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Safeguard Function Of The International Atomic Energy Agency Politics Essay

The safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have a critical role in increasing and maintaining vigilance for the international community against the potential military usage of the nuclear technology. Based upon the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Article III, the nations with bounding ratifications are to “not divert nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devises,” and general IAEA inspections and safeguards are the ‘inspector’ role to ensure that the NPT measures are carried out. Safeguards of the IAEA are the tools, which the IAEA have, in order to ensure world peace – literally. Objective of the IAEA safeguards can be summarized to the following: “Timely detection of significant quantities of fissile nuclear material.” (Significant quantities defined as minimum amount needed for a nuclear explosive device) “Detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a State” The problem here is that the current safeguard functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, despite numerous strengthening measures, have failed on numerous occasions. Without any direct introduction to disputable events, failures of detection in ‘timely manner’ or ‘accurate detection’ was unable to be conducted in regions such as the middle east, regions of former Soviet states, Korean Peninsula, and the Indian subcontinent. Current safeguard function of the IAEA is extremely heavily dependent on individual State’s transparency of information and in-field verification process, and stronger and tighter inspection is the issue on the current contention. Definition of Key Terms: Strengthening: The word strengthening can be viewed in many different aspects. In this context, however, can be focused in relatively few meanings. One, to reinforce the measures in the current safeguard measures; potentially to reconstruct, rephrase, or add certain measures into the safeguard measures of the IAEA based upon past failures and successes. Two, to strengthen the implementation of the safeguard measures in each respective states via encourages in more invasive means – perhaps even at the implementation of the UN Charter’s Chapter 7 with resolution through the UN Security Council. Safeguard function of the IAEA: As previously mentioned IAEA safeguard function involves the two key functions (Please view introduction if necessary). Quoting from the former IAEA Direction General, Mohamed ElBaradei, “Inspections by an impartial, credible third party have been a cornerstone of international nuclear arms control agreements for decades. Where the intent exists to develop a clandestine nuclear weapons program, inspections serve effectively as a means of both detection and deterrence.” Core functions of the safeguards of IAEA involve information gathering, threat assessments, and verification of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In a state level, IAEA works as a third-party observer that receives, confirms, or discards information regards to nuclear technology. IAEA has powers granted by ratification of resolutions and treaties – no more no less. Major Players and Their Positions: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Only member to have withdrawn from the IAEA. It has shown capacity to enrich uranium, and other than its repeated nuclear testing has not only confirmed its intent for nuclear explosives, its missile technology indicates a significant threat to the non-nuclear proliferation. Islamic Republic of Iran: IAEA and Iran has a long history from the post revolution period when Iranian nuclear programs became active. Iran’s nuclear program was established for the first time in 1953 after the CIA supported coup. Most significantly, the recent discovery of the uranium enrichment facility and the self-declaration of nuclear state have significantly elevated its tension with the international community and IAEA measures. Regarding the issue at hand, Iran will most definitely be against any hard-line stance. United States of America: US been one of the strongest supporter and funding member of the IAEA member states. Just recently, President Obama has approached the issue with additional 225 million US dollar increase in US share of the IAEA (During his presidential campaign. It was his campaign promise #194.) Phrasing given in the same speech, as well as numerous actions done by the current administration in response to Iran and the DPRK indicates in strong support of the strengthening of IAEA safeguard functions. Bush administration had taken a hard-line stance in regards to aspiring nuclear powers, but Obama has taken softer, more diplomatic solutions to the issue. Regardless, the increase in measures of verification stance firm. So, US would most likely go against a IAEA with actual conflict with the respective governments, but will be for IAEA safeguards expansion to increase vigilance. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelands: UK is one of the five nuclear-weapon states, and despite its exclusion from NPT with IAEA safeguards, UK has voluntarily opened all fissionable material in facilities or parts within the UK exception to those concerning national security. With regards to actual IAEA safeguard, UK government had certain statements made during the past regards to how the IAEA is too strongly dependent on ‘willingness of nations to cooperate’ showing the rooms for a hard-line stance on the issue. UK has pushed for sanctions on Iran recently, once again to the point, pointing towards the stronger-IAEA-friendly UK. French Republic: France has recently made statement through the ministry of foreign and European affairs spokesperson to “pursue efforts to shed full light on Iran’s past and present nuclear activities.” France is, like the other P5 nations, nuclear weapon states and notable example of peaceful nuclear power usage around the world. More than 70% of its electricity is powered by nuclear power generation. Regards to issue, it will press for a strengthening measures, perhaps not to the line of hard-line stance due to pressure from the PRC, but certainly to an acceptable length. Russian Federation: Russia had previously blocked a IAEA resolution against Iran in earlier 2008, but has recently shifted direction following the DPRK and Iranian actions in the past two years. More recently, Russia backed an IAEA draft resolution on Iran’s nuclear program in later last year with more leniency towards hard line stance. Cooperation between Russia and IAEA has been noteworthy, and with the recent Russian administration’s actions it is most likely that the Russia will push for stronger IAEA safeguards. People’s Republic of China: China has shown unexpected leniency towards recent Iran incident. Through the Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma Zhaoxu, China have made a statement in favor of negotiation and peaceful settlement. These evidences point towards the fact that China will be against hostile strengthening of the IAEA safeguards. Timeline of Key Events: 1957: The IAEA is set up as autonomous body under the United Nations. 1970: NPT is signed by 188 states and comes into force. IAEA is given specific role of defining and inspecting safeguards. 1986: Chernobyl, Ukraine experiences a devastating catastrophe. IAEA investigates and reports on the consequences – IAEA leads on the studies and research. 1994: North Korea withdraws its membership after a dispute over IAEA inspections. 1998: IAEA claims to ‘unable to exercise its right to full and free access” at Iraq 2002: Iraq Action Team resumes work under its new name: Iraq Nuclear Verification Office. On the same year, DPRK has also expelled IAEA inspectors and removed surveillance equipment from its nuclear facilities. 2003: Following IAEA’s report of Iran’s failure to meet NPT requirements, IAEA resolution for Iranian uranium enrichment facility is passed. Iran signs an agreement to allow tougher inspection. 2004: More of Iranian nuclear activities that were maintained secrete were discovered and the IAEA resolution comes short of UN sanctions. IAEA calls for suspension of Iran’s nuclear programs, but Iran initially rejects the proposal – soon to accept towards the end of the year. 2005: IAEA adopts resolution urging Iran to stop its uranium enrichment program, but IAEA once again finds Iran in non-compliance with the NPT. 2006: IAEA votes to report Iran to the UN Security Council, and Iran gave threats to resume its research. Later the same year, DPRK nuclear test threatens the international security. 2007: IAEA determines that Iran is continuing and increasing its nuclear activates. IAEA determines in May that Iran can develop a nuclear warhead within three to eight years, and DPRK again expels IAEA inspectors. Iran allows and disallows IAEA inspectors within 3 months of time with IAEA pushing for peaceful negotiation and US pushing for sanctions. 2008: IAEA determines the Pakistan’s nuclear weapons of danger to potential thefts to Islamic radicals. No measures taken. IAEA once again increases suspicion of secrete nuclear weaponry development, and soon CIA discovers nuclear reactors under construction. DPRK again bans IAEA inspectors. 2009: Additional nuclear test conducted by DPRK, and Iran reveals second uranium enrichment plant. Iran refuses to accept international uranium enrichment offer and IAEA again passes resolution against Iran. 2010: Iran has declared itself to be a nuclear state. The significance of the timeline lies with the trend. Immediate notable trends are the lateness in IAEA identification of threats and incapacity to resolve the issue. A state violates certain treaties, nothing is done. Perhaps IAEA resolution or perhaps even an UN Security Council resolution ultimately to not achieve its goal. Iran and DPRK, as an example, has developed their nuclear program right under IAEA’s nose. Detection was literally years behind, and even when discovered the corresponding actions were a failure. Strengthening of the safeguard function of the IAEA is critical to solving the issue. Relevant Treaties and UN Resolutions: Treaties: Most of them are self-explanatory. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA: Self-explanatory. Sets the boundaries of the IAEA activities. Cornerstone of IAEA’s existence. Potential boundaries of IAEA ‘safeguards functions.’ Convention on Nuclear Safety: Specific resolution targeted for the purposes of monitoring of operations and regulations of nuclear power plants within each respective states. Part of the IAEA ‘safeguards functions.’ Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management: Self-explanatory. Treaty regards to IAEA monitoring of the nuclear waste material. Also part of IAEA ‘safeguard functions.’ Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material: Self-explanatory. Treaty in regards to actual military and security issues of protection on nuclear material. Inspection and threat assessment is part of IAEA ‘safeguard functions.’ Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Key part of the debate as it is NPT’s article III is the main purpose of IAEA safeguards. Mentioned in both the introduction and the definition of key terms. Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone, Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards, Verification Agreement between the IAEA and the European Atomic Energy Community: All of these are self-explanatory. They regard to nuclear weapons free zone and multilateral agreements regards to nuclear weapons and materials – to be inspected by the IAEA; Part of the “safeguard functions.’ Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water: Self-explanatory. Underline parts of the IAEA ‘safeguard function’ regards to nuclear weapons tests. UN Resolutions UN Security Council Resolutions 1373: UN Security Council resolution concerns with international terrorism and the illegal movement of nuclear materials. The resolution emphasizes the need to enhance coordination of national, regional, and international efforts to strengthen a global response to the spreading nuclear threat. Underlines importance of the third party observer, IAEA, and the ‘safeguard functions’s significance in international peace. UN Security Council Resolutions 1540: UN Security Council resolution to enforce appropriate effective laws which prohibit non-State actors to manufacture, acquire, possess, develop, transport, transfer or use nuclear weapons, in particular for terrorist purposes. The measures included involve IAEA and some key actions of ‘safeguard functions.’ Previously Attempted Solutions and their Failures: This will vary upon the viewpoint of the matter. In certain significance, IAEA measures have failed, based on the past development of nuclear threat, therefore all their actions are ‘failures.’ Because the so called ‘strength’ of the IAEA measures is significantly dependent on individual state’s tolerance, it has changed often over time. For instance the Bush administration’s push against the IAEA to strengthen measures against Iran and DPRK has only resulted in more significant failure. In a sense all that has been done failed.
Using classes.

struct Node {int val;Node * next;};
Using ClassesDefine a LinkedList class suitable for holding the Node struct defined aboveOnly variables should be public Node * head and private int nodeCountnodeCount should be updated any time a node is created or destroyedFunctions should include:public void insertItem(int n, bool atHead); //Fills a new node with n, adds at the beginning or the end of the list based on atHeadpublic LinkedList();//Initializes head to indicate no valuepublic int findItem(int n);//Indicates where the requested item is located within our linked list. 0 or -1 == not located in list (your choice, document!)public int getNodeCount();//Accessor, tells the user how many nodes are currently contained in the linked listprivate Node* getNodeAt(int n);//Returns the address of the requested node. Checks to see if n is a valid number first.public bool removeNodePosition(int n);//Attempts to delete node n in the list; return value indicates successpublic bool removeValue(int n);//Attempts to delete Node node where node.val == npublic void destroyList();//Deletes and removes all nodes currently in the linked listpublic void display();//Displays entire contents of linked list. The list’s size should be displayed, followed by each value in orderpublic ~LinkedList();//Frees any memory that has been dynamically allocated in the lifespan of the list. Hint: calls destroyList()In main, create a LinkedList then present the user with a menu of options:Add an item (asks user for item, if start/end)Find an item (asks user for item)Remove an item (asks user to choose between providing a position and a value, then call with appropriate function)Display listDestroy listDestroy list and exitReturn to step 2 if user did not choose f
This lab may be extended, with additional points, in the remainder of the semester.
Points:2 – Documentation, readability, format1 – Filename and Header1 – Output testing3 – Proper use of dynamic memory/data structures3 – Proper use of classesHeader//Author: Eric May (your name)//CPSC 121 Lab 9//<MM/DD/YY> (Current Date)
FilenameYour name is <Last Name><First Initial>For example, my name would be MayE
This project is suitable for being split up into up to three files. I want all of your submitted files in a .zip or .rar archive, named <Last Name><First Initial>.zip
The three potential files should be:1.Header file with definition of class, method prototypes2.Source file with our class’s methods’ definitions 3.Driver file that connects our class to a menu in main()
These three files can be named anything as long as the archive file follows the appropriate naming style. Don’t forget to include your header in all files you submit. If you wish to submit the project without submitting multiple files, you may do so at a slight point deduction.
Using classes

Revise paper based on feedback (LAMAR). I’m studying and need help with a Writing question to help me learn.

The teacher marked my paper with edits and i need those changes made
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As you will see on your paper (attached to this email) I made a significant number of corrections, omitted unnecessary words/sentences/repetitions, reorganized various sections for clarity and coherence, made suggestions about what additionally needs to be included, and asked you a number of questions. All of my comments are indicated in red so that they are easy to see and to distinguish from your typing.
Revise paper based on feedback (LAMAR)

Summarise the Benefits of Working in Partnership with Parents and Others. The importance of building relationships and making links with parents is crucial. The old fashion attitude towards parents by early year’s workers was definitely wrong i.e. ‘we know what is best for your child’. This was an unhelpful attitude and created an atmosphere where parents did not feel at ease. Talking to practitioners parents felt that their views were not important. Parents did not feel comfortable coming into early years setting (nursery, school) unless they had been invited or had an appointment to attend. This approach and situation has nowadays generally changed and early year’s workers recognise that working with parents is very beneficial to children’s learning and development. As children come into settings with different experiences and many different needs, the main source of information about children is very often from their parents or main carers. Parents should be treated as partners as they are the children’s first and most influential educators. Working together the long term benefits of a constructive partnership between parents and practitioners will have a positive impact on a child’s development and learning experiences. Parents may also feel more encouraged and supportive towards the school. There are many ways in which children benefit when parents and practitioners work together: Children will definitely settle more easily and feel more secure if they know that their parents and practitioners (childminder, nursery or school teacher) ‘get on’ really well. Children will gain from having a similar routine or approach – for example, parents are able to tell practitioners what time a child normally needs a rest, eats or feels tired, dealing with difficult tantrums and what to expect, or the use of a EpiPen if a allergic reaction is trigged and any difficult toilet issues. Practitioners and parents can work together to help a child who has a particular developmental need for example, a child with a language delay may need extra help in nursery or school with speech and some sign language enforcement i.e. Makaton which is a language program designed to help communication between individuals who cannot communicate efficiently by speaking or a child with poor pencil grip may learn the proper way of holding a pencil at school and will also help them at home when writing or drawing. Parents/ main carers are usually the first to notice that something is bothering a child, they can pass their concerns to practitioners who can recognise and help to resolve. Small unsolved problems or situations may become big ones if not treated promptly. Diabetes and insulin dependency is another very important area that needs to be discussed and completely covered so everyone’s aware of a child’s needs. Early year’s personnel should have an understanding of diabetes and must be trained in its management and in the treatment of diabetic emergencies. There are many ways in which staff in settings can try to build up a good relationship between a child’s home and the setting: In order to work effectively with parents most settings introduce an ‘open door policy’. The idea is to assure parents that they are able to talk to staff or teachers whenever they have any concerns. This means that instead of having to make an appointment or waiting until for example parents evening, any particular concern or worry can be raised straight away. The open door policy builds trust as parents know they are always welcome to pop in and have an informal chat or view their children’s work whenever they wish. Children also benefit from this very casual approach as they can sense that parents and practitioners are work closely together. Children can show their parents what they have been doing in their nursery or school. It is extremely important as children are excited to show off their work and achievements and they want their parents to be proud of them too. Getting to know the parents is essential in early years setting. Workers need to be welcoming and understand the importance of parents so that avenues of communication are established. Once the relationship is build it is easier for both parents and practitioners to bring up concerns that may arise for example, child has been diagnosed as asthmatic and a pump needs to be used, parents have separated from their partner and the child is aware, a family pet has just died. These are very personal and sensitive issues so the relationship needs to be close and comfortable for both parties. All the children are different and have different needs the same relates to parents. For example parents may be slightly anxious as they leave their children in school for the first time from parents who are experienced and comfortable with leaving their child. We have to remember that relating to parents well is just as much a skill as working with children. Some parents will be uncomfortable talking to members of staff while others will be friendly and feel relaxed. Early years workers will learn how to listen and talk to parents as their experience and confidence grows. There may be times when parents will need to be contacted quickly for example, child is not feeling well, had an accident etc. Exchanging emergency information its extremely important. It is vital that early years workers have the correct and update information to hand i.e. emergency numbers and addresses are usually exchanged during the admission procedure. We should encourage parental involvement as parents often have a lot to offer settings in terms of their knowledge, interests, experience, and in volunteering for activities. Working together can also help bring the community closer together; especially in areas where there are different cultural groupings. Many setting find that parents who come to help are able to bring in many skills and different areas of expertise. Some parents offer to help permanently i.e. ‘reading mums’ in school one a week for an hour; others may help occasionally i.e. school production. Some parents find that working as helpers boost their confidence and give them the chance to meet other parents. We have to remember that nowadays for a parent to be able to work/help in a setting he/she needs to have a current CRB check by the police. A good working partnership between parents and settings should mean that parents enjoy coming in while the setting appreciates their time and help and the children are able to benefit from having extra adult attention. We have to realise that being friendly with parents is not the same as being friends as this may cause unnecessary problems i.e. parents asking for confidential information, or asking to let unwell child to stay in setting. Professional boundaries must be maintained at all times to avoid misunderstandings. It can be beneficial for early years setting to establish liaisons with other agencies. As a part of the process of helping children to settle in it can be helpful to exchange or gain information from other agencies for example, a previous nursery that the child has attended or from a childminder. Other professionals might be able to give us advice as how to meet that child’s needs or might suggest strategies they used which were helpful. They may have also some information or observations or even notes about a particular child, which will be appropriate for us to see and know. Whatever information we receive from agencies should be referenced with parental consent. (The only exception – case of suspected abuse). Working with Healthcare professionals. If a child has a disability or emotional issues it is likely they will meet with a variety of healthcare professionals, from Doctors, Physiotherapist, Social workers, Occupational therapist, Dieticians, Orthotics, Speech or language therapist. Parents must inform and communicate to practitioners if their child is seeing a healthcare professional, as for everyone to better understand the child’s behaviour. For example if a child is being treated for anxiety or depression and the school is unaware of their condition, the child might be looked upon as being shy or a bad mixer when asked to participate with others, wrong diagnosis can be more harmful as the child is being left out or ignored. These experiences can cause a lasting impression on a child’s life, as can a good experience with a caring early year’s worker or teacher. Working closely with parents, teachers and healthcare professionals can only improve a child’s overall achievement and wellbeing to optimise their development and growth. The most important relationship you can develop will be with your general practitioner (GP). Doctor’s train for at least five years after medical school to become GPs and have an extensive knowledge base with regards to many health conditions .Getting your child used to seeing your GP from an early age will have major benefits as they grow older. Being in known surroundings and seeing a familiar face will help any anxiety they might have about visiting the doctor. Your doctor can provide a wide range of services and give advice on health issues. GPs will also refer you to hospital for treatment or to other specialist healthcare professionals. The relationship with other healthcare professionals is equally important as we need to build trust and confidence with each one. When dealing with patients, health professionals should be truthful and respect the privacy and dignity of any patient young or old. We have the right to information about the condition of our health and any diagnosis or illness. We also have a right to be involved in any decisions with regards to any treatment or care we may receive and warned about serious side effects. Our consent must be sought after and medical records should always remain confidential. Physiotherapists Physiotherapists are experts in the physical treatment and the improvement of certain conditions. Physiotherapists help to restore lost movement and function to someone affected by illness, injury or other disabilities. Social workers Social workers are professionally qualified health professionals who assess people’s needs for care or social services. They will support and find solution, to issues people find themselves in. They have good knowledge of the law, and the social welfare system. Occupational therapists Occupational therapists work with patients who have a physical disability, mental health issues, learning disability or medical conditions. Patients with difficulties doing everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal, going up stairs, taking a bath, or getting into bed. Dieticians Dieticians are health professionals who explain and treat diet, they assess and diagnose any nutritional problems a patient may have. Prosthetist and orthotist Prosthetist and orthotist provide care for anyone requiring an artificial limb, splints, braces or special footwear to assist in movement, they work with other healthcare professionals to provide treatment. Speech and language therapist The role of a speech and language therapist is in treating someone who has problems communicating with speech or language, by helping people of all ages, to communicate better. A patient’s beliefs or views should be respected during their healthcare, and they should receive treatment regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability. It is very important our healthcare professionals work as a team as they are from a variety of disciplines and have to work together to deliver a professional service for all patients. Good communication is essential for effective relationship development. Sources: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Summarise the Benefits of Working in Partnership with Parents and Others

Psychology Issues: Child Play Role Essay

Apart from lunch, recess is the most favorite time that kids love while in school. While the time for lunch would be unquestionably created, time for relaxation and breaks is rapidly diminishing. Some institutions recognize the importance of free time out of regular class lessons and thus giving it more time and value. Unfortunately, its negligence is being witnessed in several schools. Playing is traditionally the most effective means for children to learn. Visual spur and stability are achieved in the games that children play. These benefits prove valuable in the future. Everything that a child does plays a role in shaping the future and giving the satisfaction that books cannot afford. Striving to reach academic excellence is one of the reasons which has resulted in the shortening or prohibition of recess time. Some principals believe that recess time or concentrating in the arts may deprive a student time to give consideration to books. The purpose of rest in clearing the mind cannot be measured. Conversations with friends and building team skills through games which involve groups enlighten a child on the necessary social skills. Several physical activities in recess keep kids healthy, thus helping reduce obesity cases in children. Physical activity and minor workouts like running and learning how to cycle give a character a positive outlook on life. Experiences in the field lead to brain development and increase sharpness in children in a way that cannot be compared to school work. They may be more fascinated to read and understand more about topics they have physically observed while in recess. For example, if a child sees a dog while playing, the level of comprehension about how it barks or why it is manned best friend would be much higher in class than a student who has never seen one. Several modules aspects can be incorporated in a single game. Learning to ride a bicycle gives lessons in math, physics, art, and even literature. Nurturing a kid to learn at an early age is unquestionably the best gift that can be received from a parent. Picture games can slowly introduce kids into difficult concepts in nature. For example, identifying how numbers total up or divide. Identifying animals engraved on cards with their habitat would easier remain in the child’s mind. The fact that recess is not often homework acts as motivation for some kids to learn. The enjoyable learning activities interest them from the TV and computer and create a significant bond between the child and the teacher or parent. Children will always have the desire to learn, so long as they understand that learning is not only done in the classroom but anywhere they find themselves. Information on colors and shapes are easily comprehended. They will learn more by having fun and knowing that lessons surround them wherever they go. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite all the numerous advantages of recess, its time is being gradually decreased in several educational institutions. Its connection to academic success, health, and perfection of social behavior has been ignored. Children are now being prepared more for tests and how they can successfully move to the next grade. More instruction time in class is devoted especially for children in schools with low-test scores. Denying scholars time for recess is now viewed as a form of punishment for substandard or mischievous students. After school hours, kids are seen to be occupied in piano or guitar lessons or passively watch a cartoon on TV and play computer games. Development across the lifespan is often judged by the cognitive maturity and intellectual growth that an individual displays. Adults also practice some of these activities, recognizing their assistance in resolving challenges and providing a moral and conceptual understanding of society.

BIO 1407 Austin Community College Hardy Weinberg Activity Report Paper

online assignment help BIO 1407 Austin Community College Hardy Weinberg Activity Report Paper.

I will attach a PDF of this activity that has all the question than needs to be answeredI will add a screen shot of the final answers that was done on this video so you don’t have to watch it all.1. Go to…2. Read the background information and go through the tutorial.3. Check out the Hardy‐Weinberg Video (Ch 23) on blackboard. ” I will attach a screen shots of the final answers for this video so you don’t have to watch it.4. Hint to make the simulation work better: When asked to choose a value, do NOT choose 1.0, 0.0, or 0.5 unless specifically instructed to do so.5. Once you enter the Experimental Design Page, keep the parameters to the pre‐set values to begin with (you can refresh your web browser to reset them to the pre‐set values if needed).6. Click on the “To Data” arrow at the bottom of the notebook.7. Press pause, and click the reset (round arrow) button at the top to reset to generation 0 (you may have to hit play, pause, or rewind quickly for it to go from generation 1 to generation 0 – a glitch in the programming).the rest of the qustions that needs to be answerd is on the PDF
BIO 1407 Austin Community College Hardy Weinberg Activity Report Paper

Hoe ontstonden de BRD en DDR?

Hoe ontstonden de BRD en DDR?. Vlak nadat de blokkade van Berlijn was opgeheven voegden begin 1949 de VS, Engeland en Frankrijk hun zones samen in een nieuwe staat: de Bondsrepubliek Duitsland (BRD). Een paar maanden later volgden de communisten in het oosten met een eigen staat: de Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR). Oprichting van de BRD (1949) In 1948 werd in de drie westelijke bezettingszones begonnen met het maken van een grondwet voor de toekomstige Bondsrepubliek. Op aandringen van de ministerpresidenten van de deelstaten werd vooraf al gezegd dat het een tijdelijke deelstaat moest worden. Als Duitsland weer een eenheid was, zou er kunnen worden gekeken naar een definitieve staat. Een raad van het parlement, gekozen door de parlementen van de deelstaten, kwam onder leiding van Konrad Adenauer(eerste bondskanselier) bij elkaar om de grondwet op te stellen. Deze grondwet was een groot verschil in vergelijking met de grondwet in de tijd van de Republiek van Weimar. Nu kon de president niet zomaar meer het hele parlement wegsturen en eigen wetten opstellen. Zo werd de macht wat evenwichtiger verdeeld en kreeg de bonskanselier een soort representatieve functie en werd het meer een democratie. Ook werd er besloten dat de Bondsrepubliek een federale structuur kreeg zodat Berlijn niet alle macht in handen zou hebben. Vanuit Berlijn werden de wetsvoorstellen geregeld en werd de BRD bestuurd. Verder werd Duitsland verdeeld in 10 en later 11 deelstaten. Elk van deze deelstaten had zijn eigen Trias Politica. Je kunt het vergelijken met Nederland. Het land wordt vanuit Den Haag (Berlijn) bestuurd. Daar worden de grote wetsvoorstellen gemaakt, die door het hele land gelden. Voor de rest is ons land verdeeld in provincies (Deelstaten). In de tijd van Adenauer werd een politiek van Westbindung gevoerd. In deze tijd werden er veel verdragen gesloten met Europese en Atlantische organisaties. Zo trad West-Duitsland op 9 mei 1955 toe tot de NAVO. Nadat in mei 1949 de VS, Engeland en Frankrijk het voorstel hadden goedgekeurd kwamen er verkiezingen voor de Bondsdag dit was het parlement van de nieuwe republiek. Het opkomstpercentage was 78,5% hieraan kon je zien dat de West-Duitse bevolking het eens was met de oprichting van de Bondsrepubliek. De BRD was nog niet een zelfstandige staat want de geallieerden hielden nog wel de verantwoordelijkheid voor de buitenlandse en veiligheidspolitiek. De Bondsrepubliek mocht geen eigen leger hebben en ook een ministerie voor Buitenlandse Zaken was er nog niet. De Bondsrepubliek werd na de oorlog economisch een groot succes en kon zich mede daardoor ontwikkelen tot een stabiele democratie. De eerste jaren na de oorlog werden gekenmerkt door grote armoede, maar daarna herstelde de West-Duitse economie zich razendsnel. Dit zogenaamde Wirtschaftswunder en de groeiende welvaart werden dé bron van nationale trots. De West-Duitsers werden zich er van bewust dat het bij hun beter was als in het communistische Oost-Duitsland, dit was vooral te zien aan de honderdduizenden vluchtelingen die de BRD binnenkwamen. Het beleid van bonskanselier Adenauer tegen ‘het rode gevaar’ werd in deze periode nog gesteund door bevolking. Maar in de jaren zestig nam dit snel af nadat Adenauer geweigerd had om de DDR te erkennen. Zo kwam er ook een einde aan de regeerperiode van de eerste bonskanselier. Oprichting van de DDR (1949) De geschiedenis van de Deutsche Demokratische Republik is altijd verbonden met die van de Sovjet-Unie. Stalin kon na de Tweede Wereldoorlog het communisme overbrengen op het door hem bezette deel van Duitsland. Zo werd de DDR een communistische staat onder leiding van de Sovjet-Unie. Op 7 september 1950 liet de leider van de Oost-Duitse communistische partij, Walter Ulbricht, het paleis in het centrum van Berlijn opblazen. Zo maakte hij letterlijk en figuurlijk een einde aan het Duitse verleden. Het was Stalin aardig gelukt om zijn politieke vijanden uit te schakelen. Zo zorgde hij ervoor dat niet-communistische partijen werden gedwongen om met de SED(Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschland) dit was de communistische staatspartij samen te werken. In de DDR bestonden meerdere partijen maar de SED bezat de absolute meerderheid dus de andere partijen hadden weinig in te brengen. De DDR had op economisch, ideologisch of maatschappelijk terrein weinig hoogtepunten. De planeconomie van de Sovjets was wel heel magertjes vergeleken met het Wirtschaftswunder van West-Duitsland. De bevolking werd streng in de gaten gehouden door een grote geheime dienst het Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (Stasi). Propaganda werd gebruikt om de bevolking ervan overtuigen (ook in het Westen) dat het communisme en de planeconomie het beste was voor iedereen. Zo werden de mensen van beide bezettingszones ook geestelijk van elkaar gescheiden. Er werden allerlei posters opgehangen met de mededelingen dat je Sovjet-Unie het beste was en dat je van hen moest leren. Zo zette de DDR zich steeds meer af tegen de BRD. Er was geen onafhankelijke media zo werden kranten, televisie en onderwijs streng gecontroleerd door de communistische partij. De DDR moest zich bij veel dingen houden aan de richtlijnen uit Moskou. Oost-Duitsland werd in 1955 zoals verwacht lid van het Warschaupact. Dit was het antwoord van Moskou op de NAVO. In 1953 werd de ontevredenheid en onrust steeds groter door de slechte economische situatie en het grote aantal mensen dat de DDR ontvluchten. De SED trok zich hier niks van aan en verhoogde de prijzen en productienormen voor arbeiders. Hierdoor konden veel gezinnen moeilijk rondkomen. Op 5 maart overleed Stalin. Hun nieuwe leiders hadden veel kritiek op ze manier van politiek. De Oost-Duitse communisten versoepelde daarom hun beleid een beetje maar hielden zich vast aan de hoge productienormen. Hierdoor ontstond op 16 juni een staking door Berlijnse bouwvakkers op de bouwplaats van de Stalinallee. Dit was het symbool van de wederopbouw van Duitsland en de grote plannen van de communistische partij. De staking werd heel snel uitgebreid en op 17 juni werd in meer dan driehonderd steden gedemonstreerd. De actievoerders eisten vrije verkiezingen. De SED wisten niet goed wat ze hiermee aan moesten. Uiteindelijk maakte de Russische commandant in Berlijn een einde aan de aarzelingen. Hij stuurde zijn tanks op de demonstranten af. En sloeg zo deze volksopstand neer. De mislukte volksopstand van de 1953 was een dieptepunt voor de inwoners van de DDR. De communistische leiders werden zich bewust van de kwetsbaarheid van hun systeem. Hongaarse opstandelingen halen een standbeeld van Stalin neer, 23 oktober 1956 De SED gaf de schuld aan het Westen als de oorzaak van de opstand. Veel mensen die de DDR het voordeel van de twijfel hadden gegeven waren na 1953 klaar met het communisme. Vooral de goed opgeleide Oost Duitsers trokken naar het westen omdat ze daar een grotere kans hadden op een goede baan maar vooral ook om een veel hoger inkomen ontvangen. En andere gingen de strijd aan voor vrije verkiezingen. Hoe ontstonden de BRD en DDR?

MKT 498 University of Phoenix Week 4 Virtual One on One Tutors Presentation

MKT 498 University of Phoenix Week 4 Virtual One on One Tutors Presentation.

Whole assignment below. But all I need help with is the following bullet point and editing/revising to make sure every thing is included from the list and grammar is good.Explain the metrics you will use to evaluate the effectiveness of your advertising campaign.Resource: Assignment Grading GuideDiscuss with your Learning Team various products or services that you would be interested in advertising, and choose one product or service that you would like to work on as a team.Determine your target market for this product or service.Select an ad for your product or service.Create a 12- to 15-slide presentation with speaker notes in which you include the following:Describe the advertising design for your product or service and explain why you feel this will appeal to your target market. Your description should include an analysis of the following:Message strategyType of advertising appeal usedExecutional frameworkSource characteristicsMedia selection or mixEvaluate different kinds of promotional, public relations, or sponsorship activities that you could use in conjunction with your advertising campaign to promote your product or service.Explain the metrics you will use to evaluate the effectiveness of your advertising campaign.Submit your assignment.
MKT 498 University of Phoenix Week 4 Virtual One on One Tutors Presentation

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