Rural–urban migration and youth in Bhutan Essay. Background: Rural-urban migration and youth in Bhutan Rural-urban migration is a universal concern across the globe. Just like other nations, Bhutan is experiencing mass movement of people, especially youths from rural to urban areas. The bulk of Bhutan’s population is composed of the youth. Actually, more than half of Bhutan population is aged below 25 years. Due to the increasing youth population, the government faces a challenge of ensuring equilibrium between contemporary beliefs and modernity. Bhutan is experiencing massive changes in its personnel due to rural-urban migration. In addition, the mass movement of people to urban areas has led to unemployment and poverty in urban centers. According to the 2012 labor survey, over 0.7% of the rural populace migrated to towns. Further, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that about 33% of Bhutan populace is in deficiency of food safety. The poverty analysis report (2007) exhibited that approximately one-third of the rural populace is poor compared to 2% in the urban areas. Over the last fifty years, Bhutan has experienced rapid growth of its urban areas due to mass movement of populace from the countryside to urban areas. This trend is a major public concern to the state and the government has experienced a number of obstacles in tackling the challenge of rural-urban migration (Rinzin et al., 2005). A number of factors have been proposed in explaining the trend (Yeung, 2005). Bhutan’s urban populace augments at a yearly rate of 6.5 percent. The prolonged rural-urban inclination is expected to grow four-fold in the coming twenty years, among which a significant proportion are youth. Studies contend that increased need for education by youth has been a significant factor in influencing the movement of people to towns as well as the growth of urban settlements within Bhutan (Kasarda, 2001). Rural-urban migration has affected negatively on the development of the rural economy. For instance, a number of youths who migrate to urban centers deprive the rural economy of productive labor that is a significant factor of production leading low agricultural performance and high production costs (Kasarda, 2001). The movement of youths to towns can also be attributed to Bhutan landscape that ranges from subtropical plains to sub-alpine Himalayan Mountains as well as rugged geographical terrains making farming difficult. According to the Human Development Report (2009), Bhutan accounts for the highest rate of rural-urban migration in South Asia. The government acknowledged the positive impact of the trend since it alleviated the pressure on agricultural land that only composes approximately 9% of nation’s overall area. However, with steady increase in rural-urban migration over the last fifty years, diverse views have been devised to address the issue. For instance, mitigation of rural-urban migration involves the investment of explicit initiatives such as linking rural development with tourism as well as encouraging youths to go back to the villages and help in the transformation of the economic landscape through farming. The National Statistical Bureau Report (2005) showed that majority of youths migrate to urban centers to pursue employment prospects as well as better education. Further, the increased inclination of the youth towards moving to urban areas arises from the challenges that the youth face in rural areas such as poor health facilities, unemployment, poor living standards as well as poor lifestyles (Kasarda, 2001). However, in moving to cities, youth encounter a number of challenges including discrimination, unwelcoming communities, financial deficiencies, lack of parental guidance and harassment. According to Zurick (2006), sexual exploitation, as well as emotional and psychological trauma, poses serious concerns for the youth. Factors for rural-urban migration in Bhutan Education The need for education by the youth has been identified as a major concern contributing to mass rural-urban migration in Bhutan. Due to an inadequate number of secondary and tertiary institutions in rural areas, a large population of youth move to urban centers to pursue educational needs (Frame, 2005). In essence, education is significant in the acquisition of skills and training that provide a path for the youth to develop their skills leading to securing of jobs in the industries and factories. In fact, a number of youths in the urban vicinities of Bhutan attend training school offering computer, technology and construction courses, thereby increasing their chances of being employed. Lack of social amenities and facilities in the village Yeung (2005) asserts that the pace of rural-urban migration in Bhutan is a serious anxiety for the government, owing to its implication on the socio-economic aspects. Several factors play significant roles in encouraging mass movement of populace to urban centers. Firstly, developments experienced in infrastructure in terms of hospitals, housing, road connectivity and transportation facilities continue to encourage mass movement of populace from rural to urban areas (Radcliffe, 2006). In fact, the UNDP’s human development report (2009) found Bhutan forms the bulk of annual rate of urban migration in South Asia at above five percent. Family issues Family issues have been a major factor contributing to rural-urban migration. For instance, families move to cities due to job transfers. In addition, marriages in cities have influenced urban migration. Moreover, relocation desires by family members to settle in urban areas to escape monotony and poverty has shown an increasing trend over the recent past (Radcliffe, 2006). Rural poverty Poverty is a major concern for the general Bhutan population accounting for over thirty percent. Over ninety percent of the population in Bhutan resides in the rural areas. Further, the country’s topography is mainly composed of mountains and valleys, which constrain the prospects of producing food as well as the generation of cash proceeds. Moreover, the rugged terrain leads to deficiency in accessing good quality land resources and diminishes the prospective irrigation facilities (Radcliffe, 2006). In addition, the rural populace is faced with scarce external inputs and services together with low farm expertise. Therefore, many people have no option but to move to urban areas to search for better livelihoods. Further, Bhutan is characterized with natural catastrophes, including landslides that increase the cost of goods. Employment prospects and new experiences Since the bulk of jobs in the rural vicinities of Bhutan are majorly agricultural-oriented, many youths are moving to the cities in search of white-collar jobs. As such, farming activities in the rural neighborhoods compel the youth and other members of the society to move to urban areas in search for employment prospects (Rinzin et al., 2005). Moreover, a number of people move to towns to fulfill their spirits of adventure and experiences. Through migrating to the urban locations, the people are presented with diverse prospects of arts, living standards, foods as well as leisure activities. Increasing population The high population in the rural areas is a major aspect contributing to rural-urban migration. The large percentage of youth (15-24) in Bhutan accounting for over 22% continues to rise steadily. The implications of the rise in the rural areas include poor provision of education services, poor health amenities and unemployment (Frame, 2005). The factors put pressure on the youth to move to urban centers to look for better services. Further, the increase in the rural youth population increases the pressure on the need to acquire secondary and tertiary levels of education. However, the pressure results in deficiency of space as well as teachers prompting many people to move to urban vicinities to gain education services. Impacts of rural-urban migration in Bhutan Swelling of urban populace A larger percentage of Bhutan population resides in the rural vicinities accounting for approximately seventy percent. However, over the recent past, the tempo of urbanization has been alarming. According to the Bhutan Nation Urbanization Strategy 2008, the urban populace has significantly increased over the last decade (1994-2005) by over 100%. The increase in the urban population presents twice the growth of the national population experienced in the same decade (Rizal, 2002). The rapid growth of population in urban areas comes with its disadvantages. For instance, the unprecedented growth strains the exploitation of the urban services leading to propagation of shanties, inadequate medical facilities, and inadequate drinking water. Further, the increasing urban population, rates of unemployment, environmental problems including and poor sewerage systems are common in the cities of Thimphu and Phuentsholing. Land dilapidation and pollution Bhutan continues to face a serious concern of land dilapidation resulting from human activities as well as innate occurrences such as landslides and floods. In fact, the increasing youth population in the urban centers in search of employment prospects in the industries wields pressure on the ecological and the innate resources in the town vicinities. For instance, there has been escalating encroachment to forestlands as the populace numbers swell in towns leading to internal biophysical and chemical corrosion (Potter et al., 2004). Further, the increasing populace of the youth in the urban neighborhoods contributes to the emergence of new industries. The industries, in turn, release dangerous emissions into the atmosphere, posing dangerous health concerns to the urban society. Actually, Bhutan cities continue to record an augmenting inclination of respiratory ailments among its urban populace. Further, the escalation of land fragmentation has increased the deficiency of economies of scales among the youth, thereby blighting their prospects of attaining self-reliance. Increasing health concerns and social crimes among the youth The prevalence of early marriages, teenage pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted diseases have been on the increase among the youth in urban cities (Kasarda, 2001). Most importantly, increasing trends in HIV/AIDS infection prevalence have been realized over the past among the youth in Bhutan towns. Further, due to the increase in the dominance of the HIV/AIDS scourge in the international arena and the neighboring states of Bhutan, the predominance of the virus is expected to increase. Moreover, the increasing rates of unemployment in the urban centers has prompted a number of youths to engage in acts of prostitution thereby posing their lives to the danger of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Increased cases of substance abuse by the youth in the urban vicinities of Bhutan also contribute to the predominance of the malady. For example, the statistical yearbook 2007 reported that crime occurrences related to drugs and narcotics tripled within four years jumping from twenty cases in the year two thousand and one to sixty-five cases in the year two thousand and five. Additionally, unsafe abortions have been on the rise among the urban youths leading higher maternal deaths. Increasing unemployment rates among the youth in urban centers Unemployment levels have been on the increase within the urban vicinities of Bhutan. In other words, the large number of people from the villages has created pressure on the available job prospects, waste disposal systems, as well as housing (Zurick, 2006). As a result, many people compete for the inadequate number of jobs rendering a higher percentage of the populace unemployed. Government initiatives to curb rural-urban migration The royal government of Bhutan has made remarkable steps to counter the menace of rural-urban migration. First, the government recognizes the constrictions that the increasing urban populaces pose to the resource limits in the towns. To stem out the increasing rate of rural-urban migration, the production-access-market policy has played significant role in improving living standards within the countryside neighborhoods (Rizal, 2002). In essence, the policy tries to get better rural education systems as well as introduction of market-receptive crops. Additionally, the initiative aims at improving the access to local road networks, thereby enhancing living standards and retention of larger proportion of populace in the rural areas. Improving the education facilities in the local areas prevents many youths from moving to urban centers since education is the major factor contributing to rural-urban migration among the youth. The policy also attempts to eliminate factors that encourage movement of families into urban areas through promoting the development of urban centers in vicinities with large number of people as well as commercially feasible areas (Frame, 2005). Further, the government has made tremendous steps in expanding and relocating the rural neighborhoods into new local towns, thereby absorbing the large populace moving to towns. For instance, the development of Khuruthang town, a commercial and education hub is a success of the initiative. In fact, the center has been significant in absorbing migrants from rural vicinities (Frame, 2005). Bhutan’s national urbanization strategy has also been invaluable in stemming out the increasing number of youths in urban areas. The policy focuses on improving the well-being of poor rural populace as well as maintaining the sustainability of the ecology. Further, through the construction of roads in different parts of the country, linkages between different areas of Bhutan have been efficient leading to development of new urban centers (Frame, 2005). The government has increased awareness among the members of the public on the effects of population growth. Actually, the government has disseminated data related to population growth implications to the citizens through publications as well as electronic media channels. In addition, the government has increased its focus on the provision of accessible education services and reproductive health services to the youth in both urban and rural vicinities preventing mass movements to urban areas (Frame, 2005). The creation of an enabling environment where the rural populaces have access to financial and investment opportunities has proven invaluable in containing rural-urban migration. In fact, there have been increased systems that have tremendously expanded employment and benefits to the rural fraternity slowing down the rate of rural-urban migration. The dynamism experienced in the global fraternity has forced the government to provide solutions to the problems affecting youths and keep them posted on the contemporary issues in the society. A large proportion of Bhutan youths abuse drugs such as marijuana and inhalants as well as alcohol. The porous frontier of India and Bhutan has increased rates of drug trafficking among youths. The government is addressing the concern of drug abuse through the establishment of treatment and rehabilitation centers. For instance, the youth development fund supports several one drop-in centers. Education is a major aspect influencing the migration of youth to urban centers. The Bhutanese government is tackling this concern through a number of initiatives. For instance, the government is posting more graduates in the rural education facilities. Further, the government also encourages the media coverage on challenges experienced in urban areas to bring out clearly the real picture of turban environment. The escalating joblessness in urban centers has occasioned a number of youths to engage in petty crimes and prostitution. However, the Bhutan Foundation has played major roles in countering such concerns. The foundation engages the youth through offering scholarships and education prospects, promotion of sports, music and arts as well as employment opportunities. The royal government of Bhutan also continues to focus on improving vocational education among the youth in the rural areas through expansion of science, information technology as well as crafts (Rinzin et al., 2005). In addition, strengthening of the training institutions’ capacities in the rural population has proven significant in the prevention of further migrations to the urban centers. Unemployment among the youth has been found to be one of the major factors contributing to rural-urban migration (Rinzin et al., 2005). As such, the government has focused on a number of initiatives to reduce unemployment as a way of curbing rural-urban movement. For instance, the government is diversifying job prospects across the country. The development of coordinated and planned urban expansion systems that are equivalent to the rate of migration has been invaluable (Rinzin et al., 2005). Further, the government has been encouraging regional equality through provision of quality services and employment prospects across the country. Through the establishment of the rural livelihoods funds, the government has been able to mitigate rural-urban migration by initiating programs that improve rural revenue and livelihoods through agricultural development (Frame, 2005). In fact, the program has realized massive achievements concerning poverty alleviation through the construction of revenue-generating enterprises in the rural areas such as Lamtang and Pam-Chaibi, among others. References Frame, B. 2005. “Bhutan: a review of its approach to sustainable development,” Development Practice, vol.15 no.2, pp.216-221. Kasarda, JD 2001, “Third world urbanization: dimensions, theories, and determinants,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol.17 no.3, pp.467-501. Potter, RT, Elliott, BJRural–urban migration and youth in Bhutan Essay
Using Your Scholarly Voice. Scholarly writing has traditions and expectations. It is different from journalism or letter writing because you are providing insights on the issues that are grounded in research, critical reading and analysis rather than presenting an opinion or a personal belief. Scholarly writers strive for objectivity, and work to keep personal bias and beliefs out of their writing. For this Discussion identify a type of bias that you may have committed (or you could imagine committing due to carelessness) and share steps you can take to avoid it in future communications. Write a brief summary or statement involving a type of bias, other than research bias, that you may have committed, Then, explain why you think it presents bias. Provide an example of how the bias can be reduced by using scholarly voice.Using Your Scholarly Voice
Table of Contents Introduction Strategy and Competitive Advantage Strategic Value in Project Management Business Models in Strategic Management Market Dominance The Modern Business Environment References Introduction A business strategy provides a firm with an elaborate framework for evaluation of its ideas/projects with regard to their strategic value. In most firms, the frameworks for implementation and evaluation of strategy are largely lacking. Strategic value goes beyond strategy; it encompasses ideas that give the firm comparative advantage (Campbell, Goold
PSY 352 GCU Biopsychosocial vs Biomedical Model in Health & Illness Essay.
After reviewing the resources in the course materials, write a 750-1,000-word paper analyzing the biopsychosocial and the biomedical models of health.Include the following in your paper:Differentiate between the biomedical and biopsychosocial models.Identify the factors of each model (biological, psychological, social).Describe the role of biological, psychological, and social factors as it relates to health and illness.What are current leading causes of death for each model?How can lifestyle or healthful behaviors reduce illness?Use three to four current scholarly resources to support your discussion (one of which may be the textbook).Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
PSY 352 GCU Biopsychosocial vs Biomedical Model in Health & Illness Essay
Imagine you are a newly hired network engineer at an internet service provider, and you have been tasked with understanding
Imagine you are a newly hired network engineer at an internet service provider, and you have been tasked with understanding the implications for your customers and your company of end-users (home and business) using DoH to resolve names. Write a two page summary for your manager of the issues involved. You can use any sources you think relevant (part of the assignment is for you to read more widely) but risk of simply referring you to my friends’ work, for contrasting opinions you could read Jim Reid’s draft RFC (Links to an external site.)and Alec Muffet’s more enthusiastic opinion (Links to an external site.) (warning: contains very brief use of a rude word) and (edit to add) watch a presentation by Alec on using it over TOR (Links to an external site.). Submit your memo as a PDF. You do not need to provide a full bibliography: it’s enough to just put footnotes with URLs or (if your workflow will allow this, which both Word and LaTeX do) just add clickable links to sources.
A Modest Proposal Analysis
professional essay writers In A Modest Proposal the author, Jonathan Swift, uses techniques such as irony, satire, and sarcasm to mock the Irish government of his time. A Modest Proposal was a heavy-duty social commentary. At the time there was great hand-wringing over what to do about the masses of the poor in England, mainly London. Swift lays out a very well-reasoned solution to the problem. The solution was of course, ridiculous. After reading Swift’s masterpiece, I could not believe how graphic and shocking it would be. At times I was sickened in the way he details his feelings. He does this in a letter sarcastically proposing that they sell the children of the poor to the wealthier families, as this will provide food, clothing, and will decrease the population. Throughout the letter he uses remarkable details as to how they should go about eating the children, treating them as nothing more than a new type of livestock. The letter ends with a completely different tone when the author explains the absurdity of his proposal and instead suggests something a bit more realistic like the wealthy giving up some of their luxuries. Swift’s annoyance at what he saw as the immoral economic and political policies of the Irish and English governments, and he author uses the assumed voice of the economist. He uses great quantity of thorough, literalized metaphors, and ironic and sarcasm techniques to devastating effect. A Modest Proposal has been judged as an unsurpassed work of rhetorical brilliancy, and it acquires new readers additional critical attention up until now Swift exposes all of the bizarre remarks and ideas he has been discussing about are all a humorous way to make fun of the way the government is run and how they are not serving the terrible state of the country. Afterwards he expresses a proper proposal of taking away some of the wealthier people’s luxuries in order to help their economy. In this essay, I will explain the 3 techniques that I have found in Swift’s proposal, such as; Irony, Satire and Sarcasm. Satire is a second technique Swift uses, he states “The skin of which artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen” (p.286). He is indicating that rich people have a purpose and have the power to full-fill their wishes without any conditions. Swift shows all of his pain for the beggars and as a reader it shows that it’s all about status. On another note, Swift uses the children as satire, by exaggerating and dramatically grabs the reader’s attention, such as boiling and brewing of the children would end all the problems. This is a revelation of how Swift persuades the reader on how to help the rich out. Going back, he wants something done. Perhaps this satire isn’t spoken as a second person, or someone else’s voice, possibly what Swift’s tone in this piece is anger and annoyance. Since no one is doing anything about it, in his mind he might as well suggest “Eating children”. This classic poem is worded completely simple and the most logical thing in the world. It’s not to amuse us, but to substitute this phrase “should reduce their outgoings” with “should eat their babies” and it’s just another “op-ed” piece ‘that’ is what makes it satire. The wealthy physically kept getting fatter while the poor kept starving. Swift stated that instead of spending money on importing meat, they should eat their own children and as a result to control the population and provide their own food instead of depending on importing. Yes this is sickening, but this is exactly Swift’s intentions, by grossing out the public, he hoped to have them take a second look at their society and hopefully reform it. It is mocking the society, predominantly the rich and at the same time suggesting an eccentric solution to a dreadfully real problem that was obvious in London. As a matter of fact he hoped to bring a social transformation with his “modest proposal”. As we move on to the third technique ‘sarcasm’, was greatly involved all over in the poem. In the first paragraph of A Modest Proposal, Swift uses the words melancholy, tears and pity and grievance to sympathise with the poor people while reading and come into view to understand their situation, slowly gaining the readers confidence in preparation for his shocking proposal (p.283). When he sent out his proposal to decrease Ireland’s population, he only looks at the positive aim in his idea. He is showing that he’s serious about his proposal by fabricating proof and figures, which shows that he has planned the dilemma for a very long time. This proposal is written sarcastically to belittle the attitude of the manufactured revolution that saw people as being a product to be exploited; in addition the mindset that the rate of people developed was beyond the rate of food growth so that there could never be enough food. Swift mentions “a year old offered in sale to the persons of quality, and fortune, advising the mother to let them suck plentifully, so as to render then plump, and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends and family” (p.285). His ludicrous scheme is to plump up the children and feed them off to the wealthiest. Reading that part, this made me become conscious of Swift’s extreme opinion is to point out where the reader should be feeling this is unacceptable and we must put a stop to this ludicrous. This manner shows a lot of antagonism which grabs your attention and wanting to read more of his preposterous language. Swift mentions absurdity quite often, he states that the wives will be treated better now that they are having children to sell on the meat market by their husbands. He illustrates the wives as livestock, and now that they are a source of income, the husbands will treat them better, as they do their cows, pigs, chickens (p.284). This is bizarre with the idea not explored in the passage that a husband is exceptionally vigilant with his wife and a changed man when she is with the child, because in her belly is his own family, and he wouldn’t dare cause his own flesh and blood harm. However, Swift implies an opposed idea to attack the men living in tough economic situations that are cruel to their wives. After thinking it over, I have come to realize that only a true genius could write something as emotive and realistic and be taken seriously. All his techniques used gain the readers’ confidence and make him seem practical and realistic in an ironic way. He shocks the reader by suggesting infant cannibalism as a solution to social and poverty issues in Ireland. In doing so, Swift highlights the contrast, playing an essential role in classical satire, as well as the hypocrisy of the politicians he’s looking to blame. As readers, he wants us to know “how can we save Ireland?” Swift managed to make it reasonable, by using many techniques, such as; irony, satire and sarcasm. He uses a lot of exaggeration to highlight his points and beliefs, shown through his irony and imagery. Humans are more than just rational beings; we rely on emotions and faith. Swift provides a cultural criticism; he clearly believes that things such as faith, emotion, and religion help our human reason in arriving at truths. Without them, there would be no final cause and hope for salvation because there is no sense of data to prove heaven, we would never love, relatives could die and we would not care, and life itself would lack what makes humanity so beautiful, and that is emotion. Swift recognized a problem and was able to offer a resolution “in a tongue-tied way”. Some were blaming the poor or the rich. Swift was able to point out the errors of both groups by simply using these three techniques.
Fiji Water’ Environmental Effects Essay (Article)
The bottled water industry is booming each year. It has been estimated that 50 billion water bottles are consumed per year and 60% of these bottles are consumed by Americans (Schriever par. 4). The consumption of bottled water is increasing as people in the developed world are becoming preoccupied with healthy lifestyles. Fiji Water is one of leaders in the market of bottled water. The company claims that it produces clean water that is healthy and even essential for people’s everyday life. The company also stresses that it is sustainable. Production of bottled water can hardly be called sustainable since it is similar to mass production of any other product and it has a significant negative impact on the environment. Production of bottled water results in contamination of air, land and the ocean. First, bottled water production requires considerable amount of resources. For instance, bottled water manufacturers spend 17 million barrels of oil annually to produce bottled water (Schriever par. 8). More so, distribution of bottled water requires a fleet of 40,000 18-wheelers weekly (Schriever par. 12). Thus, manufacturers spend vast amounts of natural resources that could be used in different settings. Admittedly, bottled water production is also associated with considerable amount of carbon dioxide emissions. Apart from emissions during the production process, delivery and recycling of the bottles also contribute to air contamination. Notably, bottled water production takes place in distant areas where no industrial objects (apart from the water plants) are found. Thus, Fiji Water is located in one of the most picturesque places in the world with unique ecosystem. Admittedly, building of a plant is associated with intrusion into the ecosystem. Forests are cut down to build plants and roads. The entire ecosystem suffers from such activities. As for particular environmental effect on the land, the bottles are made of PET plastics that do not biodegrade. The bottles break down into smaller pieces in the course of time but this period is quite significant. More importantly, PETs quickly absorb toxins and, hence, hold them in soil and water. This can have numerous negative effects as the soil is contaminated and plants as well as animals can become ill. An example of such contamination is the fact that more than 46,000 pieces of floating plastic is found in every square mile of the ocean (Schriever par. 14). More so, it has been estimated that about 10% of the plastic manufactured in the world comes into the ocean. It is necessary to note that considerable part of these bottles end up in the ocean floor and it never degrade there. Another problem is vast landfills. It has been estimated that 38 billion bottles end up in landfills each year (Schriever par. 17). Clearly, landfills can be regarded as one of the most burning issues as the amount of waste grows and the need of land for the landfills increases. All these negative effects should make people reconsider their fascination with bottled water. It is necessary to note that the water quality as well as its beneficial effects on people’s health have been overestimated. Negative effects of bottled water production outweigh possible positive effects of this water drinking. It is time to make a decision whether people want to keep certain image of a healthy and green individual or they truly want and try to preserve the nature. Works Cited Schriever, Norm. “Plastic Water Bottles Causing Flood of Harm to Our Environment.” The Huffington Post. 2013. Web.
Problem 1 (6 points total): An ingot of Al-5 wt.% Cu is directionally solidified. Assume that there is no diffusion in the solid and that there is perfect mixing in the liquid. Pure aluminum melts at 660 °C. At the eutectic temperature of 548 °C, the liquid composition is 33.2 wt.% Cu and the solid composition is 5.35 wt.% Cu. Assume that the liquidus and solidus are straight lines. Please do the following.1. Calculate the composition of the liquid when the solidification is 40% complete.2. What is the average composition of the solid, Csav., at this point when the solidification is 40% complete.3. What is the solid-liquid interface temperature at this point when the solidification is 40% complete?4. How much eutectic will be formed when the solidification is complete?——Problem 2 (3 points total): The solubility of carbon in y-Fe is given as C -1.165 exp(-/RT), where the value of Q is 121,168 J/mol, C is the atomic fraction of carbon, and R is gas constant. Please use this equation to predict the solubility limit of carbon at 800°C. Please express your answer as wt%.Problem 3 (3 points total): During the solidification of nickel, please calculate the critical radius r* of nucleus if the nucleation of solid phase is homogeneous for the undercooling of 0.1K and 10K respectively. The value for the latent heat of fusion is 293 kJ/kg and yLS = 0.255 J/m?. The melting temperature of nickel is 1455°C.Problem 4 (3 points total): You are given an alloy of copper containing 10% Zn, 2% Al, and 3% Sn. Please calculate the electron-to-atom ratio.