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Role of Architecture and Design in Modern Society

Role of Architecture and Design in Modern Society. Persuasive Research Paper Architecture and design play an integral role in modern society. It is something that society experiences on a daily basis, however, just because we live with it, doesn’t mean that it nourishes our lives and the communities who use it. There are many marginalized populations who do not get the benefit of a rewarding piece of architecture; one such marginalized group that I will be focusing on are Indigenous communities within Canada. Despite the overwhelming lack of social justice for these populations, architects, some of whom are Indigenous architects, are working on a solution to get justice for an underserved group that has a history as having one of the lowest-impact ways of living. Through the case studies in this paper, I will be looking at how architecture and design in the built landscape can bring equality to areas such as, the housing crisis, renewing cultural growth and lack of sufficient educational facilities to marginalized Indigenous communities. To write about social justice and how it can help marginalized communities that it seeks to serve, we must look at what exactly the motivation behind the movement is. Social justice “focuses our attention on the relative position of different members of our society and on examining the disparities that might exist, the root causes of these disparities, and the opportunities for eliminating them” (Province of Manitoba, 2017). It is linked to the concept of equity – the treatment of individuals in their own social context to meet their needs, and also linked to equality – that society is socially just and made for everyone. Essentially, social justice makes us question if ‘society is just’. The British Columbia Ministry of Education defines social justice as “the full participation and inclusion of all people in society, together with the promotion and protection of their legal, civil and human rights” (Province of Manitoba, 2017). Centering on Indigenous populations in Canada, the act of social justice with these groups has had a tumultuous relationship with the government. “Although Canada has embraced multiculturalism as a national identity, Aboriginal Peoples have remained largely outside of the multiculturalism discourse and inclusion policies” (Moore, Maxwell, Anderson, 2019). The following case study is an evident indication of how social justice has been attained through the built environment. As many Canadians are aware, residential schools which were enacted through the Indian Act of 1876, mandated that Indigenous children attend schools which were carried out by churches that had little objective of educating Aboriginal children but more so of indoctrinating them into the Christian and Euro-centric way of living in mainstream Canadian society. This school system saw their belongings and siblings taken away and it was here that they were forced to speak English. These buildings were generally “badly constructed, poorly maintained, overcrowded, unsanitary fire traps” (Moore, Maxwell, Anderson, 2019). Though it took until 1996 for the last residential school to close; the case study we will be examining was built between 1988-1991 in the community of Aggasiz, British Columbia. Commissioned by the Seabird Island Band, the Seabird Community School was designed by the architecture firm Patkau who were, and still are, based out of Vancouver. The intent of the school was to provide equal learning opportunities for children and young adults while upholding the aboriginal culture of the Salish people and incorporating a school curriculum informed by the community as well as provincial guidelines. Patkau’s research carefully examined the potential site and nearby community to inform their final design of the shell. By observing weather conditions, as well as the landscape, a design mimicking the nearby vista was formed. Not only did the school serve its purpose as an educational facility that would facilitate Indigenous culture, but it responded to the environment which adheres to a key Indigenous design principle. By orienting the roof into steep peaks, the extreme wind from the mountains and rivers is diverted away from the site; the exterior is also a testament to the community it was commissioned for as it resembles a sculptural element reminiscent of Coast Salish art. Taking culturally significant elements from Indigenous culture and incorporating them through the built environment helped start the path to reconciliation by acknowledging that Aboriginal heritage has a place in the Canadian education system. As of 2016, the province of British Columbia made changes to the school curriculum that includes lessons on the history and culture of Indigenous populations. B.C.’s Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation Minister John Rustad said, “the classes will give students a more complete understanding of the province’s history with its Aboriginal Peoples and strengthen reconciliation efforts” (Meissner, 2018). The materials used in the design also adhered to the standards of Indigenous design by sourcing local wood throughout the entire project helping the site have a sense of place and emphasizing its vernacular qualities. Now 20 years later, the community still appreciates what the school has done for them; in 2014 when the school needed a new roof and were considering replacement options, the architect they were conferring with was “firm in his belief that the cedar aesthetics be maintained as part of the design. The cultural significance of cedar to [the] community led Seabird to agree with the architect and commit to replacing the shingles with new cedar ones” (Seabird Island Band, 2017). Stacy McNeil, who is the councillor for education in Aggasiz says, “the school has been a huge part of our community for a long time and we’re proud of it. I’m glad that we’re able to take care of it” (Seabird Island Band, 2017). It is clear that architecture built with purpose can provide a mutually beneficial relationship with its users, that will last decades to come. In 1951, Albert Einstein once said, “look deep, deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better” (A.S.LRole of Architecture and Design in Modern Society
Programming Essentials question 11.

Question 11

____ variable is initialized before entering the loop.


loop ending


ending control


interrupt control


loop control

Programming Essentials question 11

Accounting for Global Businesses.

Access the financial statements from the most recent annual report of a foreign company and a USA domestic company with which you are familiar to complete this assignment. Determine the accounting principles (GAAP) the foreign and domestic companies use to prepare financial statements.Determine whether the foreign or domestic companies provide a set of financial statements that include the same components.List 5 format differences in the companies’ income statements.List 5 format differences in the company’s balance sheets.Note any terminology differences that exist between the two companies’ income statements and balance sheets.Assess whether the scope and content of the information provided in the notes to the financial statements is similar to the two companies.Compare the overall presentation of the financial statements and notes to the financial statements between the two companies. Summarize your findings in a 3-5 page paper. Be sure to properly cite your resources using APA format.
Accounting for Global Businesses

Using Metagenomics to Monitor Microbial Communities

Using Metagenomics to Monitor Microbial Communities. Executive summary: The Advanced Microbial Solutions Company is exploring a new approach to isolate novel organisms or gene from the environment for commercial exploitation. This approach is enabled by metagenomics, a high throughput capacity that can deal with the DNA extraction, sequencing and interpretation of microbial communities. The RUsing Metagenomics to Monitor Microbial Communities

Discuss whether or not (or perhaps to what extent) reciprocity has a place in the capitalist workforce

research paper help Discuss whether or not (or perhaps to what extent) reciprocity has a place in the capitalist workforce.

ASSIGNMENT QUESTION: In “Human Resources from an Organization Behavior Perspective” Jeffrey Pfeffer, in reference to the interactions between employers and employees, states that “the norm of reciprocity is one of the most fundamental rules governing human behavior, having been found in every human culture studied and even among baboons” (122). He further states that a lack of reciprocity between employers and their employees is detrimental not only to the employee but also to the organization’s overall bottom line. Without some form of this mutual commitment in the workplace between employer and employee, Pfeffer states that there are many unfair outcomes—particularly for non-managerial employees. In addition, Pfeffer states that activating the “norm of reciprocity” requires investment in training the worker. For this essay, discuss whether or not (or perhaps to what extent) reciprocity has a place in the capitalist workforce. In order to fairly and completely answer this question, consider what is generally thought of as the “core of American values” and the “core of capitalistic values” as well as what interests both employers and employees have. ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS: Throughout your paper, you:MUST use the following sources: FIND THEM ATTACHED BELOW You have access to all the readings used thus far this semester in order to answer this prompt the best way you can. You MUST use the Pfeffer reading and at least ONE other reading, but you can use more than that, if you’d like. CANNOT perform any additional outside research (meaning no additional sources beyond the sources provided in this course should be cited in your paper).Your final paper must be a minimum of four (4) full pages double spaced, but no more than six (6)You must use Chicago citations throughout the paper and include a properly formatted Bibliography Page (which is NOT part of your final page count)
Discuss whether or not (or perhaps to what extent) reciprocity has a place in the capitalist workforce

Experiential Learning Theory: Gaining New Knowledge

Knowledge is the most valuable asset u can achieve in a life, once achieved it can never be destroyed and it’s never late to learn and learning is a life long process. There is a very meaningful Indian proverb which says “Experience is the best teacher” and yes it is true and Kolb’s experiential learning theory support this proverb. David Kolb was born in 1939, finished his studies from Harvard in 1967, later David Kolb and his associate Roger Fry introduced the Experiential learning theory which is still used as important reference literature whenever and where topic learning style comes to discussion. Besides his work on experiential learning theory he also have made tremendous contribution in understanding organizational behavior also showed his keen interest social change and individual nature. As per David Kolb vision “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it.”(Donald Clark, 2008) {} David Kolb stated that experiential learning mainly consist of six characteristic and they are as follows, Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. Learning is a continuous process grounded in experience. Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world. Learning involves transactions between the person and the environment Learning is the process of creating knowledge that is the result of the transaction between social knowledge and personal knowledge. (Donald Clark, 2008) To brief about Kolb’s experiential learning it mainly consist of four stage learning cycle, which distinguish his method from rest of the learning style and this gives a two view of Individual learning styles which after sometime he called it as “Learning Styles Inventory” (LSI). David Kolb’s learning model forms a quadrant which is supported by two continuums, that is, processing continuum and perception continuum. These are classified on the bases how people prefer to learn for example, when a person attitude towards a task is such that he is preferring to learn by doing or watching it is called as processing continuum and where as his emotional responses is such that he is preferring to learn by thinking or feeling it is called perception continuum. Learning Cycle David Kolb named his model as ‘Experiential Learning’ because he always believed that experience is the core reason which leads to all training and learning. Each end of the matrix formed by perception continuum and processing continuum leads to step of learning process. Steps in learning process are ‘Concrete Experience’ which is related to the ‘feeling’ in perception continuum, ‘Reflective Observation’ which is related to the ‘Watching’ in processing continuum, ‘Abstract Conceptualisation’ which is related to the ‘Thinking’ in perception continuum and last one is ‘Active Experimentation’ which is related to the ‘doing’ in processing continuum. Elaborating on Concrete Experience (feeling) this type of learners learn from some unambiguous or definite experiences and they relate these incidents to the people and moreover this type of learners will be very sensitive to other people’s emotions and feelings. Moving on to Reflective observation (Watching) this kind of learners prefer to take decisions after looking into a matter from different angles and they observe or watch the situation carefully before taking any decisions they tent to look into the inner meaning of things. Next is Abstract Conceptualisation (Thinking) this kind of people or learners try to break down given ideas or situation using logical reasoning and evaluate them and will be very rational and they will only act on intellectual perceptive of a situation. Now the last and final of the cycle is Active Experimentation (Doing) this group of learners have great capability or skill to get thinks done by others by influencing people and they will also be ready to take risk to achieve what they need and will be dynamic. Kolb’s and fry has argued that a person can enter the cycle at any four points but most of the time it is decided by situation or environment from where to start. Kolb’s says that a learner can be the best in a task if he practices all the four above mentioned modes. Following instance will help for better understanding of the topic, consider a boy learning to ride a bicycle in this case Concrete Experience (feeling) will be asking for tips and guidance on how to ride the bicycle from a biking expert, Reflective observation (Watching) will be observing a person who is riding a bicycle and thinking over it, Abstract Conceptualisation (Thinking) reading the books related to biking and getting a clear picture of the theory and concept of biking, and the last Active Experimentation (Doing) this is to jump on bike and start riding and learning. Kolb’s believed that to be effective in learning there should be proper balance between all these four modes mentioned above and he also believed that opposite activities encourage the best to learn. Later he also found that Abstract Conceptualisation and Concrete Experience have effects on the right hemisphere of the brain and where as Active Experimentation and Reflective observation effects on the left hemisphere of the brain. Learning Styles Kolb’s have generally developed four main styles of learning these are created out of combination of perception continuum and processing continuum which details about how people desire to learn. He does not think that learning styles are based on personality traits or they are constant but instead he believes that it is based on backgrounds and experience which cause them to develop some stable patterns of behavior. The four main learning styles are, Diverging (Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation):- These people are highly imaginative and creative; they insist on innovation and strive for continuous improvement in their respected field. They are more satisfied with observation, and has ability to look into a matter from different direction, than doing actions and they also have a broad cultural aspect these people are feelings oriented and get effected by feelings very easily. Assimilating (Abstract Conceptualisation, Reflective Observation) :- They can think over many observation and thoughts and has the ability to combine everything together and then they put these data’s into logical reasoning’s .This type of learners are the one who is making theories , models and interested in making experiments. They are not peopling oriented but more connected with abstract concepts. Converging (Abstract Conceptualisation, Active Experimentation):-This group prefers in solving problems using practical application, they are not imaginative or innovative and has narrow interests but very good in decision making because they are unemotional though they prefer technical problems over interpersonal issues. Accommodating (concrete experience, Active Experimentation):- These peoples greatest strength is in doing the work, they are ready to experiment any work given they jump in and just start doing. They highly enjoy risk taking and are very flexible. If the situation demands them to act immediately they do accordingly and full fill the objectives. They dislike thought and reflections rather prefer trial and error. The Kolb’s experiential learning model is a fantastic concept but as every coin has an opposite side this also has some negative side. Firstly Kolb’s learning model helped in organizing, planning and learning activities but it failed to address the when a person had to reflect his or her personal experience and it also could not reveal elements of reflection. Then some critics argue that, which is the second point, the four styles in Kolb’s Experiential learning styles that is Converger, Diverger, Assimilator and Accommodator are so much overstated and the four modes which are related to the Learning styles that is Concrete experience, Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualization, Active experimentation are not really connecting with the learning styles and it cannot be implied all real life situation and there is other people who come with alternatives like assimilation , memorization. Thirdly the problem is raised by Claire Forrest “The idea of a nice set of neat learning stages does not equate to most people’s reality. The problem is that a number of processes can occur at once and stages can be jumped or missed out completely.” (Claire Forrest, 2004) and even those stages can be jumbled up together and create and complete mess and leave the learner completely lost. Fourth issue is raised by the critic John Heron he says that the experiential learning is completely narrow and not properly developed and he also believes that the philosophical justification which support the theory is also invalid (John Heron, 1992). These are some of the weakness of the experiential learning model by David Kolb even if all these weakness are there still the model provides as a amazing structure for planning ,teaching and learning activities. Furthermore we will discuss how will apply David Kolbe’s experiential learning in the tutorial session. Now we will look into how to give training to a group of people who are not aware of healthy living and doesn’t realize the importance of physical activity in real life. For example assume that the group of people is undergraduate student of some university, to give them training first bring or hire a person from a health center and will ask that person to demonstrate how he works out and how his life is better from other people who is not much conscious about their health which will be a Reflective Observation for example brining the some equipments from the health club and showing how to use them and how does it work on their body. Here we can even show the pictures of people took before joining health club and after joining the health club and also share the experience of people who work out. Secondly we can provide handouts or give the name of book which they can refer to have a better understanding about the importance to follow a healthy diet and to make them realize the consequences of not doing so which will be abstract conceptualization. Thirdly the spending time with expert person from the health club, allocation time for students to ask question and clear their doubts and expert himself answering them and giving tips and guidance about the whole procedure will concrete experience. Moving on to final point giving the students a chance to feel and work with the equipments and asking them to join any health club near by or calling them out for some small coaching class will give them real experience and they will be able to feel the difference by their own this will be Active experimentation. Here we discussed about health club it is not only related to the physical body it is also concerned with physiological well being and these health clubs will help to relax the body and soul and to stay away students from stress. To conclude David Kolb’s Experiential learning Cycle we can clearly say that it is a complete guidance to each and every person or individual who are employed or unemployed this guide will be useful in one point time and each and every individual will go through these stages and it also have proved that it has made so many peoples life easy. Theoretically it has many functions like giving structure for planning teaching and learning activates which can be utilized by people who have trouble in learning, whatsoever the reason may be we can say strongly without a doubt, even after considering the flaws, that Kolb’s experiential learning cycle is a great asset for future proposed by David Kolb.

NYU Account of the Mongols & History of the Life & Travels of Rabban Sawma Questions

NYU Account of the Mongols & History of the Life & Travels of Rabban Sawma Questions.

resouces:‘William of Rubruc’s Account of the Mongols’‘The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma’’The Han Koong Tsu, or Autumn of the Palace of Han’question 1: Who is William of Rubruck? Why did he visit Mongol Khans’ courts (such as Batu and Mangu Chan)? What do we learn about Mongols from his account? When you answer these questions please provide some evidence from the text.question 2: Who is Rabban Sawma? What was the purpose of the travel of Rabban Sawma? (There might be more than one purpose) What were the results of his travel? Please provide evidence from the :250 words
NYU Account of the Mongols & History of the Life & Travels of Rabban Sawma Questions

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