priests were buried there together with 8 legislatures of the clerical hierarchy. On the walls near the affiliate’s graves, their names have been inscribed in Greek language. On the further wall, Pope Sixtus’ grave was there; he died as a result of persecutions which occurred in the city Valerian. On his grave, there are inscriptions written calligraphically as proposed by Pope Damasus (Athnos, 495). The grave beside Sixtus is Pope Cecilia’s; although his remains were moved to a cathedral by Pope Paschal the first. On the nearing walls, there is a ninth century fresco depicting Pope Cecilia speaking to God and the bust of Pope Urban the first. We will write a custom Research Paper on San Callisto Catacombs – History of Catacombs and the Frescos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A little further away, there is a walkway that leading to cubicle graves of the sacraments. Without a doubt, the most noticeable features in this section are the artworks. There are frescoes painted between 200 and 250 AD giving a clue of baptism and Eucharist. Next to this region, there is the St. Miltiades section. In it, there is a child’s coffin with relief sculptures showing various events in the bible. In the St. Gaius and Eusibius section, the tombs are arranged on two sides of the wall facing each other. The graves of both Pope Gaius and Eusebius are found in this chamber and are exactly opposite each other. Unlike Pope Gaius, Eusebius did not die in Rome; he died in Maxentius where he was cast out. His remains were later brought to Rome and finally into his grave. Like in the crypt of pope, Damasus inscribed some readings on the wall too. The grave of Pope Cornelius can be found in the Liberian section. The initial writings on the coffin are still present; the writings have acknowledged him as a martyr. On the sides of the coffin, there are fabulous paintings dating back between 600 and 700AD with Byzantine style. The paintings show four people and among them is Cornelius. The other three were popes too and two of them are Africans (Gough, 459). The next cubiculum are the graves of some of the earliest people to be buried in the San Callisto Catacombs. On the roof, there is one of the famous frescoes depicting a good shepherd. On another wall, there is a fresco showing fish and loaves. Artworks The type of art found in this catacomb is dissimilar from the normal Roman art of the time. Probably this is due to the fact that, these art works try to show signs of anticipation and optimism in times when death crept in the Christian society. The paintings are figurative; they try to depict a religious experience instead of a highly creative enjoyable piece of work. It seems that up to today, some of the symbols found there like the anchor, still have an importance in Christianity. However, most of the symbols represent the maltreatment of the Christians by the Roman regime (Lassus, 455). The type of art found in this catacombs, falls under Paleochristian art. Paleochristian art, which lasted between 1st to 6th centuries, has been influenced by both the traditional Greek and Roman art. This catacombs hosts among the first Christian art presently known. For example, most of the limestone sculpture was done between 200 and 400AD. The graffiti and inscription might have been adopted from the Mediterranean communities. The Egyptians and the Etruscans have been known to paint and put sculptures in their tombs. It is not certain whether these communities influenced the Christians to paint in their graves, but there are major similarities. Just like the Egyptian tomb paintings reveal a lot about their lifestyle, so do the art found in the catacombs (Milburn, 207). Not sure if you can write a paper on San Callisto Catacombs – History of Catacombs and the Frescos by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The paintings in the catacombs show particular people while others depict some aspects of the Christian life. The artists in the catacombs, who were mainly employed by the Christian leaders, were trying to show that, despite of the bitter death that surrounding the chambers, there was still hope in resurrection (Lassus, 501). The artists seemed to have had limited number of colours and also used aggressive brushstrokes which were similar to the ones commonly used in the 18th century. The result is a fresco having a vivacity of colour and dynamism. Nevertheless, unlike the 18th century paintings, which were known to obscure the sight, the images in the catacombs were clear and evoked purpose. Some of the frescoes in this catacomb have completely faded, and others are slowly fading. The free movement of air and the differing temperatures have been a major contributor of the fading. This contrary to the assumption that time has affected the clarity of the frescoes. Conversely, the sculptures are unaffected by time or any other environmental factor. The sculptures are of stone material and they are well preserved (Milburn, 376). The sculptures in the San Callisto Catacombs can be separated in 3 ways. The sarcophagus sculptures are basically classic coffins made from limestone. Figure 2 They had different sizes; some were small enough to fit a baby while others were big enough to fit a two married people. Some of the coffins had reliefs on the sides and even on the top marble (see figure. 2). Others only had one or two side sculptures, especially the front side. The relief sculptures on the coffins showed a part of Jesus’ life, a significant event in the bible and not so often, a figure of the departed. The second type of sculpture is the common statue. The statues found in the catacombs are mainly Jesus Christ who is shown to be a good shepherd. How Jesus is shown in these sculptures, is almost similar to how the pagans sculptured the figure of Orpheus. Jesus is shown to be carrying a sheep on his shoulder and Orpheus the same thing. The major difference is that Orpheus has a flute on the side. The final type of sculpture is inscriptions. There are inscriptions in Latin and Greek on the wall. Also, there are symbols and signs inscribed on the wall (Lassus, 602). The graffiti is almost everywhere in the catacomb and it dates from the time the catacombs were made up to the more recent times. The early artists used uncomplicated tools to write messages on the walls and graves. Also, writings dating as late as the 18th century are present. These writings have been made by some of the pioneering explorers in the catacombs. One of the archaeologists in the 18th century felt that he had to write on the walls after he unintentionally exposed one of the chambers. Also, the first pilgrims to worship in the catacombs left Christian messages on the wall and tombs. The graffiti left in the catacombs is of great importance to modern Christians and archaeologists. To an archaeologist, it reveals the kind of lifestyle the early Christians had. On the other hand, to a Christian, it provides thoughtful hope messages. Most of the catacombs, especially in the crypt of the pope, have both known and unknown figures represented by the frescoes and sculptures. A figure depicting a praying person typically has the person’ arms spread-out. Also, this style of praying is almost similar to how the pagans prayed. The only slight difference is that, the Christian frescoes had both arms nearly pointing to the heavens. The personalities represented here are Saint Eusibius and Saint Cecilia (Lowden, 322). Perhaps the most beautiful and noteworthy frescoes in the Catacombs of San Callisto are: the good shepherd, the Eucharistic, the procession, the baptism and one depicting fish and loaves. The excellent shepherd who is hoisting a sheep, which is the most repeated theme, was painted in the middle of the third century. Figure 3 The shepherd depicted in this fresco is Jesus Christ (see figure. 3). The story behind this painting is that, Jesus was able to leave a large flock of sheep unattended to go and search for a single lost sheep. It shows the kind of loving attention that Jesus gives to individual amongst the multitude. What remains of this painting is simply a rough sketch composed of plain green and soil colours. The figure in itself is smaller compared to the other paintings on the same wall (Lowden, 423). The baptism fresco shows one larger man pouring water on the head of a smaller man. The water and the bodies of the people in the painting have been given a brownish red colour, but the water pouring on the other man has only been represented by faint lines. The water’s layer is a greasy black paint and it only rises up to the ankle level of the two men (see figure. 4). This fresco obviously shows the baptism of a Christian. The Christians considered baptism as a ritual where one publically declared to be a Christian. Baptism was also the only way in which a Christian could attain everlasting life. This was a significant art to the early Christians since it was a reminder of when they were spiritually ‘born again’. That meant that they officially became Christians despite of the fact that they could be prosecuted or killed as a result (Grout and Claude, 120). Figure 4 The fish and loaves fresco has a mixture of brown, black and grey colour. The loaves are brown while the fish has a mixture of the other colours. There are two fish lying flat and a basket of containing 5 loaves is placed on top of the fishes. Figure 5 This fresco depicts an event in which Jesus was able to miraculously feed a multitude of people with just two fish and five loaves (see figure 5). The early Christians were usually discriminated such that they were not allowed to own lands. This meant that they could not do any farming to feed themselves. They were basically poor hungry people (Grout and Claude, 389). Having a painting which reminded them of how their Lord is able to feed them in the catacombs, served as a source of great motivation for them. The Eucharistic fresco in the Liberian section shows two people about to partake a meal consisting of bread and wine. The fresco painting is mainly maroon in colour with white areas. There are dark areas which depict the outline of the images and the meal. The meal is placed on a table and the two people are standing. Eating of bread and drinking of wine is the figurative eating of Jesus’ flesh and drinking of his blood. The Christians did this as obedience to what they were told. They were supposed to drink wine and eat bread to act as a reminder of the sacrifice which Jesus Christ gave. The painting reminded them of the love Jesus had towards them such that he was able to sacrifice his life. It helped the Christian remain faithful to Christianity despite of the prosecutions (Lowden, 567). In these Catacombs, there are decorations like flora, vines and designed stripes and drawings. Like in other artworks, the decorations too were influenced by the pagan worship. For example, the vine decoration was meant to stand for resurrection; this is according to the pagans. To the Christians, it was meant to represent Jesus who was resurrected after dying. Christians have hope in resurrection from the resurrection of Jesus himself, so the vine in both Christians and pagans revolve around resurrection. However, there is more to the vine than resurrection according to the Christians. The branches of the vine are meant to represent Jesus’ believers (Grout and Claude, 562). Other symbols found in the catacombs included a peacock, a dove and an anchor. The peacock was a sign representing the immortality of the spirit. On the other hand, the dove is a symbol for harmony and joy of the heart. Finally, the anchor is a figurative of the trust Christians have on Jesus Christ. In the sea world, the anchor is supposed to firmly hold a ship at a dock. Likewise, the faith and hope Christians have in Jesus, is meant to keep them strong and firm. The anchor gained more meaning when it was turned such that it looked liked a cross. Trust in Jesus depicted the safe harbour of deliverance which was a result of his renaissance after death (Lowden, 603). Conclusion The Catacombs of San Callisto are full of Christian historical information. In the catacombs, one can learn how the Christians developed from the time they were discriminated to the time when their religion was made legal. The extent of persecution is very well depicted and also how the Roman regime influenced Christianity. Also, it is during these harsh times that some of the symbols used up to today were formulated. They might have been influenced by the pagan worship, but in the modern time, it does not seem to matter. The fresco paintings themselves were not pieces of art to be adored. Compared to what was done by the Romans, the Christian art was crude and outdated. Despite of this, these artworks are very rich because of the history they hold. Works Cited Athnos, Gregory. Reflections at the Catacombs. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1997. Print. Gough, Michael. The Origins of Christian Art London. London: Thames and Hudson, 1973. Print. Grout, Donald J and Palisca V Claude. A History of Western Christianity. New York: WW Norton and Company, 1996. Print. Lassus, Jean. The Early Christian and Byzantine World. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967. Print. Lowden, John. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1997. Print. Milburn, Robert. Early Christian Art and Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Print.
Tragedy of the Prideful Father: An Analysis of Things Fall Apart There is no truer reflection of a person’s humanity than their treatment towards their offspring. In Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo is the father figure of two contrasting relationships; his relationship with Ezinma, and his relationship with Nwoye. It is apparent, through his interactions with the children, that Okonkwo is plagued with an egotistical disposition. To begin, Okonkwo only values the qualities in his children that are an imitation of his own. Ezinma’s similarities to Okonkwo wins the affection of her father, while her more alien brother is ridiculed and eventually cast aside. Furthermore, Okonkwo sees his children as tools for his personal gain. Ezinma and Nwoye are treated as material possessions, and are only given attention when they can serve the purpose of advancing his status within Umofia. Finally, Okonkwo neglects his offspring. He is so absorbed by his own hyper masculinity that he intentionally makes himself emotionally unavailable and coldhearted towards his family. Ultimately, Okonkwo’s relationship with Ezinma and with Nwoye is a reflection of his own narcissistic tendencies. The first sign of Okonkwo’s narcissism is his exclusive favouritism towards qualities in his children that are align to his own. Generally, narssastic fathers have a self righteous view of themselves, and uses this view as a code of right and wrong behaviour; thus rejecting anything that contradicts their own mannerism. After all, imitation is the finest form of flattery. His relationship to Ezinma is affectionate and accepting, for the explicit reason of their similarities. To begin with, Okonkwo measures Ezinma’s worth by her masculinity. Ezinma carries herself with a masculine confidence, her “feeling of importance [is] manafested in her sprightly walk” (Achebe 81). Okonkwo responds to Ezinma’s energy because it reminds him of his own confidence. He too “seemed to walk on springs” (Achebe 4). Her response to Okonkwo’s high and masculine standards is to conform. She looks to Okonkwo to lead and she shapes her personality to satisfy, in hopes to earn a fraction of his affection. Her personality, then, is closely knit with his own; thus, Okonkwo believes that she is worthy of his affection. The relationship between Okonkwo and Ezinma is not a heathy unconditional love, but instead is a narcessistic value system that casts judgement on Ezinma, based on the precedence of his own personality. Furthermore, Ezinma also shares Okonkwo’s entitlement, contributing to his fondness of his daughter. Both Okonkwo and Ezinma are the only child of their family, and consequently they both grew up with the full attention of their mother. Ultimately, Ezinma grows up to be bold, and “it was impossible to refuse Ezinma anything” (Achebe 76). She sees herself as amoung authority rather to under it, which is similar to Okonkwo’s mindset, seen as he rises through the village rankings in his early teenagehood. Okonkwo, again, is able to see himself in Ezinma. Seeing himself comes as a comfort, as it often does to a narcissist, thus justifying his preference for Ezinma over his son, Nwoye. Unlike Okonkwo’s relatability with Ezinma, Nwoye is a stark contrast to Okonkwo. The contrast between their natural tendencies makes it impossible for Nwoye to live up to Okonkwo’s high standards, and ultimately leads to failure and disapproval. The first failing factor of their relationship is Nwoye’s lack of brute masculinity. Okonkwo places a high value on his own masculinity, and so masculinity stands as a prerequisite to his love. However, even upon instilling this rule, “Nwoye knew that it was right to be masculine and to be violent, but somehow he still preferred the stories that his mother used to tell” (Achebe 53). Nwoye does not naturally fit Okonkwo’s standard, which leads him to feel as though he can never measure up. Eventually, Nwoye accepts his apparent incompetency and does not even try to impress his father, settling for being lazy over being a failure. Masculinity in itself is not the most valuable trait to Ibo life or society, but yet Okonkwo uses it to judge and condemns Nwoye. The second characteristic of narsassism is his judgement of Nwoye’s interests. Nwoye is leading a very different life than Okonkwo. Nwoye does not have ambition to be a farmer, while “at his age [Okonkwo] was already fending for himself” (Achebe 66). Okonkwo sees his childhood as right, and Nwoye, who does not share the same path, as wrong. Okonkwo does not believe that his own child is worth affection, because the only thing proved worthy is a thing made in his own image. Ultimately, Okonkwo is self absorbed, seen as he only accepts the child that reminds him of himself, and casts away the child that defies his character. The next evidence supporting Okonkwo as a narcissist is the exploitation of Ezinma and Nwoye for his personal success. Ezinma, being in a lower class, allows her choices to be controlled by Okonkwo, who only cares to intervene when they can be used to benefit himself. To start off, Okonkwo uses Ezinma’s beauty to elevate his status in Umofia. Okonkwo realizes that Ezinma has grown into an attractive young woman who “would attract considerable attention” (Achebe 173). Instead of playing the traditional father roll of concern and protection, Okonkwo immediately factors her beauty into an opportunity to attract attention to himself. He convinces Ezinma to remain available until their return to Umofia, where attention on her is also attention on him. Okonkwo’s status is of greater priority to him than the feelings or opinions of his daughter. Furthermore, Ezinma’s beauty eventually leads to pursuits of marriage, which Okonkwo also uses for his gain. While in exhile, he instructed his daughter to turn away all suitors, because in Umofia she will accept pursuits from “men of authority in the clan” (Achebe 173). Marriage in Umofia would allow Okonkwo to rise in status quicker, though it would bear no greater benefit to Ezinma. The life changing milestone of marriage is taken for granted, and Okonkwo strips Ezinma of her full choice in suitor. Ultimately, the priority of Okonkwo lies in his own well being, showing he does not truly care if Ezinma is happy with her suitor. Habitually putting one’s own success above that of one’s children is a clear indication of narcissism, and this behaviour exhibited with both Ezinma and Nwoye proves the diagnosis of Okonkwo. Similarly, Okonkwo sees Nwoye as a means to an end. Nwoye is merely part of Okonkwo’s image, a part of his success that must be upkept. Nwoye’s submissive personally is a taint on Okonkwo’s prestene record, and “sought to correct him by constant nagging and beating”(Achebe 13-14). The constant violence and dehumanizations of Nwoye reveals Okonkwo’s willingness to harm his child if it will prevent shame on his own image. Okonkwo also attempts to manipulate Nwoye into the role as his successor. “He wanted Nwoye to grow into a tough young man capable of ruling his father’s household” (Achebe 52). A son, for Okonkwo, serves the purpose of carrying his legacy, thus his pursuit is rooted in selfishness. While Nwoye has his own unique strengths, Okonkwo pays no regard nor shows interest in his talents. Okonkwo instead uses physical manipulation, fear manipulation, and emotional manipulation, in attempt to force Nwoye into a narrow box of what he thinks he should be. Therefore, the narcissism in Okonkwo prevents him from recognizing the needs and well being of his children above his own. The final and most condemning trait of a narcissistic relationship is Okonkwo’s emotional absency. The clearest symptom of narsasism is one’s struggle or inability to feel empathy. Showing in his relationship with Ezinma, Okonkwo refrains from showing affection or emotional affirmation. Okonkwo “was very fond of Ezinma…But his fondness only showed on very rare occasions” (Achebe 44). His fondness goes back to her masculine personality, and based on the value she can bring to him. Nevertheless, he is still unable to communicate his emotions in a way that connects to Ezinma, so she is often left emotionally unfulfilled by her father figure. Ezinma eventually grows to accept this lack of emotional connection, which builds resilience and insensitivity in the young child. Furthermore, Okonkwo goes out of his way to appear indifferent towards Ezinma. Fear is a common crutch for Okonkwo, and he uses it as a barrier between himself and his family. When Ezinma is taken by the village priestess, Okonkwo is secretly concerned about her well being. He is unable to sleep, and makes four trips to the oracle’s cave, only to pay no acknowledgement to Ezinma when she returns. Okonkwo deals with his own emotions, but does not realize nor think to addess the trauma his daughter has endured. By not showing empathy to Ezinma in a time of trauma, a child may internalize it as a lack of caring. Thus, harm is done psychologically to Ezinma, and worse done onto Nwoye, because of the lack of empathy in Okonkwo. Similarly, due to a severe case of egotism, Okonkwo emotionally neglects Nwoye. Okonkwo has no empathy for his son, and shows no sign of having the capacity for understanding Nwoye’s psychological disposition. Okonkwo “rules his household with a heavy hand” (Achebe 13), intentially aiming to enstill fear in Nwoye. Nyowe longs for an emotional connection with his father, but the only response he receives is anger and disapproval. Okonkwo never approaches or agknowledges Nwoye with any sense compassion, driving Nwoye to seek emotional fulfillment elsewhere. Nwoye finds refuge in the christian church, and Okonkwo, who had no interest in his son’s emotions, concludes that “living fire begets cold, impotent ash” (Achebe 153). Okonkwo cannot see beyond himself, so he is blind to the negative impact he has on his son. He sheds his blame and concludes that he is not responsible for his son’s weakness, but that it is Nwoye’s own fault. His stubbornness and inability to accept his flaws shows his preoccupation with his own ego, ultimately proving Okonkwo to be a narcissist. Ultimately, Okonkwo’s narcissism is reflected in his relationship with Nwoye and with Ezinma. To start, Okonkwo only places value on children who resemble him. The standards created by Okonkwo are manifestations of his conceited view of himself. Moreover, Okonkwo manipulates his children to serve his selfish purpose. He fails to agknowledge his children as independent human beings, instead seeing them as an extension of his superficial purpose. Finally, Okonkwo emotionally isolates himself from his offspring. In these situations, he is unable or unwilling to express empathy towards his children nor consider their point of view. Narcissism is a serious mental illness that is naked to the eye of the infected, but deathly to the hearts of their beloveds. Work Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Penguin Books, 2018. “The Narcissistic Father.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers ,
HUS 2979 Capstone Rasmussen College Mexican Cultural Elements Presentation.

Part I: Pretend you are presenting to a diverse group of Human Services Professionals. The title of the workshop is “Communicating Effectively and Understanding and Valuing Differences 101.” For your presentation, you are going to identify a cultural population that may receive intervention services from a Human Services Professional.Develop a 12-slide PowerPoint Presentation in which you do the following:1. Identify the population and provide a description of it.2. Discuss cultural elements associated with this identified group and communication dynamics.3. What cultural considerations should be understood by Human Services Professionals, regardless of specialty, when communicating with this group?4. What specific strategies should Human Services Professionals employ to ensure effective service delivery?5. Provide any additional research-specific topics related to effective and efficient communication with diverse group (with the identified population or in general) that is applicable to Human Services practice.6. Cite at least two sources using a reference slide.Part II: Write a one-page reflective memo to your supervisor reflecting on your experience with completing this PowerPoint presentation. Include in your memo the importance of continuous dialogue relative to cultural considerations with diverse groups and how it can benefit the Rasmussen Help Center, LLC. Be sure to use a professional tone in your written correspondence.For help with creating a PowerPoint, click here.For help with writing a Memo, click here.
HUS 2979 Capstone Rasmussen College Mexican Cultural Elements Presentation

Project Writing.

As attached in Word file only 6 pages without personal student information. Project Writing The purpose of this assignment is to identify and apply
Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools to solve operational
problems and improve operational performance. To this purpose, you should find
an interesting logistics/Supply chain problem from the real business world and
think about how you can apply the concepts/tools that you learned in this
course to solve the problem.More specifically, each individual should:Find a Logistics/Supply chain problem from the real
business world (from his/her own work or from any company)Identify specific Logistics and Supply Chain Management
concepts/tools that can be applied to the problemApply an appropriate Logistics and Supply Chain
Management concept/tool or a set of appropriate concepts/tools to propose a
solution to the problemAnalyze the expected results that may be obtained when
the solution is implemented.The report should be 5 – 8 pages in length including the
cover and appendices, with 1″ margins on all sides, double-spacing, and 12
point font. The cover of the report should include title, course code and name,
your full name, and your University id number.
Project Writing

If you don’t know these concept well, please don’t take the case. The job is really important for me.

If you don’t know these concept well, please don’t take the case. The job is really important for me. (1) Combine QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and Managing Innovations to help the management of the food delivery platform you selected to re-design a better platform (app) for Elder in Hong Kong or Mainland China. (2).Use benchmarking as the tool to increase both service quality and the profits of a postal service you have selected. (3) The management of a bookstore wants to use strategy analysis tools to draft an operational plan for increasing the productivity and the profits. Please discuss the relationship between profit and productivity and develop an operational plan for the management of a bookstore in Hong Kong or in some other cities all over the world.

Gender and Sexuality in Cosmetic Advertising Research Paper

help me with my homework Table of Contents Introduction Advertisements as Cultural Indicators Gender vs. Sexuality Cosmetic Advertisements Portrayal of Female Sexuality Conclusion References Introduction Advertising is the art of publicizing one’s product, service, need especially by paid broadcasts in newspapers and magazines, over radio or television, or on billboards. The purpose of advertising is mainly to promote public awareness to boost sales, build company reputation, and solicit support or votes. It possesses all the elements of communication, i.e., it has a source or sender, the message, the intended audience, and the medium (Stuart

Analyzing a Bureaucratic Way of Rule and the Effects It Has on the People in Catch-22

Analyzing a bureaucratic way of rule and the effects it has on the people in Catch-22 The way of rule in Catch-22, a bureaucracy, affected the people in the novel greatly and developed a sense of fear in the soldiers. Throughout the book, it is evident that Yossarian and the rest of the men face arduous tasks regarding survival as they are in the midst of a war. Before I get into the main topic of bureaucracy I will describe and analyze a literary criticism that goes over a specific part of the book to combat any attempt to denounce Joseph Heller’s writing. A literary critic used a harsh tone to bash Joseph Heller’s Catch 22 and was a very ruthless in the way he discredited his work. “Jokes are a model of narrative economy. There can be no adipose tissue, no flab, no digression. You have to set it up fast, rush through the middle and pay off BIG at the end. Imagine a joke with a postscript. Or a sequel. Jokes have tyrannical sub-editors and exigent consumers. It’s astounding how easily you can mess up a good joke with duff punctuation, an underemployed adjective or the crucial instinct for when to stop. A haiku is a slurred, drunken 3am rant compared with the chilled discipline and self-mastery of the joke. It’s surpassing strange how fully and painstakingly Heller breaks all those rules. He’s all over the place. Given that it took him so long to write, you’d have thought he could have mastered his indiscipline, tendentiousness and sloppy fertility. But no, not Joe. The world’s worst copy-editor could tidy this creaking baggage up to the tune of a hundred pages or more while losing very little. It was a book he clearly did not know how to write. So, how did it end up such a masterpiece? At some point, he clearly worried about how funny it was and clearly decided not funny enough. And what he did, whether in despair or mere clumsiness was to tinker with the actual mechanics of The Joke. What he did was to unjoke all of his jokes. He repeats most of them ad nauseam. A serious comedy misdemeanour. Some of the main jokes become litanies or tropes. Like an eight-year-old boy’s idea of comedy. If I repeat this often enough, it will cease to be funny, begin provoking irritation but if I then keep repeating it, it will, through a kind of comedy Stockholm Syndrome, suddenly become hilarious all over again. Heller does this with dozens of them. For example, in the exchange between Yossarian and Clevinger where Clevinger is upset that people are trying to kill him and Yossarian reasonably counters that they’re trying to kill everyone, the back and forward goes on several beats too long. Heller kills the joke by not stopping in time. By criminal over-milking. He extends it to where it is no longer funny. And then extends it some more. Until it returns funnier and weirder than ever.” This critic talked about how Joseph Heller was attempting to implement jokes into this work and, in his mind, was failing miserably. Joseph Heller is a very well known author and this person was unsure as to how this was the case because he only really has one good piece of work. In the criticism, he cited a specific incident that occurred between Yossarian and Clevinger. Yossarian claims that the enemies are trying to specifically kill him and that their only aim is at him. Clevinger argues that he is not the only one who is being shot at as there are many other people who are now injured or dead at the hands of the enemy. In their engagement, Heller tries to insert a bit of humor and joke. The critic believes that he stretched the joke out for too long unnecessarily. He gives a list of ways that jokes can be ruined in novels and says that Heller managed to find a way to break all of those rules with this one description of their conversation. I disagree with him because I feel that it is almost necessary for the joke to be elongated as if it was shorter, some readers may not understand that Heller is trying to joke and become confused. I also believe that this critic is incredibly too severe in how hard he bashes Heller’s work just for dragging out a joke for a bit too long. The book as a whole is a great book and should not be this discredited just because of one little part that seemed to be protracted. Later in his criticism, this person said that he was repeating his ideas and parts of the joke which is a “serious comedy misdemeanor”. This would be a serious comedy misdemeanor if this was actually true, but upon reading the passage again, I do not agree with the part that he says about repeating the joke. Yes, the joke is pretty long, but nowhere does Heller repeat his joke. This makes me think that this critic is actually not just a hater of this book but Heller as a writer as he seems to think things that are not true about his writing. One of the most harsh parts of his criticism states that the “world’s worst copy-editor could tidy this creaking baggage up to the tune of a hundred pages or more while losing very little”. Joseph Heller and his editor obviously seemed to feel that the book is good in length and detail as it was published and is very successful. This sentence is horrendously false as never in the book when I read it did I feel like information was being repeated or the things that I was reading was unnecessary to the novel as a whole. If the novel was shrunk down to a hundred pages then a lot of incident and information would be missing and Heller would not be able to tell the story as intended and the message would be missing at least in part. On top of that, he says that this could be done by the worst editor which is also just unnecessarily bashing Heller’s work for being too elementary. This critic is elusive at the end of his criticism as he says that there are “dozens” of examples of drawn out jokes in this book, but only cites one of them. If there are more, what are they and when do they occur? I am not sure if there are even dozens of jokes attempted in this book total. There are jokes but dozens imply at least 24 which is to start way too steep of a number and then for all of those to be badly told is unrealistic, especially for how praised this book is. Ultimately, this critic was very condemnatory towards Heller’s work and, in my eyes, wrongly so. He criticized him too harshly and seems to be misinformed of Heller’s intentions of using jokes. On the topic of bureaucracy: It is evident that Yossarian and the rest of the men face arduous tasks regarding survival as they are in the midst of a war. Yossarian’s main goal is to try to be declared insane so he can be sent home and get out of the war. This becomes a very hard task due to the harsh and overbearing power of bureaucracy in this novel. Bureaucracy plays a huge role in Catch-22 as the deaths of the men in Yossarian’s squadron are governed not by their own decisions concerning dangerous risks, but by the decisions of an impersonal, frightening bureaucracy that rules over them. Each and everyday, these men must risk their lives even when they know that their missions are useless as the end result will be the same regardless of what they accomplish. These missions are pointless as they are forced to keep flying combat missions late in the novel even after they learn that the Allies had essentially won the war. The bureaucrats are absolutely deaf to any attempts that the men make to reason with them logically as they wished to end the combat missions. They consistently defied their logic day in and day out and the torment continued for the soldiers. As an example, Major Major will see people in his office only when he is not there. This means that he technically would never be able to listen to people’s problems and won’t talk to them ever. Also, Doc Daneeka refuses to tend to the needs and wants of the soldiers at certain times. He works in a corrupt manner which is symbolized by his refusal to ground Yossarian for insanity because Yossarian’s desire to be grounded reveals that he must be sane. In this novel, there are multiple scenes where interrogation occurs to add to the bureaucracy’s frustrating refusal to listen to logic and reason of the people. In one scene, Scheisskopf is seen interrogates Clevinger but will not let Clevinger state his innocence because he is too busy correcting Clevinger’s way of speaking. This illustrates the toxic situation that these people are in as even if they had a legitimate issue, they would have no support with the unnecessary amount of corruption that exists at the hands of the bureaucracy. In another scene, the chaplain is taken into a cellar as punishment because he is being accused of a crime. The ironic part of this is, the men that are interrogating him do not know what the crime that they are accusing him of is; they are hoping to find out a crime that he committed by interrogating him. Through this instance and others, Yossarian and his companions learn that what they do and say has very little effect on what happens to them in the end. All they can do is learn to navigate their way through the bureaucracy, using its illogical rules to their own advantage whenever possible. The bureaucracy is constantly restricting the limits of the soldiers on a day to day basis. For Yossarian, this makes his ultimate goal of being sent home after being declared insane much harder as even if he was insane they would not listen to him and keep him their. Him trying to be sent home is why they say he is meant to stay in the battle. In the end, the absolute power of bureaucracy negatively affects everyone there and puts their lives in danger each and every day. Joseph Heller establishes and develops a bureaucracy that constantly hinders the freedoms of the soldiers as well as stalls their efforts to go back home. Colonel Cathcart is one of the main culprits of imposing the bureaucratic way of authority to the soldiers. He consistently imposes rules that only hurt the soldiers, which raises the question of what is Colonel Cathcart’s true motive to doing these things to the soldiers and does he realize and understand what he causes. Cathcart can be described as a villain in this novel as he seems to be on everyone’s bad side and never does anything to really help the soldiers. The soldiers, who are their mostly involuntarily, have a common main goal of making it out of the war alive so they can go back to their families. Yossarian and other soldiers try to find a way around the authority’s rules and display many acts of rebellion. Cathcart forces a certain number of missions that all of the soldiers must fly before they try to return home. Each soldier works very hard to complete the steep number they must attain so they can finally go home and be away from the horrors of the war. However, this was futile as Colonel Cathcart had the ability to raise the number of required missions at any point. The men tried their best, but were aware of this as he has done this multiple times in the past. They knew from “experience that Colonel Cathcart might raise the number of missions again at any time”, which rendered their hard work worthless (26). As the men very well understood, as Cathcart increased the number of missions that they had to fly, he was directly diminishing their chances of ever returning home and increasing their chance of death. However, they did keep their heads high in hope that they would eventually be able to go home. Towards the end of the book, Dobbs thought that “Maybe he won’t raise the missions any more” and that “sixty is as high as hell go” (308). However, this optimism seemed to never work out as the following day, Cathcart would raise the minimum even higher. Cathcart’s motives behind doing this is never clearly stated in the book which leaves it up to interpretation and speculation. There are a multitude of reasons as to why he may feel the need to do this. Heller describes Cathcart as “brimming with tough pride in his new outfit and celebrating his assumption of command by raising the number of missions required” (54). This description broadcasts Cathcart as an egotistical person who is using his authority arbitrarily. Therefore, one reason that Cathcart could be increasing the missions could be that he just wants to flex his power over the other soldiers. Another viable reason behind Cathcart’s motives could be that he does not want the soldiers to ever leave. If all the soldiers meet their requisites, then they would be able to go home and Cathcart would have to get more people. Naturally, Cathcart would want to keep his squad and not have to search for more people to go to war and then teach them the ropes all over again. In all, the bureaucracy created in this novel is overpowering and limits the amount of freedom the people have. The bureaucratic system is comparable to the limitation of freedom experienced by Winston and some of his peers in the novel 1984 by George Orwell. Similar to the soldiers in Catch-22, Winston is aware of the conditions they are in and how it affects them on a daily basis. A majority of this novel is based around the absurdities and critiques of bureaucracy and how it affects everyone under authority. Major Major, who gets his position seemingly based on his name, is never taken out even when he continues to do nothing. Bureaucracy is one of, if not the most, major and abundant motifs in this novel. It is a constant factor in all of the soldier’s decisions and outcomes in their life. As stated previously, Major Major gets his position simply because of his name even though he has nothing else going for him in a war setting. This shows the absolute insanity that bureaucracy is and how it works with little to no logic. The soldiers are aware of the imperfections of the bureaucracy and Clevinger specifically with this situation can tell that “even among men lacking all distinction, [Major Major] inevitably stood out as a man lacking more distinction than all the rest, and people who met him were always impressed by how unimpressive he was” (Heller 93). They are consistently oppressed under the bureaucracy as they have no say in most of their daily activities, which is highlighted by Major Major and his lackadaisical attitude towards most things except making their lives living hell most of the time. Another influential character in the bureaucratic way of authority is Milo. Milo is someone who is very adamant in staying in the war and keeping all of the soldiers their to fight on. Milo is invested in not only their group but also the Germans, who “are also members in good standing of the syndicate, and it’s my job to protect their rights as shareholders” (Heller 265). Yossarian and the other soldiers are very aware of this and also his intense want for money, one of the reasons he wants to continue to fight in the war. Earlier in the novel, Yossarian was wondering how Milo could be making money selling eggs for two cents less than he bought them for. It is obvious that Milo is failing at feeding his hunger for money by making negative profit on selling the eggs. This shows the absurdity that some of the people in the bureaucracy display on a daily basis. Everyone in the bureaucracy is described as egotistical and preposterous, which is shown through their everyday actions and demands to the soldiers. Ultimately, the way of ruling in this novel outlines the craziness and chaos that occurs under a bureaucracy and how it negatively affects everyone in their daily life. Citations Literary Criticism:

The History of Glass Making

The History of Glass Making. The history of glass making goes all the way back to ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. For centuries glass was made in these areas, and the craft of glass making traveled throughout the Middle East and Near East. One of the most important regions for glass making was Ancient Syria. It was in Syria that the craft of hand-made glass became a well-established skill which was sought after by many throughout the ancient world. During the 7th century through the 9th century the flourishing Syrian glass industry existed in Damascus, Sidon, and Tyre, as well as the famous city of Raqqa. These cities became the hub in which merchants and sailors were the main transmitters for the spread of glass artifacts and the trade itself. These merchants spread the craft glass making from Syria throughout the Mediterranean world and eventually into Europe via Italy (Glassmakers, 2016). It is important to discuss the history of glass and how it ultimately became the craft we see in the Islamic era of ancient Syria and the surrounding areas. It was believed that the first glass was made accidentally. According to Eichholz, it was Pliny the Elder who wrote in the first century AD that glass was initially discovered because merchants in the region who were known to trade in “Soda” had docked along a beach to cook a meal, and needed a way to support their cooking vessels. Because there were no stones readily available they decided to use lumps of soda from their ship to support the cooking vessels. When the soda lumps became hot, they fused with the sand from the beach; the sailors noticed that streams of an unknown clear-ish liquid flowed from beneath the cooking vessels. It was later identified as some of the first known glass. This account is most likely untrue because glass had been found in the archaeological material record dating back to as many as 2500 years earlier. But this was one of the first written records confirming the knowledge of glass. (Pliny, NH 36.65; Eichholz, 1962, 151). The base ingredients of early glasses were silica, soda, and lime. In the early Mediterranean region, these three ingredients were found in the form of natron (soda) and sand which contained shell fragments (silica and lime) or calcium-free sand and crushed quartzite. The raw materials used by glassmakers in ancient Syria in the middle of the first millennium A.D. were natron and calcium-rich sand. Some of these ingredients were readily available and were collected on local beaches; the most well-known source was the beach at the mouth of the Belus (Na’aman) River. Most of the deposits of natron in the Mediterranean were found in the Wādi el-Natrūn, an area located between Cairo and Alexandria, in Egypt (Corning, 2019). Some of the manufacturing techniques for glass remained relatively the same for centuries, but due to political and environmental issues the ingredient list changed. The key ingredients, specifically natron, changed dramatically. (Burke,2019). Accessibility of natron became scarce and caused ancient glassmakers in Syria to source new materials to keep the industry alive and thriving. The best example of this change in base materials was the switch for Syrian glassmakers from Egyptian natron as a flux to a plant-based alternative found locally. The switch to plant-ash from natron was an expensive transition. At the site in Bet She’arim, Israel, too much lime in the batch was introduced by glassmakers, by combining calcium-rich beach sand and one perhaps less familiar ingredient calcium-rich plant ash, and caused the melt to fail. This resulted in the reported loss of nearly nine tons of raw glass. The severity of this loss suggested that this new ingredient (plant-based ash) was forced upon Syrian glassmakers for reasons beyond their control (Freestone,1999). Understanding the major steps in glass production and drawing a distinction between the two “Primary” and “Secondary” is important to get the full picture of the size of early Syrian glass making. Primary glass production is the first step of the glass making process which involves collecting and heating raw ingredients to form large chunks of raw glass which would be heated in large kilns (Tank Furnaces). Once these chunks were cooled, they were broken into manageable pieces sometimes referred to as “Ingots.” These raw chunks of glass would then be shipped to “Secondary” glassmakers for forming into their final designs. The Secondary production of individual artifacts made from the raw glass was a craft which was highly skilled. These craftsmen often required years of apprenticeship. Another key difference was the location of these secondary sites. There were usually geographic differences in both primary and secondary production. Primary production often took place at sites which were located closer to both the raw ingredients but also close to areas with enough “Fuel” to fire the enormous kilns needed to support the large scale primary glass manufacturing. There has been substantial archeological evidence supporting the separation of these production sites. Some evidence has been collected from shipwrecks in the Mediterranian area which had glass ingots in their holds (Gan, 2017,269) Secondary glass makers were responsible for finalizing the raw glass into its intended form. Some of the materials used in their trade were “frits” which were ground glass with minerals added to create colors. Some of the minerals used were a copper oxide which created a green color, iron which created a yellow/orange color, cobalt created blue colors, and finally, manganese which was used to create a purple or brown color (Burke, 2019). Some of the telltale signs of secondary glass production found on glass artifacts were the “Molis” which signified the presence of being blown, as well as wasters which were artifacts ruined during kiln firing. The recycling of glass was also prominent during this period (Burke, 2019). Kilns were also used for the annealing process which slowed the cooling of finished glass artifacts. If the glass was cooled too quickly, it was prone to breaking (Corning, 2019). A good archeological example of glass production was instituted by a ruling Caliph according to Dr. Timothy Insoll and Henderson would have been under Caliph Harun al-Rashid 796-808. It was during this time that Raqqa was the Abbasid capital. Harun al-Rashid built an industrial complex which included glass manufacture. A full glass workshop in Raqqa was surveyed dating back to 804 A.D. which helped outline the shift to the newer and local plant-based sodas for firing glass. It was a large number of “wasters” found at this site that helped archaeologists understand what this shift may have looked like and it identified the location as a site of glass manufacturing. The types of finished glass artifacts resulting from secondary production had many uses. The archaeological records from the 6th century through the 11th century is well documented, and glass played an important role in building materials in the form of windows, all the way down to ornate dromedary flasks for holding high-value liquids. According to Seth C Rasmussen, “Contact between the Byzantine Empire and the new empire of Islam allowed Islamic glassmakers to add the known Roman and Byzantine glassmaking techniques to their own glassmaking knowledge. As with many chemical arts, this cumulative glassmaking knowledge was then preserved by the world of Islam until the coming of the Renaissance in the West. Glassmaking flowered again for a time, combining Roman knowledge with indigenous traditions.” (RasmussenThe History of Glass Making