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Role And Contribution To The Interprofessional Team Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp I am a second year student nurse studying at Canterbury Christ Church University; previously I have been working in care of the elderly setting and have been placed in a nursing home and stroke unit for rehabilitation and acute service users. I have also had the opportunity to work in accident and emergency which I found very demanding but also quite enjoyable. During this time on placement I have been able to witness and participate in multidisciplinary team meetings and have also had the opportunity to work with different healthcare professionals such as physiotherapist and also have been involved in ward rounds with doctors and nurses. Furthermore whilst at University I have been involved in student led seminars, which involved collaborating with many different professionals within the healthcare setting. Patch 1: Professional Understanding This essay will evaluate my role and contribution to the interprofessional team and will relate to professional understanding and collaborative practice seen whist on placement. It will discuss ways in which professional, personal and social issues that may impact on collaborative working, it will also explore the negotiated process of decision making with service users and other members of the interprofessional team. Confidentiality will be maintained throughout this essay following The Code (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), 2008). Healthcare professionals all have one key concept, that concept is to service user and working in a person centred way to ensure that the health of the service user is restored. Most healthcare professional job roles have similarities, however personal, social and professional issues such as communication, patience, empathy and dignity effect they’re working, but main aim will strive to achieve person centred care. Whilst at University working alongside other health professionals in student led seminars information has been limited, however whilst on placement, I have had the chance of working with mental health nurses, and through this I have found similarities in this profession have similar roles as adult nurses. According to Forster (2001) ‘The 8 Roles of the Mental-Health Nurse include: Assessor, Educator, Therapist and Counsellor, Reflector, Manager, Supervisor, Researcher and Clinician’. It is likely that adult nursing staff will experience or come into contact with some type of mental illness, so by working together with mental health nurses and understanding their roles will benefit my learning. There are many similarities of adult nursing and mental health nursing; both professions need to have good knowledge of holistic care, anatomy and physiology alongside other traits. A definition of a nurse is: a person trained to care for the sick or infirm, especially in a hospital, Oxford (2008). Differences noticed between the two professions is that mental health knowledge and training in mental health nurses have wide understanding of series of mental illnesses and are able to calm situations quicker because of this understanding. In my opinion mental health nurses also build a better relationship with their service user as most mental health issues are long-term, statistics on mental health show that ‘ one in 4 people will experience some kind of mental health problem in the course of the year.. The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of self-harm in Europe, at 400 per 100,000 population… Depression affects 1 in 5 older people living in the community and 2 in 5 living in care homes ‘ Statistics on Mental Health (Mental Health Foundation (2006)) Another personal perception has also changed whilst on placement, this is a perception of physiotherapists, previous to starting my adult nursing course at University it has been my understanding that physiotherapists were only there for outpatients but this has become clear to me that this is not the case. Whilst on the stroke unit physiotherapist had daily interactions with all service users and also were involved in the multidisciplinary team meetings; however the roles of the physiotherapist differ from other roles in the MDT. ‘Physiotherapists are concerned with the functional status of their patients and the aim of physiotherapy interventions is to maintain or improve current level of functioning or to prevent deterioration’ Quality and Standards (The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT), 2009). However there is still collaboration. A definition of collaboration is: the action of working with someone to produce something, Oxford (2008). This definition in a healthcare environment means working with all multidisciplinary professions to produce the outcome; this may be to discharge service user, or the continuation of care for that service user. Reflecting back on the past year of placement, I initially felt unwise of the impression is I had about mental health nurses and physiotherapists. I hope that having a better understanding of different professionals in the healthcare environment and their roles included in the multidisciplinary team will benefit me in the future whilst on placement, I will therefore having this knowledge of other professionals will be able to plan care for the service users more effectively as I will have an understanding of these professions. Word Count: 766 Patch 2: Team Working There are many factors that contribute to effective team working; this essay will focus on effective team working and communication with the use of a picture to represent this (Appendix i) in order for health professionals to be successful in their roles; it is important that different professions work together collaboratively to gain successful results. “Strong support for the contention that team approaches provide effective means to enhance functional outcomes, reduced costs, decrease length of hospital stay or increase quality of care ” (Leathard,2003) The picture (Appendix i) that has been chosen in my opinion represents teamwork and continuation of communication without breakdowns. The definition of the circle according to Oxford (2009): a round plane figure whose boundary (the circumference) consists of points equidistant from a fixed point (the centre). However this picture could demonstrate another meaning for circle such as a group of people with a shared profession or interests i.e. service users, therefore the picture could be seen as different health professionals working collaboratively within a multidisciplinary team, to complete a whole or holistic circle in which to achieve a never-ending quality of care for service users, that is constantly being assed and reevaluated, it could also be seen as the connection of multidisciplinary teams and show the joining of professions to benefit each other with the understanding of roles within the team. Helen Keller cited in Herrmann (1999) stated “Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much” this demonstrates the effectiveness of team working, according to McGovern (1990 p. 62) “In union there is strength” this again further demonstrates that working together can provide maximum benefits of service user, or person in which the team is centred around. The picture of the circles can also be seen as good communication within the multidisciplinary team as it shows a continuation and constant flow without breaks. This is demonstrating that communication shared amongst teams can achieve a holistic goal that is clear and in which the outcomes are met amongst the team. Communication is not only verbal it is non-verbal and listening also plays a part, If each coloured circle was to represent a different health professional and the circles in the picture are not linked together or if there is a break in the circle this would demonstrate a breakdown in communication. This break may occur when health professions used different terminological terms within their profession which others may not understand. This demonstrates the need for communication to be shared in a manner which all members can understand to save confusion and reduce the risk of mistakes in information, however as the circles within picture are connected into a whole circle this could represent that communication was used on a level that all professional members within the team understood. In the picture the circles are connected together to achieve the best outcome (a complete circle) within the picture it appears that all the circles are of the same size, therefore there is no single circle that shows signs of overshadowing other circles, this displays good teamwork as all input from all health professionals is vital in team working and one member should not be placed higher/superior within a team, and it is my opinion the picture shows a good quality of team working skills to complete the circle. If to continue analysing the picture, each circle and each colour could be a symbol of cultural diversity within the team, it could also demonstrate different ranges of age, gender, nationality, and experienced levels, this could be beneficial as having a varied range of team members can provide a much larger and varied range of knowledge. Therefore it is my belief that the picture (Appendix i) I have chosen displays effective team work and a continuation of communication within the multidisciplinary teams, the picture can relate to many different factors that cover effects of teamwork and if all factors are addressed to have a positive result on a service user. Word Count: 722 Patch 3: Synthesis To unable multidisciplinary teams to work collaboratively in health care settings and environments, awareness of job roles and description may be required. Health professionals must also be aware of their own professional roles and must know when help is required from other health professionals, as one professional team cannot provide all the care that might be required by service user, Friedman (1995) Educating health professionals in interprofessional working enables professionals to gain knowledge about each other’s roles and building mutual respect for each other’s roles that are encountered throughout the health care setting. This is why interprofessional learning as a student level may be important, as it teaches students from different professional aspects about differences and similarities in each other’s professional role and help to build relationships and reduced prejudice and discrimination. This is known as the contact hypothesis, this hypothesis suggests that contact between majority and minority groups should reduce prejudice and discrimination (Pennington ,2000) All professionals must adhere to a code of conduct; confidentiality being one of the codes in all health professionals codes, however this should not become an excuse for non-cooperation with interprofessional team in the delivery of a care for service user (Allison et al, 1998) Communication is fundamental in achieving positive outcomes (Peate, 2010) communication is carried out in many forms, the easiest is talking to each other, however to receive a successful outcome in communication, the skill of listening to what is being said must be used as misinterpretation and confusion may arise if the information that has been told is not heard correctly, there may be many reasons as to why some professionals do not listen, it may be that some professional teams look at other teams as being wrong in a certain aspect of care that is being delivered to a service user and due to this conflict within these teams or failure of adequate listening skills creates lost opportunities in care. It is important that all communication between health professionals should be documented clearly without terminology/abbreviations that is only used within a single group of health professionals, writing must be legible to prevent mistakes being made which could result in need for legal action. The implications of working in partnership with other health professional teams in a multidisciplinary aspect including the service user in decision-making ensures collaborative working remains beneficial to all involved. When there is a breakdown in communication either professionally or with service users and relatives, fatal consequences can occur recently highlighted by the media of catastrophic abuse and death of a small child Victoria Climbie in which an inquiry by Lord Laming (2003) found that the lack of communication between agencies was one of the significant findings, subsequently reforms of the system in place were made in 2009. Empowerment is the foundation of transformational leadership according to Feidmen(2008) it is interrelationship between authority, resources, accurate information and accountability. For empowerment to become more person centred, service users are increasingly being given more choices and control of treatment and care undertaken. Empowerment is enabling service users to have more opinion and option to refuse medical intervention and request more information on the services that are being provided to them, service users do not require the medical terminology in information but require simplistic, easily understood facts to help them make more informed choices of the care that is being undertaken. All health care professionals must communicate with service users asking questions building trust, mutual respect and showing understanding for requirements of expectations from service users, this can have positive outcome and impact as well as a negative impact on future discussions depending on how situations are conducted and controlled. Too much knowledge and information may cause confliction between service users and professionals as gaining knowledge may indicate of expecting more in which can encourage judgement, leading to an undermining of skills. As service users choose to become more involved in making decisions about their health-care needs ,health professionals also need to respect decisions of those service users that are happy to be empowered by the health professionals however health professionals need to act as an advocate for those service users without the means of knowledge as they are at a disadvantage. Pain management is one factor that is now be controlled by service users whose cognitive function has not been compromised approving the best quality-of-life away from a hospital environment, this in turn enable’s the service user to have peace of mind and giving a feeling of continuing care. The choices that are now being offered to service users under the government’s publication of NHS Choices (Great Britain, Department of Health, 2008) and collaboration between interprofessional teams help to relieve long waiting list, and help the service users by lowering the disruption of day-to-day living. However as money becomes an increasing issue of National Health Service and the country the service user will become more empowered in the decision-making process will become even more important, as health professionals should be looked upon as a positive outlook of collaborative working for increased knowledge produces solutions that benefit all persons involved. Word Count: 933 Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
The Power of Context, writing homework help.

Here’s the topic of the writing,Use the assigned reading “The Power of Context” (which I will give you before you start working) and 2 another legitimate sources related to “Broken Window Theory” to discuss which aspects of Broken Window Theory seem effective and which aspects seem to e problematic. As evidenced from your reading and research, what would be the ideal version of Broken Windows?Here’s is the requirements: 1. The paper has to be at least 1,500 words long2. The paper should contain 5 and only 5 paragraphs, one introduction which end with the thesis of the whole paper, 3 body paragraphs supporting the thesis with the topic sentence at the begining, and a conclusion restating the thesis.
The Power of Context, writing homework help

discussion week 2 Ancient Greece and Athletics.

Ancient Greece and Athletics” Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response: Describe
the ancient Greek competitive character, and compare the ancient
Olympics (as a festival featuring athletics) to the Olympics today,
identifying any major differences. Explain what the Olympic rules
regarding females and evidence, such as the “running girl” artifact,
reveal about female status and Greek athletics in particular Greek
city-states. ExploreAncient Greek Athletics and Female Status Chapter 4 (p. 118), Olympics. Chapters 4 (pp. 113-114), women in Sparta; For Athens later, see pp. 137-8. British Museum’s Running Girl artifact at http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/b/bronze_figure_of_a_girl.aspx Philadelphia’s Penn Museum on Women and Greek athletics at http://www.penn.museum/sites/olympics/olympicsexism.shtml
discussion week 2 Ancient Greece and Athletics

ITM 490 TUI Management Integration and Implementation Essay.

I’m working on a computer science case study and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AND IMPLEMENTATIONIn Module 4 SLP, we return our focus from the specifics of information technologies and the formulation of ideal strategies to the wider world of real corporate behavior. Our emphasis now shifts to the actual implementation of information technologies and the sociotechnical dynamics that implementation not infrequently founders upon. No technical solution—however brilliantly designed or competently backstopped or elegantly integrated with other corporate plans—is any better than its implementation at the lowest levels of the system to which it is addressed. All too frequently, plans and solutions are developed in a vacuum apart from the context within which they are to be deployed and used. It is hard to overestimate the quantity of corporate resources that have been squandered on poor IT implementations over the years—to say that it would exceed the GNP of many third world countries would probably not be an exaggeration. Implementation is by no means an all-or-nothing proposition; even though the full measure of system changes may not be as successful as desired, there can often be positive local results, particularly if the implementation process is oriented toward learning as well as doing, or even more so, doing unto others. The one sure way to implementation failure is to assume that all knowledge resides in IT management—or even in management generally. Success is inevitably based on user involvement in varying degrees, generally more rather than less.All modules in the course draw on everything that you have learned in the program; however, this module most specifically draws on your courses in computer-human interaction, systems development, and project management as well as on your general introductory courses. Implementation is a drawn-out process requiring effective collaboration among many different kinds of specialists and generalists, extended over time and across space, and requiring explicit attention to both the social and technical systems of the organizational units affected. Above all, implementation must be sensitive to feedback, resilient enough to deal with changing circumstances, personnel, and goals, and focused much more on the users than on the technologists. Effective implementation always embraces the fundamental sociotechnical criterion of “incompletion”—that is, the idea that no change process is ever “finished” as such, but that change is an ever-flowing river in which one set of adjustments is merely the prelude to another set. Sociotechnical life in organizations is a soap opera, not a novel. There is never a “happily ever after,” just an ever-evolving and constantly reconfiguring cast of players and problems. Sometimes things get better; sometimes they get worse—but they will always be different.Videos of Interest… Something to Think About…Andrew McAfee discusses an array of revolutionary technologies that are replacing routine jobs with machines that can speak, understand, translate, and hear. McAfee believes that this kind of innovation will lead to creating new jobs that involve more than enhancing creativity. He refers to this cycle of innovation as “The New Machine Age.” Think in terms how technology-driven changes could impact the ERP implementation for Aux Bons Soins’ case study below.TED Ideas Worth Spreading. (2012, September). Andrew McAfee: Are droids taking our jobs? Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/andrew_mcafee_are_droids_…For the last assignment, we will be introducing a new case, the real-world story of an ERP implementation for Aux Bons Soins. This case details the rather frustrating experiences that the company encountered in trying to implement an integrated management system after an acquisition and merger, and the range of circumstances that affected the process. Not every implementation is this sticky, but in varying ways most partake of greater or lesser parts of this experience. Please note that there is nothing particularly pathological about the experience described here, despite the frustrations experienced. There are no great villains, but neither are there any great heroes; implementation seldom turns up either. This may seem a rather inconclusive note on which to conclude both this course and your IT management program, but it is how things are. For better or worse, this is what real IT management is all about—the good, the bad, the ugly, and above all the reasonably acceptable. Over the next decades, the profession is likely to evolve far beyond any ways that can be reasonably forecast today; after all, 20 years ago there was not any such thing as the Internet, and today’s information environment was ranked science fiction. You are entering the profession at a most exciting and dynamic time; always remember how much you do not know, but also remember that you do know how to learn.Please read the following parts of the case:Bernier, C., Roy, V., & Brunelle, E. (2006) An ERP Story: Background (A). International Journal of Case Studies in Management. 4(1):March.Bernier, C., Roy, V., & Brunelle, E. (2006) An ERP Story: Troubles Ahead (C). International Journal of Case Studies in Management. 4(1):March.Bernier, C., Roy, V., & Brunelle, E. (2006) An ERP Story: Epilogue (D). International Journal of Case Studies in Management. 4(1):March.Use information from the course background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list (use APA format) at the end of your paper.Your answer to the following will be assessed:What were the main causes of the difficulties with the project at Aux Bons Soins?What were the key elements that led to the success of the project at Aux Bons Soins?Minimum 3–5 pages excluding cover page and references (since a page is about 300 words, this is approximately 900–1,500 words).Demonstrates clear understanding of the subject and addresses all key elements of the assignment.Demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem. Shows analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of required material.Demonstrates writing proficiency at the academic level of the course; addresses the Learning Outcomes of the assignment.Uses relevant and credible sources to support assertions. Assignment is well organized and follows the structure of a well-written paper.Uses in-text citations and properly formats references in APA style
ITM 490 TUI Management Integration and Implementation Essay

Food And Wine Menu

Food And Wine Menu.

Create a fictitious tasting menu consisting of 5 courses of food, and 5 appropriately paired wines. The menu should be printed and presented as if it were given to guests at a wine-dinner event of a fine dining restaurant. Attached to the menu should be a separate piece of paper describing the inspiration for the menu and its items, as well as a description of each wine and why it pairs with the chosen dish. Document below is an example of what is expected for the final draft. Do not copy the example.The link is information about different types of wine lectures in class. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1FFEO3cCTOMscOrTsI…
Food And Wine Menu

Drug Mechanisms and Reactions

online dissertation writing Drug Mechanisms and Reactions. Phase 1: Drug Metabolism The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within an organism, Metabolism consists both of anabolism and catabolism (the buildup and breakdown of substances, respectively). The biochemical reactions are known as metabolic pathways and involve enzymes that transform one substance into another substance, either breaking down a substance or building a new chemical substance. The term is commonly used to refer specifically to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy. The liver is the principal site of drug metabolism. Although metabolism typically inactivates drugs, some drug metabolites are pharmacologically active sometimes even more than the parent compound. An inactive or weakly active substance that has an active metabolite is called a pro-drug, especially if designed to deliver the active moiety more effectively. Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization, whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver. Drug metabolism rates vary among patients. Some patients metabolize a drug so rapidly that therapeutically effective blood and tissue concentrations are not reached, in others, metabolism may be so slow that usual doses have toxic effects. Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism). For many drugs, metabolism occurs in two phases: Phase I reactions: Which involve formation of a new or modified functional group or cleavage, these reactions are nonsynthetic. Phase II reactions Which involve conjugation with an endogenous substance, these reactions are synthetic. Metabolites formed in synthetic reactions are more polar and more readily excreted by the kidneys (in urine) and the liver (in bile) than those formed in nonsynthetic reactions. Some drugs undergo only phase I or phase II reactions, thus, phase numbers reflect functional rather than sequential classification. Phase I Drug Metabolism Phase I metabolism includes oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and hydration reactions, as well as other rarer miscellaneous reactions. Oxidations performed by the microsomal, mixed-function oxidase system (cytochrome P450-dependent) is considered separately because of its importance and the diversity of reactions performed by this enzyme system. Classification of Phase I Reactions: Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis Hydration Dethioacetylation Isomerization Oxidations involving cytochrome P450 (the microsomal mixed-function oxidase) The mixed-function oxidase system found in microsomes (endoplasmic reticulum) of many cells (notably those of liver, kidney, lung and intestine) performs many different functionalisation reactions. CYP 450: The cytochrome P450(CYP) enzyme system consists of a superfamily of hemoproteins that catalyse the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of exogenous chemicals including drugs, carcinogens, toxins and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids and prostaglandins. The CYP enzyme family plays an important role in phase-I metabolism of many drugs. The broad range of drugs that undergo CYP mediated oxidative biotransformation is responsible for the large number of clinically significant drug interactions during multiple drug therapy. All of these reactions require the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH as well as the complete mixed-function oxidase system (cytochrome P450, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and lipid). All reactions involve the initial insertion of a single oxygen atom into the drug molecule. A subsequent rearrangement and/or decomposition of this product may occur, leading to the final products formation. (i) Aromatic hydroxylation: This is a very common reaction for drugs and xenobiotics containing an aromatic ring. In this example the local anaesthetic and antidysrhythmic drug, lignocaine, is converted to its 3-hydroxy derivative. (ii) Aliphatic hydroxylation: Another very common reaction, e.g. pentobarbitone hydroxylated in the pentyl side chain. (iii) Epoxidation: Epoxides are normally unstable intermediates but may be stable enough to be isolated from polycyclic compounds (e.g. the precarcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons). Epoxides are substrates of epoxide hydrolase (discussed later), forming dihydrodiols, but they may also spontaneously decompose to form hydroxylated products or quinones. It has been suggested that epoxide formation is the first step in aromatic hydroxylation. (iv) Dealkylation: This reaction occurs very readily with drugs containing a secondary or tertiary amine, an alkoxy group or an alkyl substituted thiol. The alkyl group is lost as the corresponding aldehyde. The reactions are often referred to as N-, O- or S-dealkylations, depending on the type of atom the alkyl group is attached to. (v) Oxidative deamination: Amines containing the structure -CH(CH3)-NH2 are metabolised by the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system to release ammonium ions and leave the corresponding ketone. As with dealkylation, oxidative deamination involves an intermediate hydroxylation step with subsequent decomposition to yield the final products. The product of the oxidative deamination of EPI or NE is 3,4-didydroxyphenylclycoaldehyde (DOPGAL). DOPGAL is subject to reduction to the corresponding alcohol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol, DOPEG) or oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid (3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, DOMA), the latter being the major pathway. (vi) N-oxidation: Hepatic microsomes in the presence of oxygen and NADPH can form N-oxides. These oxidation products may be formed by the mixedfunction oxidase system or by separate flavoprotein N-oxidases. The enzyme involved in N-oxidation depends on the substrate under study. Many different chemical groups can be N-oxidised including amines, amides, imines, hydrazines and heterocyclic compounds. (vii) S-oxidation: Phenothiazines can be converted to their S-oxides (sulfoxides (S¼O) and sulfones (¼S¼O)) by the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system. (viii) Phosphothionate oxidation: The replacement of a phosphothionate sulfur atom with oxygen is a reaction common to the phosphothionate insecticides, e.g. parathion. The product paraoxon is a potent anticholinesterase and gives the potent insecticide action as well as the toxicity in humans. Oxidations not catalysed by cytochrome P450 (Non-Microsomal) A number of enzymes in the body not related to cytochrome P450 can oxidize drugs. (i) Alcohol Oxidation by Alcohol dehydrogenase: This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of many alcohols to the corresponding aldehyde and is localised in the soluble fraction of liver, kidney and lung cells. This enzyme uses NAD as co-factor and is a true dehydrogenase. (ii) Aldehyde oxidation: Aldehydes can be oxidised by a variety of enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism, e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase (the latter two being soluble metalloflavoproteins). (iii) Oxidation by Xanthine oxidase: This enzyme will metabolise xanthine-containing drugs, e.g. caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, and the purine analogues to the corresponding uric acid derivative. Metabolic Reduction (i) Azo- and nitro-reduction can be catalysed by cytochrome P450 (but can also be catalysed by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase). (ii) Ring cleavage: Epoxides can be converted back to the parent hydrocarbon, e.g. benzo(a)anthracene- 8,9-epoxide whereas some heterocyclic compounds can be ring cleaved by reduction. (iii) Reductive defluorination: Fluorocarbons of the halothane type can be defluorinated by liver microsomes in anaerobic conditions. Metabolic Hydrolysis Esters, amides, hydrazides and carbamates can readily be hydrolysed by various enzymes. (i) Ester hydrolysis: The hydrolysis of esters can take place in the plasma (nonspecific acetylcholinesterases, pseudocholinesterases and other esterases) or in the liver (specific esterases for particular groups of compounds). Procaine is metabolised by the plasma esterase, whereas pethidine (meperidine) is only metabolised by the liver esterase. (ii) Amide hydrolysis: Amides may be hydrolysed by the plasma esterases (which are so non-specific that they will also hydrolyse amides, although more slowly than the corresponding esters) but are more likely to be hydrolysed by the liver amidases. Ethylglycylxylidide, the N-deethylated phase 1 product of lignocaine, is hydrolysed by the liver microsomal fraction to yield xylidine and ethylglycine. (iii) Hydrazide and carbamate hydrolysis: Less common functional groups in drugs can also be hydrolysed, such as the hydrazide group in isoniazid or the carbamate group in the previously used hypnotic, hedonal. Factors Affecting Metabolism Many factors can affect liver metabolism, such as: In aging, the numbers of hepatocytes and enzyme activity declines. Diseases that reduce hepatic blood flow like heart failure or shock can also reduce the metabolic potential of the liver. Also the use of other drugs as well as dietary and environmental factors can influence liver metabolic function. Metabolism can also be altered due to a genetic deficiency of a particular enzyme. Differences in metabolism that result from functional genetic polymorphisms can be accommodated by knowing the frequency of different genotypes, and by modifying either the enzyme abundance (null alleles, for example, in the case of CYP2D6 ‘poor metabolizers’) or the intrinsic enzyme activity (for example, CYP2C9 variants). Data on developmental changes in the abundance and activity of different CYPs can also be incorporated into the models to predict hepatic clearance in neonates, infants and children. Conclusion Metabolism is the breakdown of Drugs inside the body, to disable their activity, forming inactive metabolites, however some drugs are either not affected by metabolism or activated by it, some even form toxic metabolites Examples: Imipiramine not affected by metabolism: Paracetamol produce Toxic Metabolite Metabolism occurs in two phases, Phase I Metabolism, and Phase II Metabolism. Phase I Metabolism converts the drug into metabolite by formation of a new functional group or modifying it, while phase II Metabolism or reactions involve conjugation with indigenous substance. Phase I Reactions Include: Oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and hydration reactions, and other rare miscellaneous reactions. Oxidation can be divided into Microsomal or non Microsomal according to whether it involves mitochondrial CYP 450 enzymes. Oxidation involves: Microsomal Aromatic Hydroxylation, Aliphatic Hydroxylation, Epoxidation, Dealkylation, oxidative deamination, N- oxidation, S-oxidation and Phosphothionate oxidation. Non-Microsomal Alcohol Oxidation by Alcohol dehydrogenase, Aldehyde Oxidation and Oxidation by Xanthine oxidase. Reduction involves: Azo- and nitro-reduction, Ring cleavage, Reductive defluorination Hydrolysis involves: Ester hydrolysis, Amide hydrolysis, Hydrazide and carbamate hydrolysis Drug Mechanisms and Reactions

Technical writing research proposal for purchasing request

Technical writing research proposal for purchasing request.

The company you work for has decided to make a major purchase. This purchase can be software, technology, equipment, training, or anything else needed for the company’s day-to-day operations. Your supervisor has assigned you the task of creating a research proposal for the company to help guide them in this purchase. Create the introduction, body, and closing for your research proposal that you began in Unit VI. Include research from the sources you located in the last unit to help you build an effective proposal. Organize the body of your proposal clearly so that readers can locate the essential information easily, including at least one visual. Use the sample proposal that begins on page 309 in your textbook as a guide for this assignment. EH 3341, Technical Writing 5 Research proposal should be a minimum of eight pages, including the work that you submitted in the previous unit. 1 Visual4 Sources8 Pages
Technical writing research proposal for purchasing request

College of Wilmington Information Systems Management Questions

College of Wilmington Information Systems Management Questions.

Read Chapters 8-9 – from Information Systems for Business and Beyond (found under Course Resources)Read Chapter 10 from Information Systems: A Manager’s Guide to Harnessing Technology (from under Course Resources)What did you learn this week?Connect this week’s topics to your professional career.What examples of this week’s topics do you see in your everyday life?What topic from this week was most interesting to you?Is there a current event that ties to the reading assignments from this week?Is there a topic you’d like to learn more about? Why?Is there a topic you did not enjoy? Why?
College of Wilmington Information Systems Management Questions