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Role And Importance Of Corporate Governance

Corporate governance is a never ending process and is a way to achieve an organization’s objectives and strategies. It helps managing the conflicts of interest between shareholders and management and holds consequential national importance. Furthermore, it is the good corporate governance that makes sure that the business environment is fair and transparent and the companies can be held liable for all their actions. In contrast, bad corporate governance results in mismanagement and corruption. It is essential to keep in mind that although corporate governance has developed as a way to administer modern joint stock corporations but it is fairly significant in state-owned enterprises, cooperatives, and family businesses. Disregarding the kind of enterprise, it is only good governance that can deliver sustainable good business performance (Berghe
Noteworthy factors affecting demand categories are the economy with matters ranging from the exchange rate to job losses.Politics,the growth in size of the EU,environment and taxation.Crisis and threats including earth quakes,epidemics and terrorism.Demographic change with a shifting age structure,effects of migration and the rise of educational levels.Technology and it effects on transportation,communication and information.There is the change in consumer attitudes and for the industry itself,product standardization,the growth of information channels,and pricing strategies. The realisation of effecting a holiday is dependent in large part on the individual’s economic position and freedom to make the journey.External factors proving influential to this need would be freedom,fitness,time and money.The behaviour trend comprises of a host of factors including an internal state of mind relating to the motive and inherent abilities.Emerging factors may be useful to examine as they will become somewhat predictable and constant to their evolution.Power for market concerns lies with the consumer.The prospective tourist. The enlargement of the EU is especially important.Its size has grown some 25%,its population by some 20% and the GDP by 5%.The general process of political maturation spanning over twenty years has influenced changing tourism demand.Media coverage influences a seed bed of latent interest in the recently inaugurated members of the community.Most prospective travellers are now able to see the world as their oyster.The holiday destinations therefore have become intensely competitive.Yet barriers to immediate progress remain especially for the countries of Eastern Europe.Here low investment rates,undeveloped infrastructure for the countryside,a poor transport system with third rate hotels and cuisine capped by weak tourism marketing. Image is a vital ingredient to the tourist destination.Their is prevailing ignorance of the ‘newly acquired’ countries.Destinations are chosen usually by motive matching.Here the enlargement of the EU has remarkably little affect on the consumer.So it is that only a transformation in marketing strategy management is going to improve matters.There will be significant change for the EU in source markets and the upswing of a rising welfare.The impulses undoubtedly come from the South and East with the traditional source markets such as Germany being saturated. Demographic considerations have made their appearance and are now featuring as a focus to online debates and deliberations.Society consists of an older population with increasing life expectancy;and there is a decline in the number of children because of an increased proportion of the population divorcing and living separately.Traditional family patterns are dissolving.Also becoming influential is a rise in educational levels,the changing role of women in society and a more vibrant society due to admixture from migratory patterns.Yet tourists,people,are not going to alter their travel behaviour as they turn 60 or because of retirement.Patterns are adhered to originating from earlier years.Because of this it is possible to cater for future requirements in tourism for such a population.The generation of ‘baby boomers’is likely to be pro-active in their endeavour to engorge themselves on their prospective travel horizons.There will be senior trips accommodating to individual tailoring.Take Germany as an example.The age group of 70-80 will rise more than 50% by 2018.Alterations of family numbers will become slow in maturation but this allows the industry to maintain orientation and supply a strong focus for needs and expectations of destination.Older people are becoming increasingly involved with their younger forebears and this will require adjustment.Factors to consider here are higher spending,longer stays,and other destination choices.The kids trip being a standard incurs its own behaviour pattern.More flight trips and usage of more tour operators.Playmates will be needed so this is another feature that the destination will have to meet.It is clear therefore that the changing nature of demography has impacts that will reflect in tourism demand. The very important pre-trip phase involving the search for ones information and deciding upon the tourism product has as an emerging factor the skilled consumer with low involvement.This situation has produced interchangeable products.Distinctions of destination and tour operator is not a contentious issue with information overload these days.What happens to us all is an agreeable solution.Just a number of aspects for the required products from a few information sources.Arguing is not necessary and therefore ones position is that of ‘low involvement’.And so the actual position is that of convenience together with experience helping ones orientation;variety being a feature which of course is the spice of life that all of us seek.It is the experiences and ones emotional bank that has now become part of the product on offer promised by the producer. Price orientation has become a dominant feature.This has been induced by strategy within the industry.The selling of quality trips for remarkably low prices in the hope of higher market shares is likely to result in a high turnover with probably a lower profit.But convenience and product quality rank with the consumer and so the phenomenon of induced price orientation continues to spiral.Yet it is the consumer who is more flexible than the industry itself.If one destination doesn’t turn out as expected I can go to another.I don’t honestly have too much fancy for flying so I take the train or road network.There is contingency with the availability of an alternative even if more inconvenient;I can still get there.Consuming,imbibing is fun not a necessity.There is no sense of lack because everything now is available on the market.But this means it becomes impractical to predict individual behaviour,yet it is becoming an importance to have at ones disposal as far as the industry is concerned the most accurate figures possible.Such market conditions,with decidedly knowledgeable consumers and vast resources in the field are presenting a serious challenge to the marketing departments.The problem has become even more intense and difficult.Globalization and a computer based technology tend to incline to standardization but tourism demand and products are becoming more differentiated and fragmentized.There are winter sports,field trips and holidays for the family.Expectations involve both quality and difference.With such standardization and differentiation this imposes more pressure without in effect guaranteeing an increased demand or turn-over. Without the consumer the service industries along with tourism go nowhere.This fact relates not only tourism but for any policies to do with tourism.Destinations have to become switched on,alerted, to realise they have become truly involved with intense competition.It is not sufficient simply to have a reliable product or for the consumer to realise this.There has to be the correct placement with the correct set and shrewd judgement is required in being so.Here travel operators and agencies can assist in the phenomenon of the information overload providing well-timed guidance and convenience within the information jungle.Yet the politics involved has to pinpoint inconsistency and contradictions within the set of proposed objectives and establish solutions and priorities.Financial support should be discriminative here not everybody necessarily being acceptable as to the validity of following such objectives.Social balance of resources may be variable and indeed there could be a widening gap developing but tourism does require a broad base of comfortable incomed people with time and money.Any vision is going to be different consisting of pan-european,national,regional and local.All the different levels of destination or industry segmentation being linked somehow. There are two categories of circumstances requiring priority of action.Either supply exceeds demand or the opposite of demand exceeding supply.Strategies adopted are tailored to meet circumstances arising either on a daily,weekly,seasonal or a long term basis.With demand being low either at below capacity or only at certain periods there is a variety of strategy engaged.Product modification and diversification.Adjustment of distribution channels if needs be to strengthen.The identification of alternative or even new sources of demand.Price discounting.Reappraisal of promotional strategy.An example of the application of all these would be the Caribbean destinations responding to low levels of occupancy during a summer period.VFR is promoted to domiciles as the holidays usually fall within the summer period.While casinos as attractions are being promoted on some of the islands within the group. Another condition is the necessity to reduce costs because it is not possible to increase the desired demand factor.To reduce fixed and variable costs in the hotel sector for example it may be necessary not only to reduce the rooms available but whole wings or even the hotel itself.Again this is prevalent in the Caribbean.Airlines can reduce plane quota available or rent them to other companies. Redistribution becomes necessary as the demand for a product is no longer self-sustaining.Converting factors for hotels might consist of fusing two rooms into one or the provision of no-smoking rooms.Conventional hotel rooms are being transformed into time-share units an example of a long-term adaptive strategy.Or for the airline industry the conversion of scheduled flights into charter itineries.These are examples of adaptive supply redistribution. When demand exceeds capacity additional charging for such resources incurs increased pricing for seating or rooms so gaining extra revenue per unit.Theme parks with ever increasing clientele but negative impaction can resort themselves to significantly higher entrance charges. Then,responding to higher demand level destination management may expand the current capacity factor.The hotels again being an example with additional infrastructure being acquired.Cot facilities are often available to increase the room capacity.Portable accommodation in the southern hemisphere is quite attractive and popular.Resort communities in the slack season make use of their surveillance staff to accommodate for the daily and weekly pattern of demands by supplying patrolled beaches. The Caribbean again may be referred to as an example of the transference of demand at times of excess to periods of low demand.Differential seasonal pricing is an attempt to redistribute demand following from a high winter demand to a low summer one. Accomodation forms an integral part of the tourist destination.The range is wide.From five-star luxury apartments to bed and breakfast;but all contributing to the experience of the destination.So the accommodation sector is a vital element in the supply of services and products to the tourist. Supply of accommodation with easy access and amenities contribute to the pulling influence of the destination,its attraction;the only limitation being that of ones own personal budgeting which at times might well be variable.The concept of relative value becomes therefore a primary consideration for finalisation of destination choice for the prospective tourist.Income levels rule the volume of demand whereas relative prices will determine actual choice of such a destination.Exchange rates apart from cost format will influence price levels so if the dollar proves to be stronger compared with European currencies then more US visitors will appear in Europe because it is cheaper.With floating exchange rates this proves not to be so influential as in the past.Complications arise and it is therefore generally the case that volume for demand is linked to real income levels real discretionary income.Precisely it is elasticity of demand regarding income and how the exchange rate’s effect on prices influences this. The exchange rate itself reflects the general well-being of the country concerned.Yet what constitutes economic data for the country involved has little meaning to the tourist who actually is only interested in relative prices for consumption items e.g.accomodation,shopping etc.Attempts are effected to install a ‘value-for-money’ concept whereby tour operators for example cost such items as bottle of wine to provide a means of comparison with the purchase of like items within the home country.This concept of value-for-money is useful regarding holiday expenditure.Affluent countries such as France and Britain have significant tourist outflows to quite poor countries such as Greece and Portugal. Quality of amenities at the host destination including accommodation will influence demand.A certain aggregate of tourists will have to be present for a sufficiently powerful stimulus to further the demand flow.There should be a range of attractions for a certain degree of market differentiation to be existent. With the all-inclusive tour the actual nature of the decision making process has changed;effectively the tour operator becomes the interpreter and coordinator of demand.Their specialised knowledge proves to be particularly useful here.Markets are known to exist for a certain price banding.As noted in this report the potential tourist is becoming exceedingly knowledgeable about such matters in some instances being able to displace such a function. It is very useful to examine tourist motivation over a period of time.Only partial explanations are expected in a field strewn with inconsistencies.Essentially the reason(s) for motivation must revolve around a person’s personal preference,experience and the social and economic circumstances.And hopefully the understanding of tourist motivation will enable us to realise why it is that some destinations hold a heightened attraction compared to others and why decline occurs with changing tastes and fashions
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality test based on Carl Jungs psychological theory. It is widely used in companies for team building, as well as for marriage counselling. This paper looks at how accurately the MBTI test can predict the group dynamics of a student household. Nine students sharing the same household took the test. The results show an accurate prediction of the student’s attitudes (Introversion/Extraversion), as well as their preference for the way they approach their external life (Judging/Perceiving). Some researchers (Mccaulley, 1990) argue that the MBTI is “just another fad”. However, evidence in support of this personality test has not ceased to appear. The MBTI was developed by Katherine Myers and Isabel Briggs. The MBTI was developed to be used on non-clinical populations. Its main aim is to indicate the cognitive preferences of a certain individual. It is based on the psychological theory of Carl Gustav Jung who created this theoretical model and tested it in his clinical practice. Jung was interested in the way people consciously use their functions of perception and decision making in everyday life. The theory was discovered by Briggs in 1923, during the period of World War II. It became apparent to her that several people engage in jobs unsuitable for their cognitive functions. After the operationalization of the test, it was thoroughly tested in Briggs’ family for over twenty years. It became ready for use in 1975 and was made available for the public in 1976, by being published in a consulting psychology press. Nowadays it is widely used for family and group counselling, academic advisement and also career counselling. It is also widely used in management organizations and companies because it can show corporate dynamic. One example of a famous company that uses this test is Apple. (Webb, 1990) The results are used as indicators of a person’s preference for in taking of information, decision making and how they generate energy. Thus, a person’s pattern of communication, intrapersonal skills and several other personality factors can be understood. (Cummings III, 1995) In this paper, the accuracy of the MBTI prediction of a group dynamic of a student household has been analysed. First, an explanation of Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types will be given. Secondly, the results along with description of types will be presented. Then, the analysis of the results will follow. It will be focused on communication patterns and conflict handling. The accurate predictions will be depicted along with the imprecise ones. Finally, a discussion will succeed which will contain some limitations as well as some points regarding reliability and validity. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Carl Jung argues there are four cognitive functions. Everyone uses all four dimensions; however, each individual has a stronger preference for one function from each category. The preferred function is used more easily and is what comes naturally to the individual. The four functions are Intuition (N), Sensing (S), Thinking (T) and Feeling (F). The first two, Intuition and Sensing, are the Perceiving functions, used is the process of assimilation of information. The following two, Thinking and Feeling, are the Judging functions. They are used when making judgments about the perceived information. They are the cognitive functions associated with decision making. People that have a preference for the Perceiving function – Sensing put accent on the concrete things that surround them. They make use of the immediate, practical information that they acquire through their senses. People with a preference for Intuition look for patterns in the information and understand how these patterns might lead to several future outcomes. They use insight as a method to see the development of things. However, insight is a concept not fully understood by researchers to this day. Intuitors can predict how the events will develop but cannot explain how they came up to that conclusion (Webb, 1990). Insight is defined by the Webster Dictionary as “the act or result of apprehending the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively”. Moreover, the Judging function – Thinking indicates a preference for making decisions through a rational process. A logical analysis of causes and effects stays at the basis of the decision process. The opposing function – Feeling – implies making a decision based on that individual’s moral values. Through weighing the relative importance of competing alternatives the person judges what is more important in order to satisfy their personal beliefs. These two categories represent the second and third letter of the MBTI. (Pienaar, 2004) These four functions can be used in two complementary attitudes, extraverted attitude or introverted attitude. Extraversion refers to the fact that a person acquires and spends their energy while engaging with the external environment. The external world inspires and stimulates them. An Introverted attitude characterizes someone who acquires their energy from their inner world. Ideas and concepts are sources of stimulation and are used to understand events. The extraversion/introversion category is represented in the MBTI by the first letter. (Webb, 1990) Myers and Briggs created an additional category for their test. The orientation towards the extraverted world was an implicit aspect of Jung’s theory and it was made explicit in the MBTI. The orientation toward the external world, symbolized by the fourth letter of the results, is represented by either Judgment or Perception. This fourth category shows which of the two main functions, Perception or Judgment, one uses when dealing with the outside world. People who prefer Judgment make decisions more quickly; enjoy a structured and organized way of living. The ones who prefer Perceiving however, embrace changes, are open to new suggestions and opportunities. All four categories are polar opposites of each other. Through a forced choice questionnaire format, the MBTI is able to establish the individual’s preference towards one of the poles. (Pienaar, 2004) Each individual receives as a result four letters that indicate their type. There are sixteen different types and each has a dominant function. The dominant function is the one most developed and used more frequently in everyday life. A second function provides balance as an auxiliary. Kuipers, Higgs, Tolkacheva
University of California The Effect of Stress on The Immune System Discussion.

Do you notice a relationship between stress in your life and the functioning of your immune system? Do you think this may be why you and your classmates have a higher tendency to get ill during stressful times of the semester, such as midterms and final exams? How do you think you could counter those effects?(chapter 4) Textbook:…( should have two post, one is original post, and another one is response post to other classmate)( original at least 300 words, reply at least 150 words)( the original post must be finished within 7 hours, and for response I can add time )( I can not see peer’s post now before you give me own post)
University of California The Effect of Stress on The Immune System Discussion

USF Listless Liesel Selective Mutism & the Risk of Developing a Disorder Case Study

USF Listless Liesel Selective Mutism & the Risk of Developing a Disorder Case Study.

I’m working on a psychology case study and need support to help me understand better.

Case Study: Listless LieselLiesel Brandt was a 6-year-old girl referred by her pediatrician because of problems with school refusal, anxiety, and social withdrawal. Liesel’s mother worked as an interior designer; her father was employed as a mechanical engineer. Liesel’s parents separated approximately 1 year ago and are in the process of divorcing. Her parents live in the same small town, so Liesel splits her time between her mother and father. Liesel has one brother who is 3½ years old.Liesel was born full-term with no complications associated with delivery. She reached developmental milestones in an age-expected fashion. Her mother reported that Liesel was a “fussy” baby who cried often and had difficulty eating and sleeping. She often needed her mother to cuddle with her before she was able to go to sleep. Liesel was also described as a shy and “clingy” toddler who was reluctant to talk with others or wander too far away from her mother.Last year, Liesel began attending preschool approximately three mornings each week while her mother worked part-time. Initially, Liesel was reticent to separate from her mother. However, by the third week of school, she attended preschool without complaining and began to make friends with other girls in her class.Liesel’s school refusal returned at the beginning of this school year, however. The night before the first day of kindergarten, Liesel complained of nausea and stomach pain. When her illness did not subside by the next morning, her mother allowed her to stay home. The following day, when her mother insisted that she attend school, Liesel tantrummed and locked herself in the bathroom. Her mother drove her to school despite protests and crying. Liesel’s teacher said that she continued to cry most of the morning and remained tearful and reclusive the rest of the day. When her mother picked her up in the afternoon, Liesel looked hurt and exhausted. She clung to her mother and vowed never to return to school again.Nevertheless, Liesel’s mother insisted that Liesel attend school. Liesel often reported stomach problems, headaches, and other vague illnesses. At school, she behaved in a withdrawn, listless fashion, rarely participating in activities. Liesel also reported transient fears that something bad might happen to her mother or father while she was at school, that terrorists would attack her school, or that her mother might forget to pick her up and that she would have to spend the night alone in the school building. If Liesel is allowed to stay home she seems content.Liesel’s mother reported a significant increase in family stress within the past 6 months, about the time Liesel’s school refusal and mood problems emerged. She and her husband are divorcing, which causes her considerable stress and financial hardship. She is struggling to care for her children while also building her interior design business to make ends meet. Liesel’s mother admitted to long-standing problems with anxiety and insomnia that have increased markedly since separation from her husband. A second stressor in Liesel’s life has been the death of her cat, Tobbie, who was hit by a car outside the family home. Liesel was very attached to Tobbie; she would often hug and pet Tobbie when she was upset. Her mother is considering adopting another cat to replace Tobbie but wondered whether she would have sufficient time and money to care for it.
USF Listless Liesel Selective Mutism & the Risk of Developing a Disorder Case Study

Enhancing Competencies for Emotional Intelligence

help writing Enhancing Competencies for Emotional Intelligence.

Enhance Your Emotional Intelligence (EI)In the article, “Leadership That Gets Results,” and in your lecture notes, the six styles of leadership are explained. Think about your EI and how it guides your leadership style. Identify the leadership style you think is most appropriate for your business. What secondary style might be complementary? Which competencies do you want to improve to enhance your EI? Support your answer with information from your DiSC assessment results.
Post your initial response by Wednesday, midnight of your time zone, and reply to at least 2 of your classmates by Sunday, midnight of your time zone.
Enhancing Competencies for Emotional Intelligence

Using the supplied assessment to determine the skills needed for the founding team of your business opportunity. Describe a plan for addressing any skill gaps apparent in your team.

Using the supplied assessment to determine the skills needed for the founding team of your business opportunity. Describe a plan for addressing any skill gaps apparent in your team.. I’m working on a Management question and need guidance to help me study.

Prepare a list of experience and skills needed from the leadership team for your business idea to be successful.
Complete the Leadership Skills and Know-How Assessment on pp. 205–215 in New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century for your leadership team. (Will be provided)
Use the results to determine the skills needed for the founding team of your business opportunity.
Describe a plan for addressing any skill gaps apparent in your team.
Using the supplied assessment to determine the skills needed for the founding team of your business opportunity. Describe a plan for addressing any skill gaps apparent in your team.

PA460 SDSU Agenda Setting and Denial of Agenda Access Essay

PA460 SDSU Agenda Setting and Denial of Agenda Access Essay.

This Essay needs to be written in high quality and follow are the details. This essay should be 1500 words. – First watch the lecture- agenda setting (Attached)…- Read the articles -Cobb and Ross (1997) (Attached) Film: Hot PoliticsWatch online at: on how our readings/discussion thus far on agenda setting relate to the content of the film. Consider the following questions:What types of regulatory policies (or proposals for new regulatory polices) do you see in this film?Do you see any evidence of “Iron Triangles” in this film? Explain.How does agenda setting function in this film? Specifically:o Who is trying to push issues onto the agenda, and how?o Who is proposing definitions for the problem?o How do different problem definitions compete with one another?o How are evidence and expertise used to support different problemdefinitions?o Do focusing events play a role? If so, how?
PA460 SDSU Agenda Setting and Denial of Agenda Access Essay