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Rousseaus Statement Of Being Forced To Be Free Philosophy Essay

Evaluation of Rousseau’s claim that being forced to obey the general will means “being forced to be free” Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28.6.1712, Geneva- 2.7.1778, Kingdom of France) is probably one of the most significant thinkers and philosophers, who have influenced people’s behavior and their minds. Not only his ideas and thoughts affected legal, political and social thinking during his life, but also were timeless and many statesmen or politicians got new inspirations from his work. Rousseau’s ideas result from his belief that every state power has its origin in people, which gave birth to many declarations of human rights and civil liberties, as well as to a great number of other documents. Moreover, Rousseau gave a great importance to nature and human’s feelings, and he held the view that “man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains” which means that humans are naturally good; it is the institutions of civilized society which make humans evil. On the other hand, Rousseau, as a huge supporter of a social contract theory, which is considered by him as the source of state’s legitimacy, criticizes social inequality, despotism, and feudal relations. Rousseau, as being an important social contract theorist, believes that people are the ones who are makers of law as well as the subjects of law, and therefore the people’s sovereignty is guaranteed by the society’s contract which is created. In his work, Of The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (1762), he elaborates the concept of general will. I would like to focus in my essay on the problems of general will, especially on Rousseau’s statement that people could be forced to obey general will in order to be free and whether this idea is still democratic, or not. First of all, it is important to realize that Rousseau’s thoughts rises from his view that people in the state of nature (men in their natural conditions) were not corrupted, but moral, innocent, and will with natural freedom were their only assets. Through science, technology, social institutions and especially private ownership people became morally corrupted, damaged, and selfish. Nevertheless, Rousseau does not assume that this society should be abolished completely. Rather he sees cure to his Discourse on Inequality (illegitimate contract) in the Social Contract (legitimate contract) because he fully understands that return to the state of nature is simply not possible. By legitimate contract Rousseau means that the legitimacy is not possible if the sovereignty is not kept by the people and “the sovereign must therefore be identical with the citizens themselves.” Furthermore, Rousseau emphasizes mainly equality as the most important key for the social contract and he claims that society cannot by limited only in the way of social contract or agreement because this would create a very formal society. Therefore, he comes with the concept of so called general will, where “each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole” and simultaneously, the main purpose of why establishing the general will is so important for the society is that in the general will “there is an objective common good, distinct from the particular interests or wishes of the individuals composing society” which means that common interests of people in the society are superior to individual interests because only through this action the whole society can benefit. Also, in order of having social contract theory working, people must give up their natural liberties, but they will gain moral or civil rights instead. The general will is one of the main ideas which Rousseau made in his social contract; on the other hand it also brings certain issues to the surface. Generally, the participation of active citizens in creating laws which is in the general will necessary, is seen as a very democratic way and this is the reason why Rousseau is considered by many as a father of theory of a direct democracy. Of course, by creating the laws, citizens are obliged to obey these laws because “to be general, the will must both come from all and apply to all” and “by this act is created a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the society has voices, receiving from this same act its unity, its common “I”, its life and its will. This body is the republic, called by its members the state when passive, the sovereign when active. The partners are collectively called the people; they are citizens, as participants in the sovereign authority, and subjects, as under obligations to the laws of the state.” What Rousseau claims is that citizens could only be free in this state, not outside the state because the state’s will is equal to the will of its citizens. Therefore, this eventuates in the equality of all the citizens and no one could ever have more benefits from the social contract than the others because this contract involves everyone equally by exactly the same measure. According to Rousseau, the general will is always right and there is no need to have the general will unanimous in order to preserve its generality. On the other side, it is essentially to count all the votes because every formal elimination of votes breaks the rule of generality. As a democratic thinker, Rousseau creates a paradox to his democratic beliefs by saying that “whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole of society, which means nothing more or less than that he will be forced to be free.” The Rousseau’s paradox rests in his view that people could be forced to obey the general will at all the time which is often seen by many as a totalitarian belief, not a democratic one. However, this enforcement of people to unconditionally obey the general will is actually not enforcement in its usual meaning because the only purpose of the general will is a common good of all and therefore, a person who refuses to obey the general will simply does not know his own good and from this reason he could be forced to obey. This is why Rousseau is still mainly democratic because people could be forced only to actions they agreed on in the general will as a whole and moreover, he “does not talk about being forced to commit free acts but of being forced in respect of acts which jeopardize (the state or condition of) freedom” which is not considered as controversial at all. As a most common example of free act which very easily ends in an unfree condition is addiction (to drugs, alcohol, and others). Unfortunately, the greatest problem of the general will arises when people realize that they do not actually know what is good for them in the reality. As the concept of the general will is built on the idea of common good, there is no one who will decide what is actually good and right. We know what people want but we do not have any certainty that this, what they want, is really good for them. As we look for example on democratic parliamentary elections, there is a winning party with the majority of votes but we are not sure that this party is really the best choice for us. As the winning party is chosen by the general will of citizens, the party’s will is the will of its citizens. As a result, forcing citizens to be free often means to force them to blindly obey the one winning party which actually makes obedience our only right. This could regrettably lead to totalitarian consequences. Nevertheless, it is very important to mention a fact, that Rousseau actually does not define what the general will is. Even though he defines what expels the general will, and what is its function, Rousseau considers the term of the general will rather abstract. This leads to opinion, that he dedicated his social contract theory to smaller homogenous states and especially to Geneva where he was born because it is not possible to apply his principle of direct democracy in much bigger states where modern processes are more complicated. Moreover, it is not very clear what the conditions of problem’s generality are, in order to become a subject of the general will. In conclusion, Jean Jacques Rousseau undoubtedly belongs to philosophical icons of Enlightenment Era and Rationalism and not just because his thoughts were by many boisterously welcomed but also because they were by many perseveringly rejected. In each case, it is important to go back to his ideas because Rousseau, although he was a self-taught person, created a theory which is discussed all over the world even nowadays. Even though we could find in his theory many paradoxes and problems, definitely there are also very interesting and enriching thoughts for today’s modern society. And despite the probably strongest Rousseau’s claim that “if the general will vanishes completely, the society ceases to exist”, it was Rousseau’s idea of people’s sovereignty which changed the understanding in some parts of democratic institutions.

Bethel University New Technologies in Monitoring Repeat Offenders Paper

Bethel University New Technologies in Monitoring Repeat Offenders Paper.

For this unit’s Complete assignment, write a comprehensive scholarly essay (minimum 1500 words) in which you analyze, explain, and apply these concepts in the context of this week’s content. You must incorporate and cite, using correct (7th edition required) APA citation format, at least 4 different scholarly research sources. Be sure your essay demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the READ and ATTEND sections from this unit. In-line citations must be used in the body of your essay, and all research sources must be fully cited at the conclusion of your essay. Correct APA citation formats must be used.Using new technologies to monitor and locate post-conviction offenders and completing the Read section write a comprehensive essay which includes the following elements:Identify and discuss three of the initially proposed queries in this week’s lecture. Are they of value for the technological advancements in terms of the monitoring of offenders, and the reduction of recidivism? Why or why not?Define the term Activity Space. Describe your activity space as an example. How might this concept inform monitoring and locating post-conviction offenders?Define the term Awareness Space. Describe your local town, or city neighborhood, as you see it, in terms of the awareness space construct. How might this concept inform monitoring and locating post-conviction offenders?Discuss why those engaged in higher education in criminal justice should be aware of, and well-versed in, the apparent “blind spots” in past and present research and policy initiatives?
Bethel University New Technologies in Monitoring Repeat Offenders Paper

For this paper you will stage a critical conversation between a film and two of the readings on cinema,

assignment writer For this paper you will stage a critical conversation between a film and two of the readings on cinema, politics, and aesthetics that we have engaged this semester. Your paper should be organized around a clearly stated and well-supported thesis. This paper should be 6-7 pages in length (12-point font, double spaced). Proper documentation is essential. Whether quoting directly from a theorist or simply referencing their ideas, be sure to cite your source. Papers without either a works cited list or complete footnotes/endnotes will be penalized 5 points. No outside research is necessary for this paper: it is an exercise in close reading. Choose one of the following topics: Analyze Dolly Back (Juan Carlos Tabio, Cuba, 1986) through the perspective of Julio García Espinosa’s “Imperfect Cinema” and Antoine de Baecque’s “cinematographic forms of history.” How does the film’s content and form engage with key aspects of Espinosa’s concept of imperfection? In making your argument, it will be important to clarify the main points of what imperfect cinema is and what it aims to counter. In what ways might the film’s mise-en-scène be understood as engaging in a cinematographic form of history? In all aspects of your paper, support your argument with concrete analysis of the film and careful explication of the key theoretical/historiographical concepts. Analyze Now! (Santiago Álvarez, Cuba, 1965) or La Battaglia di Algeri / The Battle of Algiers (Gillo Pontecorvo, Italy and Algeria, 1966) through a consideration of Frantz Fanon’s conception of violence in The Wretched of the Earth as applied to cinema and Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino’s conception of Third Cinema. In accomplishing this, be sure to integrate a close-analysis of key aspects of the film with a careful explication of the salient ideas you draw upon from the theoretical materials. Analyze La Noire de / Black Girl (Ousmane Sembène, Senegal and France, 1966) or Le Retour d’un aventurier / The Adventurer is Back / Hands Up! (Moustapha Alassane, Niger, 1966) through any two of the following texts: Med Hondo’s “What is Cinema for Us?,” Frantz Fanon’s “This is the Voice of Algeria,” and Jacques Rançière’s notion of distribution/partition of the sensible in “The Politics of Literature.” In accomplishing this, be sure to integrate a close-analysis of select sequences from the film with a careful explication of the key ideas you draw upon from the theoretical materials and their application to cinema studies.

The Nursing Theories: An In-depth Look

The Nursing Theories: An In-depth Look.

Assignment:Putting It All TogetherCreate a PowerPoint presentation that addresses each of the following points/questions. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. Use clear headings that allow your professor to know which bullet you are addressing on the slides in your presentation. Support your content with at least two (2) sources and the textbook using APA citations throughout your presentation. Make sure to cite the sources using the APA writing style for the presentation. Include a slide for your references at the end. Follow best practices for PowerPoint presentations related to text size, color, images, effects, wordiness, and multimedia enhancements. Review the Signature Assignment rubric criteria for this assignment.This week, you will develop a PowerPoint presentation reviewing the theories from each module. Please select one theory from each module (1-8) and answer the following questions. You should have 2-4 slides per theory with a total of 8 theories discussed. Describe the theoryProvide 3 examples of how the theory applies to current practiceProvide 3 positive patient outcomes resulting from utilizing the theoryExplain 3 benefits to nursing satisfaction when utilizing the theoryDescribe two barriers to using the theory in practice and at least one method for overcoming each barrier (support methods with sources)Support from literature clearly noted throughoutThe PowerPoint presentation should include at least two outside references and the textbook. The presentation should contain 2 to 4 slides per theory, for a total of 16 to 32 slides.Total Point Value of Assignment: 500 pointsAssignment Expectations:Length: 2 to 4 slides per theory, for a total of 16-32 slidesStructure: Include a title slide, objective slide, content slides, reference slide in APA format. Title/Objective/Reference slides do not count towards the minimum slide count for this assignment.References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of two (2) outside scholarly sources and the textbook are required for this assignment.Rubric: This assignment uses a rubric for scoring. Please review it as part of your assignment preparation and again prior to submission to ensure you have addressed its criteria at the highest level. You cannot pass this class without passing this assignment.Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft PPT document (.pptx) or a PDF document (.pdf)File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)
The Nursing Theories: An In-depth Look

Florida International University Wk 7 Substance Use Counseling Discussion

Florida International University Wk 7 Substance Use Counseling Discussion.

Bock Chapter 5 and 6please write at least 250 words about one of the following topics:1. Discuss some of the factors that complicate the process of the assessment and diagnosis of substance abuse.Which treatment setting is the most effective? 2. Describe why you think this setting is more effective than the others and which specific attributes yield more success. 3. Explain Laban’s nine elements necessary for an effective chemical dependency treatment plan.Respond to Gemma and Yicel writing at least 70 words each respond Gemma Chemical dependency is defined as abused and uncontrolled use of drugs or alcohol. This excessive use can affect a person’s mental health status and physical health. At the same time, the family and friend’s emotional health and physical safety are at risk. Laban identified nine elements necessary for an effective chemical dependency treatment plan. The first element is known as the type of plan; which has three parts. The first part is initial which is done in 24 hours. Master is the second stage, where different treatments are addressing the problem. The last part is an update which is a revision of the master part. The second element is the problem list. The problem uses assessment data and the client’s perceptions of the problem. Tangible evidence and data are used in the third aspect, which is known as Indicators. The fourth aspect is referred to as Long term goals. Meanwhile, Short term goals are located in the fifth aspect. Goals are defined as the action or events that need to occur in order to resolve the problems. Meanwhile, objectives are known as the specific behaviors that will help to achieve the goals. Objectives form the sixth element. Objectives are realistic and measurable. Also, objectives contain some behavioral statements of the desire state or condition. The seventh aspect is known as methods of interventions. These methods include specific behavioral interventions and tasks assigned to the client to fulfill their objectives. Short term goals and long term goals are part of the methods as well. The frequency of the services provided is the eight aspects. The last aspect includes the ongoing evaluation and requires signatures. These specific aspects show the client’s involvement and commitment.Yicel Abuse of substances is that when you’re taking medications that are not legal. It’s also when too much or in the wrong way you use alcohol, prescription drugs, and other science courses. Abuse of drugs is separate from addiction. Many people with drug addiction issues are willing to leave, or their harmful actions will alter. (Rajiv, 2013)FactorsThe evaluation of drug abuse involves advanced skills and takes a significant amount of time between 90 minutes and 2 hours. Consequently, several primary care doctors may refer patients accused of having a drug abuse problem to both patient management specialists (Rajiv, 2013). Physicians in underserved fields or with drug abuse expertise may assume partial or complete accountability for this role.To conduct reliable evaluations, professional status is less critical than additional skills. The Consensus Panel suggests appropriate, referring patients for comprehensive treatment to an experienced substance addiction specialist. The Panel agrees that doctors, family physicians, and advanced practice nurses are essential if reimbursement is not feasible. (Rajiv, 2013)Although it is helpful to consider “classic” trends in predicting trouble areas, seasoned evaluators avoid and complicate the tendency to classify individuals and reconstitute them into influential groups based on ethnicity, race, age, education, and attractiveness. An often-repeated anecdote highlighting the risks of generalizations is about a possibly the best-dressed, middle-aged woman and her chaotic younger brother seen after a car crash in an emergency room.TREATMENT SETTINGMethadone MedicationThe medication of choice for opiate abuse is Methadone maintenance and therapy. (Michelle, 2019) Treatment should be given in tightly supervised programs or clinics called ‘methadone clinics’ until recently when methadone was the first therapeutic intervention approved for opiate abuse.EffectThe effectiveness of methadone treatment is demonstrated in a significant study by McLellan and co-workers (1993) by disclosing the vital role of counseling and drug rehabilitation services provided along with pharmacotherapy. The course randomly selected care groups, solving a few of the problems facing previous studies that used naturalism conditions and patient-assignments. (Michelle, 2019)
Florida International University Wk 7 Substance Use Counseling Discussion

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