Race And Ethnicity On Television
Television is a part of media, and media plays a very powerful role in the lives of people. The term media means a particular medium used to convey messages to an immense. Media, and for our case television has portrayed and influenced race and ethnicity across different cultures. Ideally, at the heart of social construction, one may think there is no such thing like race and ethnicity but scholars advocate that media has high contributions in creating personal sense of reality. America’s Next Top Model This is a reality TV series where in the past a number of women have contended for the crown of America’s Next Top Model. Currently, the show has taken a new twist by inviting men as well. It is a Tyra’s Banks creation taking the role of a producer, host and judge. Because of the changes, the winner of the reality show will be crowned America’s Next Top Model-Guys and Girls. Tyra also called Lynne was born on 4th Dec 1973 in Los Angeles. She was a top-notch fashion model and became the first black woman to appear on the cover page of Sport Illustrated swimsuit issue. The questions many people ask are, is Tyra black, white or of mixed race? What are her racial and ethnic compositions? Her parents are of African and American origin. At the age of 17yrs, Tyra gave modeling a first shot although the modeling agencies received with discrimination and rejection. She remembers one agency called her “too ethnic” while another said “they had a black woman and were not interested in another.” Because of her fame and ethnicity, she is googled over five hundred times monthly by prying fan across the universe. Further, the pry concerning her race and ethnicity have been fuelled by the color of her eyes and light skin, yet leaving some people and most her fans concluding she is a Caucasian. Naturally, Africans have somewhat brown eyes whilst other colors come about because of a genetic imperfection or blood relations with European relatives. Which of these assumptions applies to Tyra? Soon her fans will know when she will feature in a popular PBS TV series, Finding Your Roots. Renowned celebrities will have their DNA test in pursue of divulging main aspects concerning their nationality, ethnicity and race. The Cosby Show Bill Cosby created and produced this show. It literally salvaged the declining comedy genre from oblivion, NBC’s. Its first appearance on television was 20th September 1984. It had so many fanatics such that by the end of its first season, the series was second most rated program in America. This enabled NBC to create other sitcom such as Friends, Frasier and Seinfeld. Cosby is the lead character in the series, playing the role of a triumphant obstetrician living in a magnificent house in Brooklyn with his wife Clair. The cast is a combination of African- American. To some extent, the show highlights on the racial aspects, for instance, Cosby thought Huxtables could have been a middle class family from a colored background. From a personal view, why did Cosby, an African- American had to play the role of the lead character? He has top-notch acting skills; was he passing a message to the rest of the races? Like, hey, look here, I am black, an amazing actor and successful producer? On the other hand, Cosby’s universality and normality made the show win countless awards and named America’s most rated sitcom for five consecutive years. CNN-Cable News Network CNN is the largest broadcasting house based in the United States of America and was launched in 1980 by an America media guru called Ted Turner. CNN was and still is the first channel to present it viewers with news around the clock. Primarily, the news are broadcasted from its head office in Atlanta. However, it not always that all that glimmers is gold. CNN has had a major influence on race and ethnicity. For some reasons, most people believe the reason behind this is the company is based in America where cases of ethnicity and racism are most pronounced. By citing an example, I will use the 2012 America’s presidential elections. Most of the people around the world did not expect CNN to put this, Obama won the elections because he accumulated votes from some of the single-sided electoral population in a contemporary political history. Then the media went on to elucidate, by having a look at the breakdown of the elections, Obama’s votes were acquired from 18-29 years at 60%, although most of them are unemployed and underemployed graduates. Further, his success was a contribution of the Africa-American with 93%, which was reported to be the same as 2008. Latino’s were also not left out of the picture as a hasty growing population in America that voted Obama at 71% as well as Asian who immensely voted him in. Music – Halley Berry Berry faced difficulties while growing up because of her biracial background. At times, she was torn between both extremes and her ethnicity. She remembered how they once lived in a black neighborhood and they dislike because her mother was white, and it was no better in the white neighborhood because she was black. It is for this reason she made an effort to be want other people like and what she wanted. She told Lesley O’ Toole of Evening Standard, if they wanted like a clown, I became one, and they needed straight A’s, I got them. Many of her schoolmates did not know Berry was not from a mixed parentage denying her mother was white. Such issues affected her and at the age of ten, she was in counseling and therapy sessions. Daytime Drama- The Young and the Restless Drucilla Winters Drucilla was an African-American actress playing a fictional role. In her role, she fell off the cliff and assumptions were that she must have died thus her body was never recovered. Away from the screen (Victoria Rowell) was dissatisfied with the soap opera calling it a soap of racist for not casting enough blacks and crew. She also accused the director for playing a deaf ear on her storylines. This made her leave the show, although she got back because of her fame, strong screen appeal and for the sake of her fans. Drama – Law and Order This drama series highlights basic bedrocks of human rights as the opinion that every human being is born equivalent and free in distinction and rights. Its shows how discrimination and persecution based on ethnicity and race are lucid breach of these standards. Characters portrayed racial and ethnicity discrimination from the very brutal to institutional. The series shows some races and ethnic groups should not enjoy certain privileges such as social, cultural and political. Commercials Sports are part of a globalization because they connect people from different states across the world. However, in the commercials black athletes are not positively represented. Studies propose that racial stereotyping of black athletes in media is somehow hidden and systematic. For instance, white footballers are so acknowledge compared to the black to an extent their private lives are brought into limelight. This gives them a positive reputation whilst creating a negative one for blacks. This is well supported by the fact that, especially American footballers and baskets appear in cover page for magazine, and movies have shot in their respect such as Basketballer’s wives. For someone who is not an American, it would been easier for one to pivot the dispute on race, ethnicity and television wholly on whether and how colored individual have figure, on or back stage or in the viewers, is a missed point. Time after time, a lot has been projected without public fanfare but teeming countless programs, old movies, advertisements, sports, scenes and news is the genuineness and normalcy of societal whiteness. Television has been used to depict the mainstream of American religion, science, education systems, media, arts and theatre. According to what American TV depicts, United States is a white realm, with some marginalized “ethnic” additional (black men/boys, black women/girls, Latinos, Asians, and gays/lesbians). These minorities have been at their best when it is hard to ignore them such as carefully trained and respectful domestic helper, and gatemen. Still, I feel although the American television is trying to change, it has a long way to go. In its first two generations, it took over and spread daily and hourly traditions of its ethnic and race that outlined and maintained a racist state self-understanding. Perchance, this has proved to be more influential on the face of it being so central and foreseeable. Secondly, I evaluate the televisual dominancy of social whiteness itself because in most cases it has concentrated on African-American issues. In tandem, it has reviewed ethnicity and racism in American television. There is no need of downplaying decades of African-American experience with an intention of acknowledging the essence of original American states, Latinos, Asian-American and Chicanos in their every diversity. Thirdly, I have a strong conviction that television has led to racial stereotype among people differently. Social class is vital in this case. Some groups have been highlighted as triumphant among them Asian-American whilst the Jewish are claimed to have inability to make good of anything unlike Latinos and Africa-American. Americans with double originality, lingos and cultures are compressed into generic “Indian” remains of the past. Gender has highly contributed too: white stomachs are likely to expand at apparent hostile and brutal prone men of color, but ethnic marginal women are credible with pliancy, such that even white men assume their unusual sexual enthusiasm. Television has been able to create, maintain and stop racial stereotype. The initial step that television companies should understand is everyone has a race and an ethnicity background. Debates on race and ethnicity are not the best; they cause discomfort and even make people annoyed. The conversations are strained and at times even hard to commence and facilitate. For instance, research depict media bring African-Americans to light as unintelligent aggressive criminals. This has made Native Americans develop and maintain that believe hence, a hostile black prejudice. Others like Asian-American have a good reputation portrayed as model minorities who are noncontroversial, very industrious and politically laid back. Third world countries are the worst seen as naÃ¯ve, uncultured and have self-esteem. Therefore, that is rationalizing, upholding of generous paternalistic towards the ethnic groups. Media has encouraged the growth of racism and ethnicity. In America, the situation is twofold. The media puts demonstrates it as one can only be white or a person of color. Those of mixed descent are at no time allowed to confuse the issue, but they should come to terms to be of a minority cluster. On the other hand, those with personal cultural style stand a chance of understanding, whilst symbol of ethnic majority are traitors, hence warmly as the “good extreme” by many either of the whites, or sarcastically as “self hating” by the marginalized. The media has come forth with strategies to address on stereotypes and prejudice. It has employed approach based that clearly guides the audience how to be positive media consumers and the second one is message based approach which presents the participants with counter stereotypical news and stories disconfirm present cultural stereotype concerning group, their races and ethnicity backgrounds. Therefore, the availability of the two media-based approaches are considerable. To have a lasting solution, the media advises containing the application of stereotypes in personal situation is the first step. Media consumers should also be provided with tools to lessen stereotype activation. Stereotype activation is far much difficult to reduce compared stereotype application. People might be in a position to repress stereotype depending on the automatic or malleable perception and attitudes. In what I would to term as controversial, repeatedly, the television is in denial that a person is exposed to dangers of discrimination because of race and ethnicity background. It denies that not a single person has suffered discrimination because of his or her color, hair texture or language. From the same media we have women raped because they are black or a sickly discharged child from the hospital because she is Latino. In fact, the advice it is offering is, if color is posing problems, then one can change it to be what they like. Colored people have often tried modifications because they are brainwashed white is superior and the problem lies in their skins. From a different perceptive, the problem has never been and will never be the skin color but the systems that account for wickedness against others then substantiate it blaming it on the victims. It does not matter if one black, white or blonde. The skin color is not a reason enough to steer discrimination, but the negative meaning given to the skin color is almost winning the debate. Additionally, color is unprejudiced; only the mind’s state can give it a meaning. Such ideological procedures justify inequality by seeking faults in the victims. Conclusion What I have learnt is the United States of America is not only a multicultural realm, but also one with differences with its values of freedom, liberty, justice, taboos and morals. For their meaning should not be based on the hair texture, skin color, language accent, gender and clothing. The meaning should have cultural and social-religious values inherited from one generation to another. If a meaning is negative, then it creates a feeling of superiority between groups leading to prejudice and acts of discrimination hence racism and social construction of power in the society and institutions that would otherwise be of positive impacts to individuals. Human beings should love, respect and treat each other well irrespective race, social class, ethnicity background or gender. It is egocentric and uncouth when one race refers to the other as menial, useless or handkerchief.
Application of Blockchain Technology in Artistic Content Creation Discussion
custom essay Application of Blockchain Technology in Artistic Content Creation Discussion.
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Blockchain and GovernanceChapter 9 introduces blockchain advantages in the artistic content creation and delivery business. Do you create or acquire artistic content? (art, music, etc.) Discuss how the changes covered in chapter 9 would affect you personally. Would adopting blockchain technology change your art production or consumption practices?text bookTitle: Blockchain RevolutionISBN: 9781101980149Authors: TAPSCOTTPublisher: PENG RANDEdition: 18Title: Blockchain RevolutionISBN: 9781101980149Authors: TapscottPublisher: PENG RANDEdition: 18
Application of Blockchain Technology in Artistic Content Creation Discussion
The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. Infectious diseases have always existed and have had a major impact on human development. It is widely believed that our immune systems and genetic makeup have evolved over many years under the selective pressure of potentially fatal diseases, such as malaria (Haldane 1948; Weatherall 1996). In addition, epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated entire communities, and have sometimes changed the course of history. Examples In Europe in the 14th Century, there were about 25 million deaths from bubonic plague out of a population of approximately 100 million. In 1520 the Aztecs lost about half of their population of 3.5 million from smallpox, introduced by the more immune invading Spaniards. This has been proposed as an important feature in the defeat of the Aztecs by the Spanish invaders. In 1919, after the First World War, the global epidemics of influenza killed an estimated 20 million people during one year – more than died as a result of the war. During the 20th century, important advances in the prevention and control of many infectious diseases were achieved with the development of vaccines and antibiotic drugs. This has sometimes created the impression that infectious diseases are no longer a major threat to public health. However, this is far from being the case. The following is a quote from Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, the Director-General of the World Health Organization: “Illness and death from infectious diseases can be, in most cases, avoided at an affordable cost. It is in everyone’s interest that these obstacles to development be removed. Because of drug resistance, increased travel and the emergence of new diseases, we may only have a limited time in which to make rapid progress.” In the following, you will see some of the reasons why infectious diseases are still an important challenge to public health at the beginning of the 21st century. Mortality Infectious diseases are a leading cause of global mortality, causing more than 13 million deaths a year. They are still the main cause of death among children under 5 and the main single cause of premature death in persons under the age of 45. Morbidity Infectious diseases are also a major cause of global morbidity. They are responsible for a huge amount of disability and suffering in the world as measured in DALYs. DALY Disability Adjusted Life Years, a measure of disease burden. It includes years of life lost due to premature death, and years of healthy life lost due disability or illness. Recurring episodes of illness and long-term disability have a major economic impact on the developing countries most affected by infectious diseases. Role in chronic disease Infectious diseases are increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesis of many important diseases that were previously thought to have a non-infectious origin. Cervical cancer is now known to be associated with human papillomavirus infection. Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in women in many developing countries. In the past two decades, evidence has grown on the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C can cause primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is among the most common cancers in many parts of Africa and Asia. Potential for epidemic spread A specific feature of infectious diseases is their ability to be transmitted between individuals. This can result in the occurrence of large outbreaks. Between 1997-2000 there were more than 600 outbreaks of disease considered by the WHO to be of ‘international importance’. Outbreak The term used to describe a localised epidemic, e.g. in a village, town or city. The term ‘large outbreak’ is increasingly being used instead of ‘epidemic’, as it is less emotive. With increasing urbanisation and international travel, the world is becoming a smaller place, and the routes for transmission of infection are increasing. Aeroplane journeys enable individuals to travel within the incubation period of most infectious diseases. This allows infections to spread to distant places within very short periods of time. An example of this is the annual global dispersal of meningococcal meningitis by pilgrims returning from the Haj Muslim religious festival (Saudi Arabia). Newly emerging diseases Over the past three decades, over 30 new infectious diseases and pathogens have been identified for the first time in humans. These include diseases with a very high case-fatality rate, such as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) and Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Some of these new infections are highly prevalent, for example Hepatitis C and rotavirus. Other infections, such as HIV, have rapidly spread around the world. New variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was described in the United Kingdom in 1996. The agent is considered to be the same as that causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a disease that emerged in the 1980s and affected thousands of cattle in the United Kingdom and other, mainly European countries. Ebola The first outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever occurred in 1976 and the discovery of the virus was reported in 1977. Cases reported to WHO up to June 1997 indicated a case-fatality rate of over 70%. A major outbreak in Uganda in 2000 was thought to be associated with spread of the virus by soldiers moving across the country. Hepatitis C This virus was identified in 1989, and is now known to be the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide. So far, up to 3% of the world population are estimated to be infected, among whom 170 million are chronic carriers at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Rotavirus First recognised in 1973, rotavirus is the most common cause of childhood diarrhoea worldwide. 20% of all diarrhoeal deaths and 5% of all deaths in under-5 year olds are due to rotavirus. HIV Although the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was recognised in 1981, the causal virus, HIV, was first isolated in 1983. It is estimated that, since the start of the epidemic, 30.6 million people worldwide have become HIV-infected and nearly 12 million have died from AIDS or AIDS-related diseases. Re-emerging diseases In addition to the emergence of new infectious diseases, many old diseases that had previously been under control are starting to appear in increased numbers or in previously unaffected populations. Resurgence of infectious diseases can occur because of any of the following reasons: changes in social or environmental conditions, failure to maintain immunisation programmes, increased drug resistance Drug resistance is currently an increasing problem for a number of diseases worldwide, and we are often in a race to develop new treatments faster than the pathogens can develop resistance. Example Since the mid-1980s there has been a major resurgence of diphtheria in several countries of Eastern Europe, which had previously been progressing towards elimination of the disease. In 1993, 15,211 diphtheria cases were reported in Russia and 2,987 cases in Ukraine. The main reason for the return of diphtheria in these countries was a decreased immunisation coverage due to an irregular supply of vaccines and large-scale population movements (Galazka et al 1995). Example Mortality and morbidity rates from tuberculosis (TB) in industrialised countries declined during most of the 20th century. However, from the mid-1980s onwards, many of these countries have seen an important increase in the incidence of TB. This is mainly due to a decline in TB control programmes, the increased incidence of multi-drug resistance TB and the effect of the HIV epidemic (Grange 1998). Potential for prevention and control The mechanisms involved in many infectious diseases are well understood, from the molecular aspects of the infectious agent to the demographic characteristics of host populations. This level of understanding has enabled potentially very effective prevention and control measures to be developed for some infectious diseases. With efficient intervention strategies and the advent of national public health agencies, elimination of specific infectious diseases has become feasible. In some cases, there has even been the possibility (or reality) of global eradication. Following the successful WHO programme for the global eradication of smallpox through vaccination, the last naturally acquired case of this disease occurred in October 1977 in Somalia. The countries of the Western Hemisphere have set a target for the elimination of measles by the end of the year 2005. Polio and guineaworm are now also on the verge of eradication, after intensive, globally co-ordinated programmes. Strategies to immunise millions of children on the same day have resulted in few countries now reporting cases due to wild poliovirus. Infectious disease epidemiology In epidemiology, we are interested in describing and explaining the distribution of diseases in populations. The distribution of an infectious disease depends on the transmission of the infectious agent within the host population. This is a dynamic process, which is influenced by characteristics of the specific infectious agent, characteristics of the host population and characteristics of the relationship between the infectious agent and the host. The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
Insight to Assisting Patient with Multiple Sclerosis
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This essay will look to explore, critique and interpret the existing literature relevant to Multiple Sclerosis within physiotherapy practice. The author will research pathophysiology, physiotherapy assessment, treatment and wider implications of living with a neurological disease. The major cause of neurological disability in young and middle ages adults is Multiple Sclerosis (MS) (Stokes