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Rubber Export Industry In Thailand Economics Essay

Rubber export is very significant for Thailand. It is also considered as one of the country’s major industries. For rubber export, it has been contributed a huge part on Thai economic and it has been successful industry with high growth rate for a long time. However, plenty of data sources obviously prove the decline trend of this export recently. So this research has analyzed the rubber industry’s situation by using most Impacts Events during 2006 to 2009 which are key discouraging factors (high rainfall, decreasing in demand-supplies, fluctuated rubber price and too appreciated baht). Moreover, this project would also refer to the competency of Malaysia -the competitors of Thailand in order to comparing and discussing why Thai rubber export is going to lose its market share at this recent period. Finally, for this research mainly implement the correlation analysis into the processing analysis to estimate linear relationship between rubber export and variable factors of the industry also including recommendations in order to develop and modify Thai rubber’s competitiveness in the world market. INTRODUCTION The rubber product manufacturing industry is one of the country’s major industries. The word ‘Rubber’ refers to natural rubber which is an important raw material utilized in manufacturing any rubber products and synthetic rubber. The exported natural rubber was categorized into three groups: ribbed smoked sheets, standard Thai rubber and concentrated latex. Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS) is the most important product, making up 70 percent of the total sales. They are mainly used in automobile tires manufacturing Standard Thai Rubber (STR) is another type of rubber grade which are packaged in block, they are widely used in American and European market. Concentrated latex is used as raw material in the industry of rubber gloves, condom, balloon, etc. Nearly 90 percent of Thailand’s natural rubber production is for export and only 10 percent of all rubber produced in Thailand is used for domestic consumption. Focusing on the type of product, the largest proportion of total rubber product is standard Thai rubber which takes 40 percent of the total. The following is ribbed smoked sheet. The export standard Thai rubber has decreased about 63 percent comparing to the same period in 2008, also ribbed smoked sheet which has decreased 50 percent of growth rate. The major importers of Thai rubber are China, Malaysia and Japan. These 3 importers import about 65 percent of Thai rubber export value. However, even though Thailand is the world’s largest natural rubber producer and exporter but Thailand tends to lose their market share to mainly Indonesia which expected to continuously growth. Also Malaysia, who has reduced its imports of Thai rubber according the rising of natural rubber producers, is expected to be an exporter. Figure 1: Thai Rubber Major Importers In previously year, Thailand which makes up 33 percent of the global natural rubber supply, production fell an annualized 21.6 percent during the first four months of 2009, according to data from the Rubber Research Institute of Thailand. The expected trend of rubber export in next year is to be lightly increased from 2009. However there are several risky factors that Thailand should consider in order to remain the largest rubber exporter of the world market, such as the dramatically changed of weather, demand and supply of natural rubber and stability of rubber prices. The purpose and objectives of this research are to identify the major problems that Thailand loses its competitiveness to other countries, to study the changes in Thai rubber export industry and figure out the influence factors in both encouraging and discouraging aspect and to find possible ways to keep its advantages. Also this research of Thai rubber export industry is going to let the researchers understand more about this business and its variables. In additions, researchers will be able to apply economics knowledge to analyze the real problem. The result from this research would help people concern more on Thai rubber export’s situation and probably recommend useful suitable ways to confront with recent issue through an incoming problem. Literature Review According to the World Rubber Export Statistic, the growth rate in 2009 dramatically decreased from 36.18 to -48.65 comparing between the same period from January to October of 2008 and 2009, which created the lost approximately 2,900 million US dollar. Recent statements (Kasikorn Research Center, 2009; L. Kittipon, 2008; Krungtheb thurakit, 2007) have recognized the slowdown of Thai rubber export’s growth in many different aspects. Based on the slowdown, an important recent contribution to the article of Thai rubber export has been analysis by Thai Kasikorn Research Center cited in Bangkok Business newspaper (January 12, 2009). They stated that the world production in 2009 has been decreased 4.8% form previously year. They analyzed 3 probably factors causing this situation. Those are first, the change of weather. Because of unfavorable weather including heavy rains, the production of 3 major rubber exporters, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, decreased for 6%. However, in the past 2-3 years, weather is one of important factors of decreasing in natural rubber production. Second is the demand of rubber which has been decreasing for 5.2%. Third, prices of rubber vary to the demand of world market. However, what seems to have been neglected in Thai Kasikorn Research Center’s statement is the crude oil price crisis. This significance is an undeniable impact on Thai rubber export which has been explored more in earlier article (Lakchai Kittipon cited in Than-Setthakij newspaper on October 2-4, 2008). According to US’s economic crisis has affected indirectly to Thai rubber export, the major importer of Thai rubber for their tires manufactures, China, has reduced the imports from Thailand because of United State reduce the purchase tires from China. In other hands, the crude oil price created the weakness of rubber price. Importers will hold and see when there is lowest price. These can be concluded that rubber export depends on purchasing power in United State and the crude oil price. Furthermore in Krungtheb thurakit’s article (February 23, 2007), there are other factors that we should take into account which are high cost of production and lacking of government support in expansion of the industry such as technology, capitals (cost of investment) and tax efficiency as well as other criterion in order to help pushing the rubber price to be higher. The government should set up the policy and development plan in order to help giving the confidence to those who working with rubber. Methodology On the paper, researchers would analyze the factors affecting Thai rubber export. The variable factors which would be tested in this research are the dramatically changed of weather, demand and supply of natural rubber, stability of rubber prices and tax of rubber export of study, researchers are going to focus on Thai rubber export section which datum would be collected in Thai rubber association, rubber research institute of Thailand, Malaysian Rubber Board, Department of export promotion, national statistical office and world trade organization and also from private sectors, information base on 2006 to 2009. To determine which factors have impact on the export, researcher would use “Correlation” as a method according to the limited data. Correlation is a measure of linear relationship between two random variables X and Y, which ranges between -1 and 1. Perfect positive correlation (a correlation co-efficient of 1) implies that as one factor moves, either up or down, the other will move in lockstep, in the same direction. Alternatively, perfect negative correlation will move by an equal amount in the opposite direction. If the correlation is 0, the movements of the factors are said to have no correlation, they are completely independence. THE CHANGED OF WEATHER Favorable condition for Rubber plantation In order to plant rubber tree in Thailand, planting area is the considerable factor as well as the suitable climates for planting. The optimal conditions for the growth of rubber are: Land area: 200 m. above the sea level, with slope of 12°C Temperature: in average of 24-27°C throughout the year (hot and humid). Humidity: Between 65-90% Rainfall: average rainfall should not less than 1,350 mm per year and not less than 120 days of rainfall. Soil: Loamy or sandy soil and soil surface depth not less than 1 m. with pH of 4.0-5.5 Wind: average wind speed not more than 1 m/sec. Deep rich soils with good drainage preferably crumble, well-oxidized and acidic in reaction This paper would focus on rainfall which is the most influence factor on rubber production. According to statement of the Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC), changing climatic conditions may affect rubber production across the world. “Climate change has become an issue of serious concern on the supply potential of natural rubber. Apart from fall in yield, even the rubber growing regions in major producing countries are gradually rendered unsuitable for growing rubber”, says the ANRPC report. The following graph shows the amount of rainfall comparing to the mean. There were quite heavy rainfall in Thailand and it is mainly above the mean level which indicates that it can cause flooding problem, thus leads to the damage and diseases of agricultural crops including rubber trees. However the trend shows the decrease in rainfall by 2009, this may results in an increase in supply production in next year. Figure 2: Average Rainfall in Thailand from 2003 – 2009 Rubber output in Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia will drop more than 6 percent in 2009 after unusually heavy rains caused flooding, an industry group said on Monday, raising the prospect of a price rally to last year’s peak. Tight supplies blamed on bad weather have pushed up cash prices by more than 10 percent in the past month, with benchmark Thai RSS3 grade now hovering around $2.75 a kg — within sight of a 56-year high of $3.25 struck last July. Apart from a fall in yield, even the traditional rubber growing regions in major producing countries are gradually being rendered unsuitable for growing rubber. Output in the three main producers, which account for 70 percent of global output, could slip to 6.45 million tons in 2009, down from the October forecast of 6.62 million and lower than 6.91 million estimated last year, according to the group. Torrential rain in Thailand’s southern region since early November has caused flooding in several areas, including Hat Yai in Songkhla province, which has been declared a disaster zone. Around 800,000 hectares (2 million acres) of rubber land has been hit by rain and flooding, which has disrupted tapping and hampered transport. Supplies are likely to shrink further early next year during the dry wintering season in Thailand, the world’s largest producer, as trees shed leaves and latex output falls. Prices of rubber sheet, the raw material for RSS3, have doubled from $1.10 per kg in December 2008, the lowest in nearly seven years, due to steady demand while supply was cut by unfavorable weather in Thailand. It is pointed out in the report that the fluctuating climatic conditions are a threat to the growth of region-based new clones. Overall supply of natural rubber from the key producer nations reduced to 5.1% during 2009. Major rubber producing nations including India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, China, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and Cambodia projected production falls at different levels. DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF RUBBER Global demand is now running much further behind supply than we expected. In terms of global sufficiency, stocks are therefore forecast to rise to a level last seen ten years ago. The following figure indicates the world demand for natural rubber is slightly decreasing from previous year. Figure 3: World Natural Rubber Demand Natural rubber: World Demand (‘000 tons unless otherwise indicated) 2006 2007 2008 2009 Demand 9,251 9,789 9,480 9,290 Stocks(b) 2,082 2,233 3,050 3,750 Weeks’ consumption 11.7 11.9 16.7 21.0 Includes International Natural Rubber Organization (INRO) stockpile disposals after 1999. (b) Global closing stocks; year-end. Sources: IRSG; Economist Intelligence Unit. Following table summarizes the trends in annual production of NR from 2007 to 2009 in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Vietnam, China and Sri Lanka. These seven countries accounted for 93% of the global production of NR in 2008. Figure 4: World Natural Rubber Production Total production in the seven countries contracted 5.1% in 2009, as per data available up to September 2009. This is the biggest fall in global supply of NR after 1952. Sources of the output fall in 2009 could be diagnosed by examining the changes in tapped area and average annual yield. The tapped area shrank in 2008 and 2009 and average yield fell in 2009. Total tapped area in the seven producing countries shrank by 366,000 ha from 2007 to 2009. Average yield, aggregated for the seven producing countries, although improved from 1281 kg/ha in 2007 to 1339 kg/ha in 2008, fell to 1283 kg/ha in 2009. A closer picture could be obtained by examining each country separately. Thailand registered 5.5% fall in production in the 12 months ended 31 August 2009 from 2008 full year. Rubber trees in 64,000 hectare in the country were estimated to be replanted in 2009. However, tapped area expanded in 2009 by 21,000 ha as the area planted before 6 years attained tappable maturity. The average yield, measured in terms of production per hectare of tapped area progressively came down from 1723 kg/ha in 2007 to 1698 kg/ha in 2008 and further to 1586 kg/ha in 2009 due to a host of factors including adverse weather disrupting tapping during the first quarter, prolonged wintering in the second quarter, relatively lower price and the export reduction commitment under the IRCo’s Agreed Export Tonnage Scheme (AETS). Demand China The feat of becoming the globe’s largest producer of shoes and a major exporter of tires by China may largely be attributed to its large pool of cheap labor and particularly to the availability of imports to fill the gap in the production chain. China needs to import rubber raw materials which have been very crucial to ensure the survival of the rubber products industry. China is by far the world’s biggest market for natural rubber, accounting for 26 percent of global usage in 2007. Slackening growth in demand in China has had a major impact on the global balance for natural rubber. We expect the deceleration to continue: growth in natural rubber usage of more than 6 percent in 2007 will be followed by 3.1 percent growth in 2008 and an average of 2.7 percent in 2009-10. Top 5 major natural rubber exporters to China are Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and India. China market, the largest market of all Thai rubber export product which takes 35% of market. In 2009 starting from January to November, China imported rubber from Thailand valued $1.2 billion which decreased by 31.85% from $1.8 billion in same period of 2008. According to the AFET report, China sees slower rubber demand growth, helps farmers. It stated that the world’s largest rubber consumer expects demand to grow at a slower pace of 7.3 percent in 2009 and is poised to help its farmers weather turmoil in the auto sector, industry officials said on Wednesday. Physical rubber prices have more than halved from July’s peak, with benchmark Thai rubber now hovering around $1.45 a kg, as a worsening global recession cuts demand for the commodity. Zhu Xiuyan, chairman of the China Natural Rubber Association, said on the sidelines of a conference. “If the economy does not show marked recovery, we can’t expect a rally in rubber prices.” China’s State Reserve Bureau has started buying rubber from domestic farms, with planned a purchase of 50,000 tons by mid-April, as the government hopes to lift prices and protect farmers. The amount was in line with a plan announced by the Chinese government earlier this year to purchase 65,000 tons for state reserves for the month of April to stabilize prices and protect the farmers. China, which imports about half of what it consumes, is forecast to use 5.9 million tons of rubber in 2009, up 7.3 percent from 2008, when demand rose 8.9 percent, said Fan Rende, president of the China Rubber Industry Association. Malaysia Natural rubber is one of the major commodity exports of Malaysia. Although the share of natural rubber in the total exports has been declining in recent years, its contribution to Malaysia’s foreign exchange earnings is still substantial. Figure 5: Malaysia Rubber Production The above graph show that Malaysia has been increase their rubber production slightly even though in last two year, 2007 and 2008, the production decrease but because of Malaysia has been affect by unseasonal heavy rain and also crude oil price. But the trend of Malaysia production is expected to continuously growth. In order to increasing production, recently Malaysia has been decrease amount of natural rubber from Thailand. Supply Focusing on the type of product, the largest proportion of total rubber product is STR, Standard Thai Rubber, which takes 40% of the total. The export standard Thai rubber 409,670 tons in 2009 which has decreased by 63.43% comparing to the same period in 2008. The followings are ribbed smoked sheet which also has decreased by 49.85% of growth rate from 2008. Figure 6: Thai Rubber Exports by Types of Rubber *RSS: Ribbed Smoked Sheet, STR: Standard Thai Rubber, Conc. Latex: Concentrated Latex Currently, even though Thailand is the world’s largest natural rubber producer and exporter but Thailand tends to lose their market share to mainly Indonesia which expected to continuously growth. Also Malaysia, who has reduced its imports of Thai rubber according the rising of natural rubber producers, is expected to be an exporter. The following table shows the production of natural rubber of five countries which account for 93% of global natural rubber supply from 2005 to 2007. Figure 7: Production of Five Major Rubber Producers THE STABILITY OF RUBBER PRICE One of the exports risk is fluctuation of price which should be avoided. Price fluctuations are normal for any commodity and rubber is a volatile commodity. Major rubber growing countries like Thailand have sophisticated financial instruments providing price fluctuation insurance to farmers. Rubber Price in Thailand Certainly, the demand of the market for rubber and global production output are core factors. The price of rubber is also linked to the fluctuating price of oil which is a major factor in the production of synthetic rubber. When oil prices are high, the production costs and price of synthetic rubber will also increase, which leads countries to switch to use more natural rubber. However, if the natural rubber price rises too high for the various industrial producers, they will return to using more synthetic rubber which will lead to a downward adjustment of the price of natural rubber. Thailand is the world’s biggest rubber producer. However, prices are also set by a number of hidden hands. The rubber market in Thailand is controlled by Singaporean and Malaysian investors, and also by Thai investors. The Thai government has never developed Thailand’s role in influencing prices of the global rubber markets. The government administers and controls the rubber price bending to pressure from foreign countries and international agencies. The government regularly uses a domestic interventionist approach to keep prices stable as a means to gain votes from the rubber farmers. Furthermore, the government passed a law to control the rubber price, limit the areas where rubber could be grown, and place controls on the varieties grown. Farmers were not allowed to develop the production of rubber themselves. These controls were put in place to enable Thai rubber to be competitive in the world market. However, structural problems mentioned above led to the monopolization of the market by investors who control the production and marketing of rubber, while the farmers became orderlies supplying rubber to the internal and external markets Trade Price Figure 8: Price of Rubber TSR20 in Bangkok Source: The Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries, Kuala Lumpur Figure 9: Price of Rubber RSS3 in Bangkok Source: The Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries, Kuala Lumpur From both tables, it can be observed that Prices during 2009 (January – September) in all the markets ruled considerably below the corresponding rates in 2008 (January – September), the gap between prices in 2009 and 2008 has narrowed down towards the end. Local price Figure 10: Rubber Prices of Thai Market *RSS: Ribbed Smoked Sheet, STR: Standard Thai Rubber, Conc. Latex: Concentrated Latex The prices of rubber that considered as good price are around 80-100 Baht/Kg. From the information, rubber has best price in year 2008, follow by 2007. 2008, ribbed smoked sheet rubber were sold as higher price which is 83 Baht/Kg. In the year 2009, rubber prices have failed down to around 40-50 Baht/Kg. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES The exchange rate is the price of one currency expressed in terms of another, and is crucial to exporters. When the exchange rate rises, goods priced become more expensive in foreign currency so demand for these dearer exports drops, reducing overall demand, which should lower inflationary pressure. A rising exchange rate tends to help to curb inflation, potentially allowing for lower interest rates. Conversely, a lower exchange rate, as at present, typically boosts export demand, putting upward pressure on inflation and interest rates. A fall of exchange rate in the export country will make products more costly for importers. Yet a rise in the exchange rate makes imports cheaper, putting downward pressure on inflation and interest rates. Figure 11: Foreign Exchange Rate Thai Baht against US Dollar The above graph show the slightly appreciating of Thai baht against US$ from 2006 to December 2009. Thai Baht has been continuously appreciated from 2006 until now. The factors that affect Thailand’s exports, the exchange rate has the largest effect on competitiveness. Too appreciated baht over the previous years has made Thai products more expensive for importer (excluding flow-through of goods that must be first imported into Thailand). Our exchange rate relative to our competitors therefore plays a very large role in our international competitiveness. ANALYSIS The analytical part will briefly explain the comparison of relationship between Thai rubber exports with four factors; rainfall, demand and supply, rubber price and foreign exchange rate. It shows the factors’ trend from 2006 to 2009. Figure 12: Comparison of Relationship between Rubber Export and Rainfall This shows the relationship trend between rubber export and rainfall. As in the graph, rainfall slightly decreases in 2006, then increases in 2007 and for 2009 rainfall decreases by 9% from 2008. Meanwhile export trend from 2006 to 2008 slowly falls and strongly falls over in 2009. It seems like the rubber export may have little affected by amount of rainfall as we’ve seen from the graph in the year 2008 to 2009, when rainfall goes below the optimal amount that it should be, also the rubber export decreases in amount. Figure 13: Comparison of Relationship between Rubber Export and Demand and Supply Figure shows the relationship between rubber export and demand and supply from 2006 to 2009. Focusing on Thai supply curve and Thai rubber export, both curves are along which 2006 to 2008 mainly stable but deeply decrease in 2009. For the movement of the world demand curve comparing to Thai rubber export, these are very similar. The trends are increasing, but all fall down in 2009 means that while the world demand is decreasing, Thai rubber export is decreasing too. These can be cited that the two factors, demand and supply, may have affect on rubber export since their trends are along. Figure 14: Comparison of Relationship between Rubber Export and Rubber Price Figure 14 is shown the comparison of relationship between rubber export and its price from 2007 to 2009, local rubber price is monitored. The local rubber price increases in 2007 and 2008 but then is starting to decrease in 2009 as same as the rubber export which heavily decrease in amount of export in 2009. The rubber export may be affected by local rubber price, such a case of increasing in local rubber price may increase the price of export rubber, which this can be the important point of competitiveness between the export country. Figure 15: Comparison of Relationship between Rubber Export and Exchange Rates Export Unit: ‘00000 tons Thai Baht has been appreciating against US dollar since 2006. Moreover in 2009, Thai Baht is very strong in value which makes the rubber more costly for importers. Both trends, exchange rate and rubber export trend, go along which slightly fall from 2006 to 2008 and strongly decrease in 2009. As the comparative relationship of rubber export and Thailand exchange rate figure, it can be said that the appreciation of Thai baht may affect on rubber export since during the appreciating, amount of rubber export is decreasing. CORRELATION TEST AND RESULT Figure 16: Correlation Test between Thai Rubber Export and Rainfall Correlation Rubber Export Rainfall Rubber Export 1 – Rainfall 0.594666993 1 The correlation coefficient is 0.59 refers to 59% of the variance may be related in the positive linear relationship. This means that rubber export and rainfall may have positive relationship to each other, if the rainfall increases, rubber export may also increases too. Figure 17.1: Correlation Test between Thai Rubber Export and World Demand Correlation Rubber Export World Demand Rubber Export 1 – World Demand 0.410960336 1 The correlation coefficient of 0.41 which closed to zero, refers there is no linear relationship between the variables. Both rubber export and world demand may not have any relationship, both are independence. Figure 17.2: Correlation Test between Thai Rubber Export and Thai Rubber Supply Correlation Rubber Export Thai Rubber Supply Rubber Export 1 – Thai Rubber Supply -0.83007 1 The correlation coefficient is -0.83, the variance may be related in the negative linear relationship. This means that rubber export and Thai rubber supply may have negative relationship to each other, if the Thai rubber supply increases, rubber export may decreases. Figure 18: Correlation Test between Thai Rubber Export and Rubber Price Correlation Rubber Export Rubber Price Rubber Export 1 – Rubber Price 0.883805704 1 The correlation coefficient is 0.88 refers to 88% of the variance may be related in the positive linear relationship. This means that rubber export and rubber price may have positive relationship to each other, if the rubber price increases, rubber export may also increases too. Figure 19: Correlation Test between Thai Rubber Export and Foreign Exchange Rate Correlation Rubber Export Exchange Rate Rubber Export 1 – Exchange Rate 0.338500539 1 The correlation coefficient of 0.34 which closed to zero, refers there is no linear relationship between the variables. Both rubber export and exchange rate may not have any relationship, both are independence. CONCLUSION According to the research, Thai rubber export is continuously being decreasing and we have been focused on the investigation of the four factors affecting Thai rubber export which are the changes of weather condition, rubber demand and supply, rubber price and foreign exchange rate. After we have collected data from various sources, we then analyze it with the method of correlation and the result indicates that there are some of the factors that we had researched may be not much effect on rubber export, but some are highly effect on rubber export. In correlation test on rubber export and rainfall the result shows that amount of rainfall could have possible effect to the rubber export; if rubber export increases, rainfall will also increases. However it is important that we have to concern on the optimal temperature for rubber. From the research, we found that there was heavy rainfall which went above optimum temperature, thus leads to the decrease in rubber production. The result of correlation in demand was 41%, means that there were not much affect to the rubber export. For the result in correlation of rubber supply and rubber export, it is obviously see that these two things may not be affected on each other. Although rubber supplies are high, rubber export may still be decreasing, this may relate to other factors rather than rubber supply. On rubber price correlation test, the result was 88% which indicates that rubber price is highly effect on rubber export. According to the research data, heavy rainfall cause rubber price to be decreases due to the host factor and the decrease in supply. Therefore when there is good quality of rubber productions, the price may be high, but people can afford to buy due to the good and efficiency rubber production. As you have seen on the result, exchange rate may not have much effect on rubber export although the data shows the relationship of these two. As a result some of the factors that we had analyzed were not much affect to the decrease in rubber export. However the main factors that could cause the decrease in rubber export could be occurred by the world economic crises as well as an increase crude oil price. Finally, in order to develop Thai rubber export to be compete with the competitor, it is very important that we need to develop good quality manure to use instead of chemical fertilize in order to reduce inputs cost, to improve technology development for the rubber industry so it is more or as effective as such development in peer or rival countries. Government policy should be clear and continual improve regulations in order to serve the international rubber business, and help them to find new opportunities, and also work to establish an international price according to the world price.
Grantham University Employee Benefits Discussion.

InstructionsThis posting should be a minimum of one short paragraph and a maximum of two paragraphs. Word totals for this post should be in the 100–200-word range. Whether you agree or disagree, explain why with supporting evidence and concepts from the readings or a related experience. Include a reference, link, or citation when appropriate.PreparationTo attract the best talent, many employers have expanded their employee incentives and benefits offerings. You read about some of the perks Google offers, such as free food and haircuts, on-site gyms and medical facilities, and more. Some other benefits that have been the topics of recent news stories include paid parental leave and unlimited vacation policies.While the Family Medical Leave Act guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave to new parents, there are no US laws guaranteeing any paid leave. But many companies in the tech sector and beyond have expanded their paid parental leave policies in recent years, including Netflix, Microsoft, Ikea, and Nike. Other companies, such as Apple and Facebook, even offer egg freezing and IVF benefits to employees.Another benefit some companies are trying out is an unlimited vacation time policy. While the idea that you can take off as much time as you like is appealing to many job-seekers, some evidence suggests that employees at these companies actually take less time off than those at companies with more traditional vacation policies.[1] Advocates of unlimited time-off policies cite trust between employees and managers as a key factor in making them work.For DiscussionChoose ONE of the following questions to respond to in your initial post.What benefits and incentives do you think are most appealing to employees, and why?What challenges do benefits like extended parental leave and unlimited paid time off present to managers? How might managers address these challenges?
Grantham University Employee Benefits Discussion

514 Statistical Analysis 1. I need an explanation for this Mathematics question to help me study.

-Real Estate data file – which will be used for practice problems in each unit. Raw data for ALL Practice Problems for all Units

-Solutions to the practice problems for Unit 1 –found at the end of the Unit 01 reading. Use this file as an example for how your Complete work should look and be submitted to the drop box.
-Student data file – which will be used for homework (Complete) problems for each unit. There is a link in each Complete section for you to access this file. .
-UNIT 01 Categorical Data Stat file – use this file to conduct Complete Problem #1
-UNIT 01 Descriptive Stat file – use this file to conduct Complete Problem #3
-UNIT 01 Frequency Distribution Stat file – use this file to conduct Complete Problem #2
When you open the stat files, select Read Only if prompted. The examples found in each stat file are the raw data from the Practice Problems (Real Estate data file) to show you how you would enter the Complete raw data from the Student Data file. When you close that file out, you will have the option of saving your changes and it will save your info as a new document. Note that you can only input or change data in the yellow shaded areas. The blue shaded areas are the function/output fields that will automatically calculate your answers.
You will be copying and pasting your output charts and written analysis in the Complete section. Use the Practice Problems examples in Course Materials as your guide. You should also have source and reference information in each text box when used.

The discussion requires a minimum of 300 words, 3 scholarly sources, including the textbook. Make sure that you use APA style with your references. Under no circumstances use any direct quotes. Any directly quoted or copied material will result in a zero for the assignment. Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work.
Reference for textbook attached:
Mirabella, J. (2011). Introduction to Statistics. Nashville, TN: Savant Learning Systems.
1. Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio are the four Levels of Measurement. These determine “how” you are analyzing data you have collected. Define each of these levels of measurement and discuss an example of each that could be collected within your organization.

1,500 word count and there is a total of 3 questions each (not including in-text citation and references as the word count), a minimum of 4 scholarly sources are required in APA format. For the 4 scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other two from an outside source . Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work. Under no circumstances use any direct quotes. Any directly quoted or copied material will result in a zero for the assignment.
Reference for textbook attached:
Mirabella, J. (2011). Introduction to Statistics. Nashville, TN: Savant Learning Systems.

Use the Student Data (I have attached it) which consists of 200 MBA students at Whatsamattu U. It includes variables regarding their age, gender, major, GPA, Bachelors GPA, course load, English speaking status, family, and weekly hours spent studying.

1. Perform a categorical analysis on the majors of students enrolled in the MBA. Describe your findings.
2. Create a frequency distribution & histogram on the GPAs of the students. Use ranges of 2.50-2.75, 2.75-3.00, 3.00-3.25, 3.25-3.50, 3.50-3.75 and 3.75-4.00. Describe your findings.
3. Compute the descriptive statistics for the weekly hours spent studying. Describe your findings.

514 Statistical Analysis 1

Discuss and show the cost associated with starting your company and show a pricing model, business and finance homework help

Discuss and show the cost associated with starting your company and show a pricing model, business and finance homework help.

In three to four pages, using Microsoft Word, along
with accompanying Excel spreadsheet data,
address the following areas:
• Discuss and show the cost associated with starting
your company and show a pricing model
for your products or services (create a table in
• Create income statements and balance sheets for
three years using Excel spreadsheets.
• Create a break-even analysis (create in Excel).
Use Microsoft Word to create a financial summary
containing needed start-up funds and how you will
obtain the start-up funds, pricing model, and
summarize your financial spreadsheet data. Develop a
detailed Excel spreadsheet for the financial data (use
separate worksheets in Excel for more

Discuss and show the cost associated with starting your company and show a pricing model, business and finance homework help

Research online and find company that has implemented ERM solution?

essay help online Research online and find company that has implemented ERM solution?. I’m studying for my Computer Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

I will Provide Text book and detailed Question.

Chapter 3 presented the approach Mars, Incorporated used to implement ERM, and chapter 5 presented the University of California Health System’s ERM development.
Research online and find another company that has implemented a similar ERM solution as these two companies did. List the company, what they did and how their approach is similar to the two examples from the textbook. How do they differ? What benefits were gained from all 3 companies by using an ERM implementation
Research online and find company that has implemented ERM solution?

The Rise and Fall of the Islamic Spain Report

Introduction Re-enacted in a 2007 movie, Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain, the documentary explains how the Islamic Spain has a rich history while focusing on its impact on the world civilisation (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Since the antiquity, religion was an element of information transmission and conviction of masses. The religion that commanded the greatest population became the greatest source of influence (Wasserstein 47). Referred to as the Dark Ages, Spain underwent a visible transformation after Muslims, Christians, and Jews clashed. This paper intends to explain the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain with a particular emphasis on the importance of Spain to the world civilisation. Other religions were equally very important to Spain, but Islam was a source of artistic integration, economic stability, and political prowess in the country. These religions had a direct impact on the rise and fall of the Islamic religion in Spain, and it would be impossible to create a comparison without proper representation of Christianity and Judaism. Islamic civilisation Rise of the Islamic religion in Spain By 600 BCE, Islam was already a powerful religion in Europe and particularly Spain. Spain was the home of European Renaissance even before Muslims dominated the country. During this period, Spain had control of Iberia and Caucasus, which are presently in Russia. Catholicism enabled artists and philosophers to explore science, art, medicine, and technology among several other factors. Philosophers such as Aristotle have a background in Spain during the Islamic era (Lapidus 92). In 734 BCE, most parts of Europe began recognising the significance of the Islam religion to the people of Spain. This included the invention of the lemon tree and the water wheel among others. In Spain, there was an opportunity for religion to grow and to help people embrace new lifestyles. Muslims co-existed peacefully with other religions especially Christians and Jews. This contradicted other areas of Europe in which power strife controlled the religions that people appreciated. This applied to the Iberian Peninsula that had a problem with the Jews. In addition, there was a problem in Russia because the Muslims in the region could not entertain the growing number of Christians who did not have to pay taxes to sustain their religions (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Power struggles amongst different religions across Europe led to the downfall of some of the most powerful groups. This explains the fall of the Umayyad kingdom after 700 AD in Europe. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Islamic Spain strategy Sustainability is the most difficult tool of management to maintain. In Spain, Muslims marinated excellent relations with other religions in order to avoid conflicts. During this period, power coupled with ignorance only saw many countries fight to be the best. Most parts of Europe rarely concentrated on the significance of peace as an element of development in the society. Instead, they believed that power and influence only came when people fought for the various spaces they ardently wanted. According to the Muslims, the only strategy to success in an environment of diversity is to work together and share ideas. This led to the conviction of many Spaniards converting mostly of them into Muslims. Different religions shared resources and ideas enabling the country to thrive and succeed in Europe. Spain became an example to many people before the religious wars began. Though the groups existed as religious extremists, they had a common idea of developing the country and transforming Spain into an enviable country in Europe. However, when religious differences ensued, it was important for only one religion to prove powerful in Spain. Around 1000 AD, there was a significant difference in opinions between the Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the previously peaceful Spain. By 1207 AD, violence ensued in the country causing a major collapse of the Islamic Spain. Politics and the Islamic Spain Religion, politics, and economics formed the pillars for Islamic Spain. When the ruling power polity supports a particular religion, there is a high possibility that the religion would have the greatest influence on the people. In addition, the powerful religion becomes the greatest challenger of the government when it fails to achieve its obligation to the society. This explains the position held by the Muslim religion in Spain. Through influence, the religion exercised authority over the land ensuring that the government achieved its obligations to the people of Spain. Islam helped in reinforcing ethical responsibility in the people it represented. Between 660 AD and 950 AD, Islam became a source of solace for many Spaniards. During the same period, any information from Muhammad the prophet controlled the governance structures. By the 10th century, all governance structures had the presence of Muslim leadership. For instance, Abdul-Rahman, the leader of Al-Andalus had to ensure that Muslims and other religions co-existed peacefully for the overall development of the country. We will write a custom Report on The Rise and Fall of the Islamic Spain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, politics formed an important basis for building a strong Islamic front in Spain. Respect to ethics also helped in increasing the goodwill of the population towards the Islamic Spain. Muslim movements also collected taxes to fulfil their strategic plans. This did not happen among the Christians ensuring that a section of the population converted to Christianity. This was the greatest source of animosity between Muslims and Christians. However, poor Muslims did not pay taxes even though they had food, a place to sleep, and clothes to adorn. This was very significant in making the Muslim religion attractive to many Spaniards. Acquisition Acquisition was an important element of expanding the Islamic Spain. It gave the union power to dominate over Spain and other parts of Europe and this created animosity between the movement and Europeans. Europeans wanted the slightest opportunity to protect their Holy lands and to invade the Muslim dominated grounds especially Al-Andalus. Islamic Spain acquired the Martials from North Africa making it easy to introduce the religion in the acquired regions. Around the 11th century, Islamic Spain acquired most parts of the West. The country achieved this through unity and continued persistence (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). The Iberian Peninsula displayed high reception levels to the Spanish civilisation making it the most effective place for the Islamic Spain to acquire that part of Europe. As this happened, the relationship between the Christian and Muslim religious sects became soar. Al-Andalus was no longer a place for refuge because Islamic Spain had limited power to protect its followers (Wasserstein 38). Besides attacks internally, the Islamic Spain faced opposition from other parts of Europe. European countries joined forces to fight the Islamic Spain, and the invaded armies from North America participated in the war (Ahlstrom 20). Acquisition remains a strategy of attaining dominance for most organisations today. As such, the Islamic Spain was the initiator of civilisation because the things that people learned during the period still apply in capitalistic economies. Acquisition enabled the Islamic Spain to gain the confidence of the people and to remain stable over centuries. There is evidence that knowledge and unity were the forces that helped the union to earn public goodwill because without the same, it would be overly impossible to acquire another land and expand territories. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rise and Fall of the Islamic Spain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Spaniards and Islam There are very many reasons why countries opt to adapt a uniform religion that all people should follow. For over 800 years, the Spanish accepted Muslims because of the ability of the religion to promote development within the country and promotion of peaceful co-existence. The factors discussed below contributed towards Muslim’s influence in Spain. Innovation Muslims promoted creativity in Spain and this was very important for the civilisation. Before religious tension ensued in the Iberian Peninsula, Spain was the centre of attraction for the people of Europe because the country developed various innovative products. The water wheel among other innovations was significant throughout civilisation and other European countries began aping the trend. Even with the slight religious clashes, the Muslims still supported innovation. For some unknown reason, there was competition between the Muslims, Jews, and Christians and this promoted the development of industrial products during the period. The 10th century Spain required a religion that would protect the land jealously from external forces that would seek to divide the caliphate (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Around the same period, the fast growing Umayyad kingdom in Syria sought to extend to Spain, Poland, and Russia among other parts of Europe. It was impossible for the dynasty to invade Spain, and control it because the Islamic Spain was equally prominent and there was no need for the Umayyad kingdom to invade a territory that was dominantly Islam. Religion promoted art, business, technology, science, and philosophy among other elements of creativity. It was difficult to notice that Muslims provided the calm innovative environment in order to be completely in control of the country. For about 8 centuries people lived under the rule of Muslim leaders. As such, all systems had to follow the law set by Muslim rulers. Spain being the European hub for innovation could not afford to have any wars because this would reduce the influence it commanded in Europe. During this very period, the Pope equally submitted to the Muslim leadership even though he led the Catholic Church separately. Evidently, the Pope tried to intervene when the Umayyad caliphate and the Muslims in Spain began scrambling for space and recognition in the country. This affected innovation because there was limited time for thinking and production because the country concentrated on the war at hand. In the end, the fall of the Islamic Spain acted as assign of the Civil War that occurred in Spain between 1936 and 1939. Unity Peaceful coexistence and unity are principal factors of developing a dynasty that would have a long-term effect on people. This applied to the situation in Spain during the Islamic rule. Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived together and supported each other especially on matters of national importance. Spain had a popular culture making it difficult to realise that the country consisted of people from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. Peace and unity promoted economic growth in the country and this helped in making Spain famous. There was completely nothing wrong with the Muslim rule until the different religious sects began fighting for fame and prowess. There was no need to oppose a government that helped Spain identify with the international community through art, poetry, science, engineering, and several aspects of the great civilisation. Disunity would definitely not allow the country to achieve its objectives, and this explains why the Spaniards supported the Islamic rule for 800 years (Collomb 100). Spaniards did not begin the religious wars. Instead, the wars began between Muslims from Syria and Spanish Muslims. The Spaniards sought to protect their territory from external invasion and this affected the stability in the country. In almost all probability, without the religious wars, Islamic Spain would still exist in Europe. The people of Spain did not have any issue with the leadership of the Islamic rulers and this explains the over 700 years of their religion’s leadership in a country initially dominated by Catholics. Muslims promoted brotherhood and unity, which were the building pillars of success in Spain. Unity lacked in other parts of Europe and this threatened the very existence of the Jews in Russia and Christians in Syria. Issues of religious extremism never existed because the Jews and the Christians provided an excellent environment for Muslim leadership. Through unity, the country was able to experience peace, economic growth, and stability, which were very important to Spaniards. Independence Religious extremists mostly in Islam exist because the involved parties overly exaggerate the functions of Jihad. During the middle Ages, religious freedom prevailed and this enabled different religious to operate at the same level. While the same happened, the ruling religion had to command respect from the rest of the population. There was no need to fight for power, unlike the extremist groups from different religions in the current societies that overly fight for recognition. The Islamic government created religious autonomy for Spaniards and the fact that each person was free to worship in a religion in which he or she was comfortable reduced the possibility of the occurrence of religious wars. Muslim leaders of the 10th to 18th century in Spain used intellect to rule the land. Religion is a strong force of rebellion, but empowering each religion reduces the possibility of such occurrence. In essence, the Muslims never exercised control over other people and Christians could worship in churches while Jews could use temples freely. By empowering different religions, the Spaniards felt safe under the rule of Muslims and they had no reason to overturn a stable government. Muslims never used totalitarianism to rule Spain, but the rulers focused on dialogue as an important aspect of attaining public goodwill. Islamic rulers understood that they were dealing with enlightened people in Spain and exercising authority on them would trigger a revolt. This happened when the Pope tried to eradicate Muslims from Spain even though he was initially comfortable with the rule. It was evident that the Umayyad dynasty would take control of the land if the Islamic Spain failed to defend the land from externalities. Most critics considered the Pope as a selfish church leader who took the opportunity to rule the country after the Muslim-to-Muslim war ensued in the country. When unity and religious autonomy failed in the country, it was impossible for the country to remain relevant in Europe even in the face of inventing the hydraulic technology. Failure of the Islamic period Power strife Initially, the Muslims co-existed peacefully with other religions and it was impossible to predict the occurrence of violence in the country. Power struggles became evident around the 11th century in which the Al-Andalus dynasty because the community realised that the Pope strived to bring down the Muslim rule by dissuading people from following the Islamic movement. In 1207, the Pope organised a crusade to the dynasty for people to rebel against the kingdom. It was not easy for the Muslims to relent and they had to organise armies to defend Spain against Christian invasion. On the other hand, Christians wanted to command Spain as they did during the Greco-Roman revolution. Leaving the Muslims to command the land would definitely make it difficult for people to remember that Christians equally were a strong force in Spain. In 1236, Muslims retaliated in Cordoba considering the fact that Christians pitched tent in the area initially dominated by Muslims (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). During this period, Christians used subtle strategies to lure Muslims. Muslims had to pay taxes in order to provide meals and accommodation for the poor in the society. In addition, Christians also transformed mosques into churches and this did not offer an alternative to worshipers because they atomically had to convert to Christianity. By the 14th century, only Granada Muslim Empire remained untouched by the growing Christian movement. Only the most prominent religion could survive the violence and this gave rise to Catholicism’s fame while Muslims had to deal with the loss. This was one of the major causes of the fall of the Islamic Spain. Destroying Granada The Granada kingdom was the only hope for Muslims in the 14th century until a century later when Christians equally reached to the mountains to access the dynasty. One of the things that weakened the Muslim kingdom was an initial power struggle between the Umayyad caliphate in Syria and the Islamic Spain. This caused the Christians to understand the weaknesses of the kingdom and around the 15th century, Christians moved towards the Granada Mountains to attack the kingdom. During their first visit to the kingdom, they never launched an attack, but instead created friendly relations with the Muslims. It was almost impossible to understand the motives of the Christians because initially they caused destruction in kingdoms represented by Muslims in Spain. The Pope ordered an invasion of the land beginning with Christians and Jews and this raised confusions among the Muslim population. This deterred them from launching retaliatory attacks considering the attacks only affected the Christian and Jewish populations. The Pope received mixed reactions from the population even though Christianity began gaining prominence in the land over a short period. To some people, religion became a force that controlled the lives of people preventing them from exercising autonomy even in terms of the most basic things such as fashion (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). As such, a section of the population participated in eradication of the Muslim religion because they had business interests. Things got worse around 1500 when the Christians used force to convert Muslims. The main intention was to get the greatest support from the population in overtaking the land and ruling Spain as they did before the Islamic Spain came into power. Transforming Granada was the ultimate objective of Christians because it would garner the greatest support for the Christians. Responsibility versus authority When the society entrusted power with the Islamic movement around the 8 century, they had to delegate authority in order to avoid power strife. Though Muslims provided autonomy for other religions, they controlled the entire country making it difficult for non-Muslims to succeed in the era of civilisation. Ability to exercise responsibility does not amount to authority. Muslim leadership exercised authority since it became the only avenue that innovators could display their engineering, philosophical, and artistic ideas. For some reason, Islamic Spain controlled the population by ensuring that the leaders used subtle communication strategies to attract the greatest number of people. When the rest of the population understood that power was very significant for them, Islamic Spain was in the verge of collapse (Abadi 111). The Muslims did not get requisite support from the population they initially controlled because they used authority to govern the land. In the face of such calamities, the support of the target population is usually very important because they help in protecting the land against enemies. When the Umayyad kingdom displayed interest in Spain, Christians did not intervene because they equally wanted a taste of power and Muslims fighting against Muslims was an excellent remedy during the period. After the fall of the dynasty, Christians had to understand the difference between authority and responsibility or else they would also lose their position to the Jews or other religions (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). However, the Christians commanded a huge army making it difficult for Muslims to defeat the Jews and the Non-Muslims in the 15th century. Bureaucracy In a movie re-enacting the events that culminated in the 800 years of Islamic Spain, there is evidence that the Muslim leaders used bureaucracy to control the land. Bureaucratic principles might last through generations but at some point, the population gets tired of the same and they support democracy. Leading a country for over 7 centuries is not easy and it takes an overly aggressive government to achieve the same. Evidently, the Jews and the Christians came first to the Iberian Peninsula even though Muslims later came to control the land. It takes bureaucracy too be able to convince a section people to convert to a certain religion. In bureaucracy, the greatest principle is the ability to persuade people that the ideologies of the bureaucratic individual are the best in comparison to others within the socio-political environment. Bureaucracy leads to failure because after periods of governance, the rulers are likely to lose their political influence because the population equally becomes enlightened. According to the movie, the Muslims were the elites of the pre-civilised Spain. However, they promoted civilisation through different quotas enabling many countries in Europe to take interest in the country (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Through faith, they converted the Jews and the Christians to Christianity, but this did not last to eternity. Similarly, the Muslim rule could not survive the 8th century because of the overly enlightened Spanish population. The fall of Islamic Spain began when the enlightened society realised that they would remain productive even in the absence of the Muslims. Foreign relations and civilisation Islamic Spain contributed towards the world civilisation in many ways. Besides invention, the Spaniards were excellent innovators who improved initially developed products in Europe. Through science, politics, and engineering, the Spaniards became a source of inspiration to the rest of the world. Foreign relations Since antiquity, the years of the Greco-Roman revolution, the years of Christopher Columbus, and the Age of Renaissance, Spain is very significant in history. European countries wanted to learn from the Spaniards and they had to maintain quality relations with the country. Through cultural integration, Islamic Spain managed to influence many Europeans into adapting Muslim strategies of doing things. Islam in Spain created room for religious diversity enabling other religions to participate in the civilisation process and to improve the situation in the country. Philosophy promoted by Aristotle attracted the attention of European countries and the rest of the world. Evidently, the philosophers still have an impact on current populations and people take interest in countries such as Spain as promoters of civilisation during and after the antiquity (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). Foreign relations between Spain, Poland, and Russia among other countries in Europe were excellent. The only animosity that existed was between Syria and Spain because of the powerful Muslim dynasties during the period. Through foreign relations, Spain acquired raw materials including natural resources from Russia. In return, Russia acquired its finished products to help in industrialisation of the country. The fact that the Jews co-existed peacefully with the Muslims and Christians made the country admirable to foreigners within Europe. As such, many people immigrated to Spain and converted to Islam because they wanted to be part of a religion that promoted growth and civilisation. By the 10th century, Europeans related to the Mosques, the Hebrew pinnacle, and Churches in Spain. Besides religion, Spain maintained excellent relations with neighbouring countries by promoting its literature. Today, many people still refer to Spanish literature, creative poetry, and books. In reference to the movie, Muslims created room for pluralism for other factions of the Spanish community. Throughout the Islamic Spain era, there was a significant growth in the economy following the recognition of prominent personalities in art, science, philosophy, engineering and other areas of the economy. After the introduction of the hydraulic technology, other European countries especially Bosnia, Poland, and Russia began using the technology for mining purposes. Russia used hydraulic technology in the Uranium sector and other multipurpose activities. Though the movie fails to highlight significant relations between Spain and other countries in Europe, each innovation in the land increased made it possible for Spain to relate well with its neighbouring states (The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Full documentary PBS). The independence enjoyed during the Islamic Spain made the residents of Europe to learn many things. Most of them began fighting for independence many years after the Islamic Spain stopped ruling the country. In the early 19th century, Bosnia had a civil revolution that made it separate into Serbia, Yugoslavia, and Herzegovina. Russia also lost control of the Soviet Union making countries such as Syria to defect from the movement in the late 19th century. All these happened because people wanted to be in control of their lives and not under the rule of a central oppressive government. In 1991, the USSR failed to command the Soviet Union officially leading to its collapse. This also made it possible for other generations to relate to the fall of the Islamic Spain following over 700 years of controlling Spain. When the Moors Ruled in Spain Cities of light provided an over view of the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain. On the other hand, when the moors ruled in Spain is equally a re-enactment of the rule of the Moors in Europe for over 700 years. The Moors led Spain and Poland respectively and by the 15th century, the lost control of the two countries in Europe (Al-Andalus History of Islam in Spain). The Moors were present in different regions in Spain including Granada, Cordoba, Andalucía, and Fes. The society consists of various social forces that contribute towards the development of a uniform culture. Countries get recognition based on the socio-economic, political, and technological forces they have in the world. Religion is an element of the social realm that defines the belief systems of a section of the population. Islam a renowned religion and Spain a prominent country dominate the discussion. The rise and fall of the Islamic religion in Spain is of great significance to the history of Europe. Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union between 1989 and 1991, Europe was a force to reckon with considering it took control of the Americas about the same period. Besides, the history of Spain is important because of its close relationship with the world civilisation. Islam was the dominant religion around 1207, but Christianity and Judaism equally commanded crowds of believers. This threatened the survival of Islam in Spain that initially embraced Catholicism. The inception Tariq ibn Ziyad led the Moors into Spain in 711 AD. Their occupation in Spain was significant to the western civilisation because the Arabs provided an excellent ground for competition with the Islamic Spaniards. Moors came from North Africa and entered Andalus through the Gibraltar Strait. Moors threatened the existence of the Gothic leaders considered one of the most powerful armies in Europe under the leadership of Germany. The 7th century marked a major economic and socio-political transition for European. Al-Anadlus became the Moors’ territory and they carried out the operations of acquiring other kingdoms from Al-Andalus. When Moors reached Granada, a section of the Arabs became Muslims instead of converting the populations they found in the territories (Al-Andalus History of Islam in Spain). This empowered the Islamic Spain and there was a conflict of interest between the Arabic Moors and the Muslim Moors in Spain. The Moors came from Morocco in North Africa and they equally interacted with members of the Abbasid family who caused the Abbasid Revolution in 750 CE to North Africa. The Abbasid family and members of the Marwanid left Syria for North Africa originally ruled Syria under the Umayyad caliphate that was Muslim. As such, some members of the Moors army understood Muslim teachings because of the interaction process. The forgotten history According to the producer of the movie; Bettany Hughes, there is part of the Spanish history that many historians forgot. This incorporates the era in which the Moors ruled the land. Though many people discuss the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain, they forget that the Arabs were equally a force to reckon with between 711 AD and the 15th century. There is evidence that the Arabs introduced arithmetic calculations in Spain including Algebra. At Alhambra Palace in the Granada dynasty, first mathematical calculations occurred when the Arabs invaded the place. Mathematics became important for business and formal education, which was also a project of the Moors in Spain. In Granada, the Moors converted many Muslims and this was very important for the influence and support they needed in 712 AD (Bollacasa and Althea 40). It was difficult to notice the difference between the Arab Moors and the Muslim Moors because of similar cultures. Other areas of exploration included astrology, which enabled the Moors to predict the weather and seasons of the year. Moors also promoted art, science, and agriculture even though the Muslims took all the credit for the work. According to historians, the Moors contributed more on the civilisation as opposed to the Muslims who got all the praises for having a sustainable and long-term government. Science and civilisation In Spain, the Muslims introduced the lemon tree and the waterwheel, but the Moors introduced Avocados. Without much recognition, the Moors remained subtle in their scientific endeavours often working at conquering countries that were originally under the rule of the Muslims. Before the Moors’ invasion, the Spanish residents referred to the period as the Dark Ages. About the same time, the Muslims helped in technologically advancing Spain and the society began to see the Renaissance even though the Moors participated actively throughout the period. Instead of fair representation of the Muslim and Arabic Moors, only the Islamic Spain emerged as a strong promoter of the civilisation process (Ahlstrom 21). Besides mathematics and art, the Moors introduced science in Europe enabling people to become innovative especially in the field of astronomy. It became easy for Spaniards to predict the climatic conditions through astrology including prediction of the future. Ever since, the Spaniards used chemistry, physics, and geography including philosophy to interact with other people in Europe. A renowned historian, Davidson Basil was quick to note that Moorish philosophy represented the North African civilisation, and it was difficult for the Islamic Spain to accept that change would occur from the black continent. The Moors designed and established the Cordoba Mosque, which is still important to the people of Spain. The artistic work from the Moors rarely found representation until the beginning of the 18th century when many historians began discussions concerning the rise and fall of the Islamic Spain. Innovations that generated interest in Spain included the lemon tree and the waterwheel. The lemon tree became very important for medicinal purposes, and additional for meals. Lemon tree gave fame to Spain because the rest of Europe wanted to access the lemon tree. Initially considered a wild plant, it had limited functions in the society because other parts of Europe never identified its medicinal functions. The waterwheel helped in reducing workload because the Spanish created the machinery for the same purpose. The Umayyad dynasty equally commanded a hug army of Muslims in Syria, but the country’s development could not compare to Spain. Spain used international relations to promote the western civilisation. According to the rest of Europe, it was important to develop relations with countries such as Spain because the long-term relationship determined equal stability in other countries. By establishing long-term relations between Spain and other countries and Europe, the countries had the assurance of enjoying the innovative products from the Spanish empire. Islamic Spain also led through peaceful means that attracted other European states enabling them to develop mutually beneficial relationships with Spain. People identify the Moors with their art and ability to use the precious stones for beautifying edifices and ornaments. They included jasper and porphyry among other precious stones, which they also sold to the neighbouring Poland and Bosnia. Art only formed a section of the western civilisation that the Moors promoted. Agriculture was another source of recognition for the Moors because they also introduced the lemon tree, oranges, avocados, dates, cotton, and rice among many cash crops and fruits. The Moors did virtually everything to ensure that western civilisation survived even without the recognition of the group of people. Though situated in Al-Andalus and Cordoba the Moors introduced many things in Spain. The Muslims had influence because they commanded many territories in the country providing them with requisite support from the population in Spain. Formal education When the Moors first came to Spain, they had the responsibility of introducing formal education considering the population considered many illiterate, but creative individuals. Without the reading and writing capabilities, it was difficult to spread innovation to other parts of Europe. People referred to the era of the Moors as the period of the Renaissance after the Dark Ages. Formal education found acceptance in Spain at a very slow rate and the Moors already had 17 higher education institutions in various territories they acquired in Spain. This contributed to the spread of the reading and writing cultures in Spain. Some of the territories that benefited from the Universities included Cordoba and Granada. Through formal education, it was easy for the Spanish population to document their innovative stories. In educating the population, Arabic words found way into the Spanish language. After introducing the Al-Andalus, many people began relating to the Arabic language because some words had to begin with the prefix (Alexy 90). Formal education helped the society in sharing ideas and the civilisation spread throughout Europe. Philosophers such as Aristotle found a way of communicating their ideas in a common language that people across Europe could understand because they went through informal schools, but were capable of interpreting facts through people who studied in formal schools. The end The Moors’ end came in the 15th century around the same time as the Islamic Spain. The Arabic language started to gain prominence because the Moors spread their texts throughout the land. Before the end of their term in Spain, Christians, particularly the Catholics destroyed the materials making it impossible for the Arabs to control Spain. The Christian invasion caused the downfall of both the Moors and the Islamic Spain (Bollacasa and Althea 41). Catholics targeted the territories that experienced the influence of the Moors including Granada and burnt about 100, 000 religious texts. This completely interfered with the spread of the Moorish culture in the region. It took many years of sacrifice for various intellects to write the texts and destruction of the same discouraged them from continued production of Arabic literature. Christians wanted to dominate Spain as they did before and during the Dark Ages. Enlightenment was good for the people, but the Moors had not room to convert almost 79% of the population. This would result in the disappearance of the traditional Spanish culture, which Christians could not allow. Works cited Abadi, Saeed Akbar. An analytical and critical study of Islamic history: the rise and fall of Muslims from the pious caliphs to Abbasid Spain and Moghal dynasties. New Delhi: Adam Publishers, 2002. Print. Ahlstrom, Sydney E.. A religious history of the American people. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972. Print. Alexy, Trudi. The mezuzah in the Madonna’s foot: oral histories exploring five hundred years in the paradoxical relationship of Spain and the Jews. New York: Simon

Indiana University Purdue University Food Insecurity Among Elderly in US Essay

Indiana University Purdue University Food Insecurity Among Elderly in US Essay.

The submission should include the code, your documentation with instructions and detailed explanations on how to assemble and deploy your program along with the tests and a document that explains the semantics of your language, and what the limitations of your implementation are. In the .rar file you’ll find homework 1 answers, if needed I can also send the homework 1 description for more background. All of the files in the .rar file are made to be put into a Github repository. I’ve included the files for reference so you know what is specified in this assignment’s description.
Indiana University Purdue University Food Insecurity Among Elderly in US Essay

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