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Salmonella Spp Pathogenesis | Essay

Salmonella Spp Pathogenesis | Essay. Goh JiaYeen Introduction The isolation of Salmonella from a swine suffering from hog cholera was first reported in 1885 by Daniel E. Salmon. This isolated bacterium was first named as Bacillus cholerasuis, which is currently known as Salmonella enteric serovar Choleraesuis (Bhunia, 2008; Li et al., 2012). Salmonella is known to be an important cause of a foodborne illness, known as salmonellosis, in humans globally (Hald, 2013). Salmonellosis ranges from mild to severe food poisoning (gastroenteritis), and even severe typhoid fever, septicaemia, bacteraemia and others. Some of these conditions can be of high morbidity and mortality rates, involving a large population (BellSalmonella Spp Pathogenesis | Essay
Rebecca Bastow In the following assignment I am going to analyse and evaluate a case of Acute Otitis Media shown in appendix one, by discussing the pathophysiology behind this condition and how important the role of history-taking is as well as, the clinical presentation and the probable examination findings. To further support my findings of the condition I am going to including the special tests that are needed to confirm my diagnosis. Through the utilisation of appropriate evidence, I am going to justify and formulate my treatment plan and referral pathway, taking into consideration the ethical, medico-legal and professional responsibilities relating to the case. Acute otitis media (AOM) can be referred to as the presence of inflammation in the middle ear with possible effusion, its associated signs and symptoms are rapid in onset (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 27). It is evidenced that more than seventy-five percent of cases commonly affects young children under the age of ten, particularly those who are effected by passive smoking, attend nursery and are formula-fed. It is said to have a greater prevalence in males than females (Edwards and Stillman, 2006, p. 129 -137). Consequently, children have a horizontal, less acute angle and shorter Eustachian tube which makes it easier for bacterial enter and more difficult for fluid to move. However, normally it is collapsed but opens with swallowing and positive pressure (Nair and Peate, 2013, p. 565 -566). The recurrence of this infection can cause serious complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforation, infrequently it can lead to mastoiditis, facial nerve paralysis, sinus thrombosis, and meningitis (Kivi and Yu, 2016). The presentation in adults and older children is usually reported as earache whereas, young children they may rub and pull on their ear or may present generic symptoms such as fever, continual crying, poor feeding, cough and restlessness at night. Signs and symptoms that are common in AOM consist of red, cloudy or bulging tympanic membrane, pain, pyrexia, headache, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting, reduction in hearing, malaise and otalgia (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015). Eustachian tube is situated at the anterior wall of the middle ear to the lateral wall of the nasopharynx and therefore, anatomically connects to the throat and palatine tonsil. Thus, allowing the infection to effect anything that is located in the connected pathways. AOM is a common condition that can be triggered by upper respiratory tract infections (twenty-five percent) either via bacteria or viruses (Nair and Peate, 2015, p. 157). Commonly, it is a virus that is responsible for the infection and is usually self-limiting. Although, other inflammatory conditions can have similar outcomes. Inflammation of the nasopharynx can spread up to the medial end of the Eustachian tube, forming stasis which in turn changes the pressure in the middle ear, relative to ambient pressure (Johnson and Hill-Smith, 2012, p. 34 -35). This level of stasis can result in bacteria settling in the space of the middle ear via the straight pathway from the nasopharynx (Nair and Peate, 2013, p. 565 -566). The prominent causes are reflux, blowing something into a body cavity or aspiration. The body’s natural reaction to acute inflammatory responses is recognised as vasodilation, leukocyte invasion, exudation, phagocytosis and local immunological responses in the middle ear (Nair and Peate, 2015, p. 157). It is said that viral based infections that target and harm mucosal linings of the respiratory tract may assistance bacteria’s ability to become pathogenic in the nasopharynx, Eustachian tube and the middle ear cleft. Viral infections have been understood in regard to its part in the pathogenesis of AOM yet, it is still not understood what actual role they play (Waseem, M, 2016). Immunology activity can play a vital role in the occurrence of AOM and its results. The nasopharynx also has an important role in the development of AOM, its lymphoid tissues provide a form of protection against pathogens by obstructing their attachment to surfaces of the mucosa (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015). There are numerous medico-legal considerations to bear in mind in Anna’s case due to her only being sixteen years of age (appendix one). The fundamental issue is whether she has mental capacity, it is an act designed to protect those who may lack the mental capacity to make their own decisions on their care and treatment. Which applies to individuals aged sixteen and over (NHS Choices, 2015). Individuals have to be given help to make a decision themselves and the information should be in a format that they can understand easily. If someone makes what is believed to be an “unwise” decision, they should not be treated as lacking capacity. Treatment and care given to those who lack capacity should be the least restrictive of their rights and freedoms (GOV UK, 2005). Mental capacity is determined by if there is an impairment, disturbance in the function of their mind or brain, as a result of a condition, illness or other external influences. And by whether theses consequently make the individual unable to make specific decisions when they have to. Individuals may lack capacity to make specific decisions but have the capacity to make others (Quality Care Commission, 2016). It can also fluctuate with time, they may lack capacity at one point in time, but may be able to make the same decision at a later point. To be deemed to have mental capacity they must, understand the information pertinent to the decision, retain the information and use the information in the process of making that decision (NHS Choices, 2015). The capacity to consent to treatment has a controversial stance in under sixteen year olds. However, Gillick competence expresses that any child under the age of sixteen can consent, if they have “sufficient understanding and intelligence” to be capable of making a decision when required (Ministry of Ethics, 2014). This refers to the assessment undertaken by doctors to establish if a child under sixteen is deemed to have to capacity to consent for treatment in the absence of parental or guardian consent. The routine assessment of competence should be suitable for the child’s age (NHS Choices, 2016). It could be argued, what is deemed to have ‘sufficient’ for understanding and intelligence. In Anna’s case this does not directly apply because she is over that age nonetheless, the transferability is feasible. Children sixteen and over are deemed to have capacity by law and can consent or refuse treatment. If a child sixteen or over is believed to lack capacity, an assessment of capacity to consent needs to be carried out and documented (Quality Care Commission, 2016). Once valid consent to treatment has been attained it should be recorded as evidence, valid consent is where the medical professional has given the child, parents or both the applicable information about the purpose of treatment, as well as risks and possible alternatives (Department of Health, 2009). It is still good practice to provide parents with information however, consent needs to be sought from the child and the extent of information shared should be deliberated (Quality Care Commission, 2016). In regard to safeguarding concerns, information can be shared with parents without consent. Decisions made in the best interest for the individual, regarding care and treatment can be made anyone involved in caring for them, relatives, friends, and any attorney appointed (NHS Choices, 2016). As soon as I had consent from Anna or both Anna and her parents I would take a detailed history from her such as, when the pain started, pain score, characteristics of the pain, whether it is radiating anywhere, any allergies, medical conditions, current medication and social factors (appendix one). A thorough history is critical as it helps establish; potential treatment plans, possible safety netting features, rules out red flags or differential diagnosis (appendix two) which are all grounded on the findings from the physical assessment and special tests (Kavanagh, S, 2015). From observation, examination and palpation; it was recognised that her tonsils red and swollen, her head was inclined to right but was walking normally, otoscopy reviled that the tympanic membrane was cloudy and bulging slightly and her palatine and pre-auricle lymph nodes appeared tender (Douglas et al, 2013, p. 297 -314). The baseline observations showed that she had no significant temperature and all others observations were with normal parameters (appendix one). To support my diagnosis and exclude potential red flags indefinitely I would carry out some special auditory tests. The first type of hearing loss is conductive; this is a problem conducting sound waves along the path of the ear. It can occur anywhere from the outer ear, middle ear or, tympanic membrane (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 11). Sensorineural is the other type of hearing loss, in which the cause is situated in the inner ear, the cochlea or in the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 11). A simple test to establish the level of hearing loss is the Voice test. By observing and engaging in conversation with the patient it is easy to recognise if you need to raise your voice to be heard clearly. A whisper test would help you gain greater perception of their hearing loss (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 13). A more complex and effective test that is greatly used is the Tuning fork test (Burkey et al, 1998). Within this there is two further tests, the first is called the Weber test (appendix three). This is where the tuning fork is hit on a surface to make it vibrate, then the base is placed on the middle of the patients’ forehead and then ask the patient where they hear this sound. It is normal for the patient to hear it in both ears except those with conductive hearing loss or unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, then it is better heard in one ear (Douglas et al, 2013, p. 303). The Rinne’s test (appendix three) should conclude that the sound was louder beside the external auditory meatus than on the mastoid process this is because air conduction is greater than bone (Rinne’s positive), (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 13). This test is conducted by placing the vibrating fork on the mastoid process and then the patient reports when they can no longer hear it. The fork is then placed approximately two centimeters away from the external auditory meatus and asked if they can hear it, the patient then reports when they can no longer hear anything (Douglas et al, 2013, p. 303). However, if the patient informs you that the sound is louder on the mastoid process this means bone is the better conductor of sound (Rinne’s negative) and applies to conductive deafness (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 13). A false negative Rinne’s test can occur when hearing is very poor in one side, when the fork is placed on the mastoid process of the poor ear the sound can be conducted through the skull and projected to the good ear (Douglas et al, 2013, p. 303). To manage people with initial presentations of AOM paracetamol or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for instance, ibuprofen is used to treat pain and fever. It is evidenced that both of them are effective in relieving pain in children with AOM, and have few adverse effects when the suggested doses are used (Nair and Peate, 2015, p. 157). For the majority of people with AOM a non-antibiotic method is used, this is where they assure patients that antibiotics are not needed and that they make little difference to symptoms. Antibiotics may also have adverse effects and contribute to antibiotic resistance (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 23). A delayed antibiotic prescribing strategy could also be utilised, where they advise patients to commence antibiotics if within four days their symptoms do not improve or if they get substantially worse (Johnson and Hill-Smith, 2012, p. 34 -35). Immediate antibiotics should be given to people that have AOM and are; systemically unwell but admission is not needed, at the risk of complications due to existing diseases, those whose symptoms have continued for four or more days and not getting better, children under the age of two with infection in both ears and children with discharge in the canal or tympanic perforation (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015). A five-day course of amoxicillin is the first-line of treatment if antibiotics are required. Whereas, people that are allergic to penicillin have erythromycin or clarithromycin as alternatives (Munir and Clarke, 2013, p. 23). Amoxicillin is shown to be more effective than erythromycin or clarithromycin against the probable pathogens involved in AOM (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015). A Cochrane systematic review showed that was no respectable evidence for the routine use of antibiotics in the treatment of AOM in children (Venekamp et al, 2013). Although antibiotics showed to have a statistically significant decrease of children experiencing pain with AOM between day two and seven compared the placebo, eighty-two percent of the children’s symptoms spontaneously improved. It was concluded that the benefits and potential harms of antibiotic treatment must be evaluated, taking into account adverse effects and the possibility of resistance (Venekamp et al, 2013). However, the evidence exposed that they were the most effective against children under two with bilateral AOM, or with both discharge and AOM regardless of age. For the majority of children with mild AOM, an observational method seems acceptable (Venekamp et al, 2013). Another systematic review of the treatment of AOM in children found that compared with short course antibiotics, long courses reduced short-term treatment failure, but had no advantages in the longer term in comparison with short courses (Kozyrskyj et al, 2015). Consequently, to manage and treat Anna’s AOM I would treat her pain with paracetamol or ibuprofen taking into consideration of any allergies and her asthma. I would establish if she has taken ibuprofen before and whether there were any problems. The evidence above shows this condition to be self-limiting and that antibiotics have no significant effect in this condition. It is shown that the public have the most contact with the NHS via general practices, NHS England estimated that approximately one million people access their general practice each day (Comptroller and Auditor General, 2015). The number of direct and telephone contact with patients grew (15.4 percent) throughout all clinical staff in general practices between 2010 and 2015. During that period, the average patient list expanded by ten percent (Baird et al. 2016). It is evident that the non-emergency services like these are being sought by those with conditions that are not serious or life threatening. NHS Direct received roughly 4.4 million calls in 2011 and 2012, 2.7 million calls were made between 2012 and 2013 to NHS 111 and in 2007 and 2008, around 8.6 million calls were received by the GP out-of-hours services (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2014). In Anna’s case of AOM it is evident that she is asymptomatic, the spread of infection has clearly tracked down from the nasopharynx, Eustachian tube, throat, tonsils to the palatine and pre-auricle lymph nodes. It directly corresponds with the physical assessment and the initial history of the conditions presentation therefore, ruling out a differential diagnosis. The no antibiotic framework above is evidently effective, I have concluded that an analgesic (paracetamol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen) approach would be adapted and advised to manage Anna’s pain. This also demonstrates the importance of history taking as Anna has only had these symptoms for two days, indicating that this treatment is the most appropriate. It is apparent that Anna does not require hospitalisation so I would need to leave her with the appropriate safety netting in place. Thus, if she was at home or at school when the incident occurred and her parents or teacher were present and content with monitoring her, I would leave the same advice as shown above. I would also advice Anna to go and see her GP if her symptoms worsen or persist for four or more days. It is documented that general practices are well-versed in the management of these non-urgent conditions if they develop or worsen. Similarly, it is evidence that the public are aware of which service to pursue if they experience any similar acute conditions. These actions would only be taken once the red flags were ruled out through the tests and assessments conducted above. In summary acute otitis media is usually a self-limiting condition that resolves by itself without the input of antibiotics subsequently, it is likely that Anna will not need any further involvement form any other healthcare professional. References (2017). Differential Diagnosis. Available: https://online.epocrates.com/diseases/3935/Otitis-media/Differential-Diagnosis. Last accessed 25-01-17. Baird, B., Charles. A., Honeyman. M., Maguire, D. and Das, P. (2016). Understanding pressures in general practice. Available: https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/files/kf/field/field_publication_file/Understanding-GP-pressures-Kings-Fund-May-2016.pdf. Last accessed 25-01-17. Burkey, J, Lippy, W, Schuring, A and Rizer, F. (1998). Clinical Utility of the 512-Hz Rinne Tuning Fork Test. Available: https://www.mm3admin.co.za/documents/docmanager/6e64f7e1-715e-4fd6-8315-424683839664/00023361.pdf. Last accessed 17-01-17. Comptroller and Auditor General. (2015). Department of Health and NHS England: Stocktake of access to general practice in England. Available: https://www.cqc.org.uk/sites/default/files/20151008 Brief guide – Capacity and consent in under 18s FINAL.pdf. Last accessed 27-01-17. Department of Health. (2009). Reference guide to consent. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/138296/dh_103653__1_.pdf. Last accessed 23-01-17. Douglas, G., Nicol, F and Robertson, C (2013). Macleod’s Clinical Examination. 13th ed. Edinburgh: Elvsevier. P. 297 -308. Edwards, C and Stillman, P (2006). Minor Illness or Major Disease? The clinical pharmacist in the community. 4th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press. p. 129 -137. GOV UK. (2005). Mental Capacity Act 2005. Available: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/9/pdfs/ukpga_20050009_en.pdf. Last accessed 28-01-17. Johnson, G and Hill-Smith, I (2012). The Minor Illness Manual. 4th ed. London: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd. p. 25 -41. Kavanagh, S. (2015). History Taking. Available: http://patient.info/doctor/history-taking. Last accessed 28-01-17. Kivi, R and Yu, W. (2016). Acute Otitis Media. Available: http://www.healthline.com/health/ear-infection-acute. Last accessed 19-01-17. Kozyrskyj, A., Klassen, T., Moffatt, M and Harvey, K. (2015). Short-course antibiotics for acute otitis media. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001095.pub2/full. Last accessed 29-01-17. Ministry of Ethics. (2014). Common Law: Gillick V West Norfolk AND Wisbech Area Health Authority 1984-5. Available: http://www.ministryofethics.co.uk/index.php?p=7
lesson four and five.

Which of the following is NOT a step of claims management?Question 1 options:Comparison of litigation cases with other facilitiesManagement of litigationInitial investigation of claimsNegotiation of settlement of claims out of courtSaveQuestion 2 (2.5 points) Amounts that are owed, but not yet paid are:Question 2 options:expenses.assets.liabilities.bills.SaveQuestion 3 (2.5 points) Any incident or circumstance that might result in a loss is called a(n):Question 3 options:danger.hazard.risk.threat.SaveQuestion 4 (2.5 points) Which of the following statements is NOT true of an accounts payable system?Question 4 options:It provides an overview of money due in different categories.It controls the outflow of money for expenses.It is used to manage payments for recurring expenses.It can print checks or authorize EFTs to pay bills.SaveQuestion 5 (2.5 points) The ________ is used to produce financial statements and monitor the overall financial health of the organization.Question 5 options:payroll accounting systempayroll administration systemfinancial ledgergeneral ledgerbudgetSaveQuestion 6 (2.5 points) Setting a minimum quantity threshold on supplies in an inventory system prevents:Question 6 options:getting too many supplies.running out of supplies.ordering duplicate supplies.ordering of supplies.SaveQuestion 7 (2.5 points) Systems used to order supplies, drugs, and equipment are called:Question 7 options:ordering systems.purchasing systems.stocking systems.inventory systems.SaveQuestion 8 (2.5 points) An example of a direct cost is:Question 8 options:insurance.a manager’s salary.department supplies.rent.SaveQuestion 9 (2.5 points) All of the following statements are true of appointment schedulers EXCEPT:Question 9 options:he or she must understand the provider’s scheduling wishes.he or she must be a skilled manager.he or she must be able to work under pressure.he or she must be familiar with the requirements of different types of appointments.SaveQuestion 10 (2.5 points) A/R and billing data are used, reported, and analyzed by:Question 10 options:supervisors.executives.managers.All of the aboveSaveQuestion 11 (2.5 points) Which of the following is an organization’s principal tool for financial planning that usually forecasts revenue and expenses for the next fiscal year?Question 11 options:Financial reportProfit and loss reportFinancial ledgerBudgetSaveQuestion 12 (2.5 points) ________ management evaluates cases using standard criteria and then seeking authorization from the payer.Question 12 options:QualityUtilizationClaimsCaseSaveQuestion 13 (2.5 points) Financial information systems include all of the following EXCEPT:Question 13 options:purchasing.payroll.registration and records.budgeting.SaveQuestion 14 (2.5 points) Incidents that can result in financial loss or lead to litigation are called:Question 14 options:potentially compensable risks.potentially compensable measures.potentially compensable actions.potentially compensable events.SaveQuestion 15 (2.5 points) Infections are tracked and monitored by:Question 15 options:Utilization Review.Quality ManagementHealth Information Management.Registration and Records.SaveQuestion 16 (2.5 points) The ________ department reviews each patient complaint to improve care and patient satisfaction and identify patterns or cases that could present a risk to the patient or hospital.Question 16 options:Health Information ManagementRegistration and RecordsQuality ManagementInformation TechnologySaveQuestion 17 (2.5 points) The managerial aspects of maintaining a payroll is referred to as:Question 17 options:budgeting.payroll administration.payroll accounting.accounts payable.SaveQuestion 18 (2.5 points) Payroll administration includes which of the following activities?Question 18 options:Generating reports payroll activities.Complying with federal, state, and local employment lawsKeeping recordsAll of the above are included in payroll administration.SaveQuestion 19 (2.5 points) Which of the following situations should be reported on an incident report?Question 19 options:Patient fallMedication errorVisitor fallall of the aboveSaveQuestion 20 (2.5 points) Computing an employee’s taxable wages is part of:Question 20 options:payroll accounting.payroll administration.accounts payable.Both a and bSaveQuestion 21 (2.5 points) An up-to-date list of both acute and chronic conditions affecting the patient’s care is a(n):Question 21 options:history and physical.admission list.problem list.review of systems.SaveQuestion 22 (2.5 points) The acronym SOAP stands for:Question 22 options:subjective, objective, assessment, plan.subjective, occupational, assessment, plan.subjective, operative, ailments, plan.subjective, objective, ailments, patient.SaveQuestion 23 (2.5 points) Home health agencies use the OASIS standard to document data that is sent electronically to the state and CMS every ________ days.Question 23 options:10142860SaveQuestion 24 (2.5 points) An attending physician’s request for a consult is called a(n):Question 24 options:patient request.medical request.referral.consultation.SaveQuestion 25 (2.5 points) Which of the following would NOT be found on a discharge summary?Question 25 options:Summary of laboratory resultsA brief history justifying the need for hospitalizationFamily historyPatient condition at time of dischargeSaveQuestion 26 (2.5 points) Communication technology used to deliver medical care to a patient in another location is called:Question 26 options:remote clinical technology.telemedicine.rural healthcare technology.telocare technology.SaveQuestion 27 (2.5 points) Who owns the patient health record?Question 27 options:The facility or practiceThe patientThe federal governmentThe stateSaveQuestion 28 (2.5 points) All of the following documentation guidelines have been developed by AHIMA EXCEPT:Question 28 options:the health record should be organized systematically.only authorized individuals should be allowed to enter documentation in the health record.all entries in the health record should not be permanent.authors of entries should be clearly identified in the health record.SaveQuestion 29 (2.5 points) Health information professionals use which of the following to ensure quality patient records?Question 29 options:Data setsData elementsHIM policiesAll of the aboveSaveQuestion 30 (2.5 points) An inpatient admission requires a history and physical within ________ days prior to admission or 24 hours after admission.Question 30 options:5101430SaveQuestion 31 (2.5 points) All of the following are documented by nurses in an inpatient facility EXCEPT:Question 31 options:patient’s social history.administration of medications.treatments ordered by the physician.insurance information.SaveQuestion 32 (2.5 points) Previous illnesses, operations, injuries, diseases, allergies, and immunizations are all part of the:Question 32 options:past medical history.social history.family history.review of systems.SaveQuestion 33 (2.5 points) A(n) ________ is required in all cases of death.Question 33 options:social historyfamily historydischarge summaryreview of careSaveQuestion 34 (2.5 points) Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the PHR?Question 34 options:Patients enter the information themselves.Patients can retrieve their own records.The record can be retrieved using the Internet.It can integrate information from many different providers.SaveQuestion 35 (2.5 points) The birth of a baby requires a document recording the birth to be signed and sent to the:Question 35 options:admission office.parents.attending physician.state health department.SaveQuestion 36 (2.5 points) The principle reason for a visit is the:Question 36 options:history of present illness.review of systems.chief complaint.social history.SaveQuestion 37 (2.5 points) Surgical procedures require which of the following?Question 37 options:Anesthesia recordsIntraoperative recordsInformed consent for the procedureAll of the aboveSaveQuestion 38 (2.5 points) All orders, including medications, lab tests, and diagnostic tests, must be:Question 38 options:dated.signed.verbally ordered.Both A and BSaveQuestion 39 (2.5 points) Which of the following data sets are used in acute care hospitals and required by CMS?Question 39 options:Uniform Ambulatory Care Data SetUniform Clinical Data SetMinimum Data SetUniform Hospital Discharge Data SetSaveQuestion 40 (2.5 points) The acronym PHR stands for:Question 40 options:provider health record.personal health record.patient health record.private heath record.
lesson four and five

The University of Texas at Tyler Chapter 5 Servant Leadership Peer Response.

Response to ONE group member’s post of your choice). Each of your posts (a response to my post and a response to another student’s post) should be 300-400 words (excluding references), should contain 1 internal reference (a reference to a textbook page) and 1 external reference (a reference to a business journal/magazine articleInternal reference is: Northouse, P. G. (2019). Chapter 5: Situational Approach. In Leadership: theory and practice (p. 95). SAGE PublicationsDBA 2 Questions:1) In your opinion, are there any risks associated with servant leadership? List and briefly explain two risks.2) Is it possible to practice servant leadership in a computer-mediated environment (e.g., in a virtual team)? Why or why not? Please explain.There are risks with all leadership styles and servant leadership style is no different. The risks are different with each leadership style though, so I will point out a couple of risk with servant leadership. Then I will move to discussing servant leadership style in the computer-mediated environment. With servant leadership, one where the leader’s priority is to serve others, particularly those they lead, there is a potential for the leader to stray from 100% ethical behavior and pure intention and end up in being manipulative or seem to treat someone unequally. There is a power differential between a supervisor/manager and a subordinate. Even if this is minimized as much as possible, the person who gives a job evaluation or pay raise has some power over the ones they supervise. For this reason, building trust is difficult, and if not done ethically, a leader may end up doing inappropriate things to try and build that trust or just to “help”. For example, a supervisor, acting in good conscious and knowing his employee is a single parent, could allow that employee flexibility with work hours. As long as other people have similar flexibility based on their lives, that may be appropriate given the work environment. However, if the supervisor paid the employees utility bill by rationalizing that they would otherwise give that money to charity and would rather give it to someone they know, this could be a boundary line that was crossed, and the employee could quickly feel obligated to do more work or do other things the supervisor asked (Stone, Russell, and Patterson, 2004, pg 357). It would also be a situation where the supervisor appeared to be choosing favorites, even with good intentions. There are many examples along these lines that could appear manipulative, playing favorites, or crossing boundaries in a work relationship, even with good intentions. Regarding the leader using this style in a computer-mediated work environment, I see the same cost benefit ratio as I see for an in-person work environment. The same central focus of emotional healing, putting others first, helping followers grow and succeed (Northouse, 2019, p 238) can be accomplished with interaction over a virtual media. On the positive side as well, when a subordinate is not seeing their boss regularly, the employees would feel less obligated to do small favors for the supervisor and there is less chance of small manipulations. The reason I feel this is doable is that I have a trustworthy relationship with a supervisor I have never seen in person. My needs have always been met, and I have been challenged and offered opportunity to grow, which is enough to keep me working diligently.
The University of Texas at Tyler Chapter 5 Servant Leadership Peer Response

Challenges Faced By The Shipping Industry Economics Essay

Today, the shipping industry is still facing a hard period due to macro economic conditions. Most of the shipping entities are struggling to survive these difficult times. There are clear signs of economic recovery in the other sector but on contrary maritime industry has not shown any such indication of recovery form effects of havoc created by the latest economic tsunami. Seaborne trade is uncertain and that some challenging lie ahead for shipping and international seaborne trade. These challenges are further compounded by other developments of some regulations concern in the problem of maritime safety and the protection of marine environment. What kinds of current challenges to the maritime industry related to economic and development of maritime regulations, and how the maritime industry cope with those challenges will be described base on the reference studies. Challenges Facing from Economic Point of View The global maritime industry has presently been reeling under the impact of the ongoing economic crisis. It is expected to experience a few years of decline due to the overcapacity of ships, and a substantial reduction of shipment, resulting in a drop in tariffs. Overall, the shipping industry is witnessing a new trend of consolidation. Smaller companies, which are asset heavy, are merging with larger organizations in order to survive these difficult times. Observations indicate that the prospect of considerable improvements in trade volumes before the end of 2010 is unlikely. “It can be safely assumed that the shipping industry will learn its lessons and emerge stronger from the current economic crisis. However, there is still a long way to go, at least three years, before the shipping industry bounces back to its earlier prosperous times and freight rates are rationally stabilized.” (Frost

Come up with a thesis analytical essay, writing homework help (600 words)

i need help writing an essay Come up with a thesis analytical essay, writing homework help (600 words).

Please follow the instructions below :Come up with a thesis based on the two texts provided!Introduction:Write one paragraph summary 8-10 sentences only!. Also write the thesis in the last sentence of the paragraph. Please have 4-5 body paragraphs about the short story and the critique. Use quotes from the story “roman fever” and the critique. Prove the thesis. Please have at least 8-10 quotes each from the two texts. Also when you are quoting from the text use in text citations and quotes have to match where you got it from in the text. When quoting change the italics!.Conclusion should be like this:It should be what you mentioned in the introductionDo not add anything new and do not repeat yourself. Please have a work cited page. MLA format Come up with an title No plagiarism or sloppy work!!!. I will provide the two texts
Come up with a thesis analytical essay, writing homework help (600 words)

From ancient drum beats to e-mail, methods of communications have progressed astronomically. However, no matter the method of delivery,

From ancient drum beats to e-mail, methods of communications have progressed astronomically. However, no matter the method of delivery, communications still face detrimental barriers, such as misinterpretation, jargon, slang, and even poor pronunciation and dialect. It is not enough to be able to speak more than one language; it is necessary to be able to reason and convince in second or third languages. A breakdown in communication is always the first rationalization when errors are made or a directive is misinterpreted. Added to the linguistic problems, bureaucratic stacks and layers of personnel, offices, bureaus, and agencies will cause confusion, misdirection, and revision of documents and messages. Address the following in a 3–4-page paper: • What is the National Strategy for The Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets? o When was it created? o Who created it? o Why was it created? Explain. • How are communications addressed in the strategy documentation? Explain. • Explain the concept of the inter-relationship of infrastructure sectors. o How does the well-being or disruption of one sector affect the others? Explain.  Provide 2–3 examples of infrastructure interdependency • What can stakeholders and industry professionals involved in the various sectors do to protect themselves and each other? Explain. o Consider communications, information sharing, technology, and so forth. Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

Classical management approach and human relation management

Classical school of thought or the traditional management school of thought is the oldest schools of management approaches. It was started around the twentieth century when workers and organisations managers started having misunderstandings between themselves. It was the initiative of some distinguished managers that led to the Classical approach when they saw the need for change and improvement in the way management and workers conduct their daily business was necessary. One of the distinguished managers was Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who was known as the father of classical management. Some of the problems encountered during that time were that majority of the workers were non-English speaking immigrant, so training them in English language became a problem, communication problem caused a lot whereby workers are unhappy with the management and management were unhappy with the workers attitude to their work and these cause reduction in productivity. According to Daft and Marcic they provide that the cause of the inefficiencies in production was from the management and not the workers and so therefore changes are needed from the top of the organisation hierarchy to the bottom in other to improve productivity. In order to solve these problems which are affecting production, and get work going, the managers started looking for ways to solve these problems, and satisfy the workers? The managers started trying different tests and researches that finally born the classical school of thought. (Cliffnotes.com) There are three different branches developed by the classical management school, the first is the scientific school and the second is administrative school and lastly the Beauraucratic School. . The main reason and characteristic of these three branches was the rationality of the employees, people choose to work because of their economic reward, and loyalty is not the reason individuals are working for but the economic incentives and also what gives them the greatest monetary benefit. So therefore any manager who wants to get the best out of their workers needed to consider their monetary desires. This research was based on pessimistic view of human nature. “Classical approach recognized human emotions buy felt that a logical and rational structuring of jobs and work could control human emotions.” (Sridhar M. et al, 2004, pp4) The Three categories of Classical School of Management Scientific School The Scientific school theory was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, the theory is based on the believe that there is “one best way” to do a job and the scientific methods can be used to determine that “one best way”. By the turn 20th Century managers had concerns over the productivity and efficiency of the workforce. Managers believed at the time that it was essential to give workers definite tasks and the right tools to maximise their ability to fulfil specific duties. He examined two different methods that people work and the structure of the organisation. Taylor broke down the way people work into smaller parts which he called “therbligs”. He suggested that if workers understand their work better, then you could significantly train them to do what the job exactly required. On the organisation structure He explained that defining the job requirement, training to the task of that job, hire the best trained, promote on the same basis, and have a strong and clear hierarchy. Taylor’s purpose was to directly link skill and productivity to pay. He assumed that if organisation have skilled workers and are properly applied, productivity should follow. Taylor’s contribution to scientific management was based on an experiment he performed with cutting of metal into a science. He experiment with shovel, by using different type of shovel for use with different materials which the workers can use for the whole day. He reduced the number of people shovelling at the Bethlehem Steel Work from 500 to 140. This was a success and his studies on the handing of pig iron, greatly contributed to the analysis of work design. Administrative School Another contributor of the scientific management is Henri Fayol (1841-1925). A French engineer, he based his own study on the Managing Director and worked downwards. Fayol’s theory was based on “general theory of administration” (managementstudyguide.com). Fayol on the other hand did not believe that there was a set of numbers of ways to manage the organisation and its employees; he built a personal observation and experience of what worked well in terms of organisation. However he proposed fourteen principles of management. Some of these principles will be discussed below. Division of Work – He suggested that specialisation of individual build up experience and continuously improves his skills. Thereby he can be more productive. Authority – Command and responsibility must be balanced Discipline – Employees must obey authority while authority must give good leadership. I believe it is a good way of respecting both sides and providing checks and balance. Unity of Command – One boss to one employee, I believe this will help to avoid conflict of order and decision making Unity of Direction – Same group of people with the same target should be led in same way. Subordination of individual interest – Goals of the organisation must be paramount to managers. Remuneration – Fayol suggested that fair remuneration to workers will motivate them to work harder. Scalar Chain – Hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental. Initiative – Employees should be given opportunity to use their own initiative. When employees brings right solution to solving a problem, they should not be turned down by managers, because it demoralises. Equity – Organisations should bring justice, fairness and kindness to employees during dispute among workers. Stability of Tenure of Personnel – Job security and career progression is needed to motivate workers. Order – Both material order and social order are necessary to build loyalty and confidence in workers. Esprit de Corps – Management must foster morale of its employees. Conclusion I can still see some of the Fayol’s principles around today despite that they have been deemed obsolete by some of today’s managers. In my own understanding I believe that these principles were not obsolete but were built upon and modernized by today’s managers to meet today’s organisation design and management requirements. Bureaucratic Max Weber (1864-1920). “”Bureau” is a French word that simply means Desk or an office if we want to expand it. This is how Max Weber described his idea of Bureaucracy.it is a rule conducted from the desk or office. He described that the most rational and best organisation structure would be the one run from the office. He believes that organisation needs to run with strict rules for regulation to run successfully. Max bureaucracy helped in eradicating business love, personal interest and so on that is present in the organisations. This specific nature of bureaucracy and it is appraised as its special virtue. The more complicated and specialized modern culture becomes the more its external supporting apparatus. Bureaucracy offers the attitude “demanded by external apparatus of modern culture in the most favourable combination.” (Weber M. et al 1948) Another school of thought was the human relation school of thought who was started around 1924 by some groups of researchers like Elton Mayo, Clair Turner and many more. Human relations approach takes a different view to Classical management, it recognises that human have emotional needs that needs to be met. These human factors became what are known as the “human relations school of management”. “Cary. L. Cooper, 2010, summarises that human relations school of thought came to existence around 1930s as a reaction against the mechanistic view and the pessimistic view of human nature suggested by the classical approach.” (Copper. C) Two principals theorist of human relations management are Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor. Abraham Maslow’s Contribution Abraham Maslow described five sets of goal which may be considered as human need or want. They are: Safety, Physiological, love, esteem and self-actualization. These human needs are arranged by Maslow according to their level of importance. This is called Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Physiological Need – Maslow explained that physiological of human were the first needed to be satisfied for people to be happy. Physiological need is the primary need of people before all other needs. The day to day needs such as breathing, food, water, sex and so on. Without food no existence because I believe anyone will think about food before security or employment. Safety Needs – Safety need comes after the physiological need. Safety needs according to Maslow are needs that free people from threats and danger. Some of the examples of safety needs in today’s organizations are items like life insurance, medical insurance, workers compensation, salaries and many more. If a person is sick he is very concerned that there will be some salary continuance until he is okay to return to work. Love/Belonging Needs – The third human need is love and be loved, belonging to an association, be acceptable to others. When these needs are met then people feel secured, sense of belonging. Esteem Need – Maslow explained that people need to be self-confidence, independence, recognised and be respected by peers. Self-Actualization Need – Maslow summarises that once a person has attained the proceeding needs that is when a person is capable of being. It is so difficult to achieve these five phases but Maslow emphasised that everyone should attain to reach their full potential. Douglas Mcgregor Contribution Douglas Mcgregor in his own contribution to human relations management asserts that there are two sets of distinct assumptions about human which is called Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X Assumption (Authoritarian style) Douglas McGregor Theory X says that the average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. He said that employees would show little interest in the tasks at hand Douglas McGregor in his theory assumes that employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because workers are lazy they need to be closely monitored and supervised People try to avoid responsibilities, and want security above everything. Theory Y Assumption (Participative Management style) Work should be as natural as play People are allowed to use their initiative to pursuit organisation objectives, without external control or threat of punishment. People want to take responsibility Some Characteristics of the theory X managers described by Douglas McGregor Demand, never ask Distance and detached Does not participate Intolerant Unconcerned about staff welfare Some Characteristics of the theory Y managers described by Douglas McGregor They are opposite of all the characteristics of theory X managers listed above Conclusion Classical Management approach and Human Relations Approach In my own understanding I can conclude that Classical approach to management is more superior to the human relations approach to management mainly because the human relations approach to management has been abused in recent times, some people find themselves at the top management of business organisations which they did not deserve but through favours and relationship ties that exist in human relations approach. This has caused a lot of harm than good, qualified brains are not really managing the organisation any more, favour and relationships have eroded this. I asked myself why do we get all this sub-standard products on our market shelves today, the answer is the human relations approach of management that is more in organisations today. We find products failing on the field today, organisation are spending millions in training and advertising, this money can be used to invest in the business, from reliable statistics we find out millions of production time lost every day in this country due to human relations approach. Organisation has forgotten that there are no loyal employees; people are only working because of the benefit they get from it. The present tough financial condition in the world today has opened the eyes of some managers to see these areas and bring back sanity into organisations. Organisations are more or less yielding to the classical approach by cutting job, getting rid of unproductive elements in the organisation; non-performing staffs are losing their jobs, cost cutting, employees only get what they deserve, no unnecessary bonuses are paid. As a non-business owner you might not get these things, it is about separating business from relationships.