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Rogier van der Weyden Biography

Rogier van der Weyden Biography. Rogier van der Weyden, one of the most well-known and influential Netherlandish painters of the fifteenth century, was born in the city of Tournai in Belgium in about 1400. A son of a cutler, after completing his apprenticeship with Robert Campin, he moved to Brussels where he was made the official painter to the city. He also undertook important commissions for the greatest members of the Burgundian court, including the famous Duke Philip the Good. His career was extremely successful. He quickly established a prosperous workshop and an international reputation. Van der Weyden’s powerful religious paintings reflect an intense personal belief; his portraits are often characterised by a tender, reflective godliness. His expressive, naturalistic style was widely imitated, and set the pattern for Netherlandish painting and had a profound effect on Europe as a whole. Brussels’ Official Painter About 1427 Rogier van der Weyden was apprenticed to Robert Campin, then a leading painter of Tournai. Because the age of twenty six would have been rather late for doing that, some scholars argue that the painter probably only formally registered when he saw the possibility of establishing himself as an independent master. In his article on van der Weyden for example, A.J. Wauters points out that “no text now remains, by which accuracy of the statement that Rogier began his apprenticeship in 1427, as made by the copyist of the register of painters of Tournai, called Recuiel de St. Luc, can be tested”. For him the date seems improbable as Rogier was then already a husband of Elisabeth Goffaert and the father of a son named Corneille. It is almost certain for the author, that the copyist must have made a mistake, perhaps writing 1427 instead 1417. And, as early as 17th of November 1426, on one of Rogier’s visits to Tournai, the Magistrate offered him the ‘wine of honour’, in recognition of the gleam which he castes on his town. His career had opened already then, under the greatest patronage, says Wauters. In French-speaking Tournai, Rogier was known as ‘de la Pasture’. The name was translated to Van der Weyden when he moved to Flemish Brussels. Before 1435, he settled there and was appointed official painter to the city. The new title led to official commissions such as the four panels on the theme of justice painted for the court room of the Town Hall. They illustrated the justice of Trajan and Herkinbald, a legendary Duke of Brabant, and were intended as a permanent reminder to the judges of their well-known family. This vast project must have taken several years to complete. The first panel bears the date 1439, and it is assumed that the others were finished in the 1440s. Rogier may have worked as a sculptor before he became a painter. As a rule, painters in those days were familiar with sculpture. Not only did they polychrome statuary, but one of the challenges to the art of painting was to create the illusion of sculpture, especially on the outsides of the shutters of an altarpiece. Rogier’s father is said to have been a sculptor, and Robert Campin is mentioned as both, painter and sculptor. The artist was involved in various works for the city, including designs for decorative schemes and sculptures. It seems that Van der Weyden did not have to travel in search for employment, as we know of only one journey: in 1450 he went to Italy, visited Rome and Ferrara (the portrait of Lionello d’Este dates from this time, the altar panels at Frankfort and Florence are likely of the same period). The Major Commissions His employment as town painter did not stop van der Weyden accepting other commissions. Rogier did a great deal of portrait paintings, particularly because after Jan Van Eyck’s death he was the most renowned painter in the Netherlands. In his time, the court resided mainly in Brussels, where it claimed his services, and the demand for portraits of nobility gradually grew. Brussels was a favourite residence of the Burgundian duke, Philip the Good, for whom Rogier worked, although he was never made an official court painter like Jan van Eyck. It was, however, van der Weyden who produced the most popular portraits of Philip and his son Charles the Bold. The painter attempted to create an ideal image of the Duke. That was exactly what the contemporaries wanted, so his portraiture made van der Weyden very successful and popular. He was sought after by the grandest nobleman and bourgeoisie, who wanted him to record their faces for posterity. Members of the Burgundian court, such as Philip’s illegitimate son Antony, also turned to him for portraits, often wanting their own images eternalized in adoration of the divine in a diptych format. Commissions for more public works, especially large altarpieces, also came van der Weyden’s way. An example is the great Last Judgment altarpiece ordered by the fabulously wealthy Burgundian chancellor, Nicholas Rolin and his very religious third wife, Guigonne de Salins. The work was commissioned for Rolin’s hospital in the Hotel-Dieu in Beaune, where it still hangs. Constructing of the hospital was accepted by Pope Eugenius IV in 1441. The dedication of hospital was to St. Anthony, who is shown in the shutter of the picture (the dedication was changed by Pope Nicolas V to St. John the Baptist, who is prominent in the interior scene of the Last Judgment ). The work began in 1443. The polyptych is the artist’s largest work, made of fifteen panels of different sizes. It was placed in the end of the nave, behind the altar, in a chapel separated from the nave by a wooden partition, through which patients could fallow the mass from their hospital beds. It was also the tradition to open the wings of the polyptych on Sundays and feast days. Jean Chevrot, the Bishop of Turnai, had Van der Weyden paint the triptych of the Seven Sacraments, which are: Baptism, Communion, Confirmation, Confession, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders and Matrimony. The masterpiece is a good example of a big appeal the Christian sacraments had in early Netherlandish painting. The acts are presented around the central Crucifixion scene. The importance of the central panel is emphasised by enlarged figures. The figures of St. John and Mary overcame with grief are characteristic feature in Rogier’s art. The magnificent Descent from the Cross was commissioned by the Louvain Archers’ Guild. As an altarpiece it was intended for a chapel in Louvain, but fell into Spanish hands in the sixteenth century. Today, it is on display in the Prado in Madrid. Christ’s pale body is being taken down from the cross by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus. The corpse is almost immaculate and shiny apart from his bloody wounds. The crown of thorns hurt his forehead; a Roman soldier stubbed his midriff with his spear; here are the holes in Jesus’ hands and feet. This is the central scene of the picture. The corps forms a bow with the upper arm of his mother Mary Magdalene. Her immense sorrow causes her to collapse. In her fall, her body takes on the same shape as her son’s, implying that her co-suffering. Susie Nash In Northern Renaissance Art points out, that apart from underlining the Virgin’s co-passion, Jesus’ and her poses are “also brilliantly designed to refer to the patrons of the work, since both evoke the shape of a crossbow. Thus while the actual crossbows in the image are tiny, hanging from the tracery in the corners, the poses of Christ and the Virgin stamp the guilds identity on this work in an unmissable way”. Each figure in the painting seems to be in the precise place. The sense of movement is limited on every side. “Caught in sculptural form, grief and sorrow have nowhere to go” remarks Max Frieländer. Despite the busy narrative and all the figures taking part, Van der Weyden managed to build a convincing and intimate atmosphere, without giving a viewer a sense of crowdedness. The picture combines telling details with dramatic spatial density and unstable rhythm. Like Jan van Eyck, Rogier had the rare ability to combine grandeur of forma and delicacy of detail. The figures are almost life-size and their torment is expressed so passionately that it overwhelms the viewer completely. Rogier van der Weyden often found an inspiration in the genius of Jan van Eyck. Madonna with St. Luke is an example of the influence van Eyck’s Rolin Madonna had on Rogier. As the town painter of Brussels he must have know and adored this masterpiece, but at the same time he departed from van Eyck with new motifs and ideas, which were later used in his own workshop. Typical of the art of van Eyck is the striking atmospheric effect of chiaroscuro. Rogier took over the external elements of the setting, the hall with the three apertures opening on the garden completed by a wall, the two figures with their backs to the spectator, and the view of both banks of the river. To the younger master the architectural solutions of the elder artist seemed, above all other things, to be worth imitating. Van der Weyden’s Madonna, as a completely independent representation of this subject, established a new convention. Rogier’s saint Luke is not himself painting the Mother of God, like in the earlier pictures, but recording the silverpoint sketch. In Rogier’s works is was the content the mattered the most. In order to make the importance of the religious meaning stronger, he returned to the dominance of line (the contour was the main tool of expression in fourteenth century art). His figures and surrounding them architecture are always clearly and expressively outlined. The monumental Escorial Crucifixion is the largest single panel by the artist. Rogier van der Weyden presented it himself to the Carthusian monastery of Scheut near Brussels in the en of his life, after his eldest son Corneille entered the Carthusian monastery. The monks sold the painting in 1555 to Philip II of Spain. The King placed the painting in the Escorial, where, in the late seventeenth century, it was badly damaged in a fire, which, along with following restorations, left the masterpiece in a very bad state of preservation. The three figures seem very isolated. The figure of Saint John and Saint Mary represent two corresponding images of sorrow. This and their earnest faces make the narrative of the picture hard to read. Unlike his Descent from the Cross, this scene is placed in a stone niche, not in an altar shrine. The artists painted the figures of Virgin Mary and Saint John where we would rather expect sculpture, which reminds us of the cut in stone, monumental Crucifixion groups.We could still see them today in some churches. The stone-coloured garments, with definite, harsh folds, emphasize the sculptural quality of the picture and may also suggest the white habits of the Carthusian monks. The sculptures were often placed against real or painted fabrics. Rogier used a bright red cloth of honour, which, contrasting with the delicate tones of the panel, emphasises the overall emotional effect of the figures and presents them as saints. Van der Weyden lived in prosperity since arriving in Brussels, and later, as a successful painter in great demand, managed to increase his fortune greatly over the thirty years of his career. No wonder than that he could afford the donation of his huge Crucifixion to the monastery in Scheut, which must have meant a considerable devotion of time and money. Rogier had also enough funds for a number of other gifts to churches in Brussels, and donations to the destitute. Van der Weyden died in 1464 and was buried in the cathedral of Brussels, Saint Gudule. The artist’s genius was honoured with a requiem service. Van der Weyden’s son, his grandson, and his great-grandson, all became painters, but none of them shared his success. Conclusion Rogier’s influence and fame reached far and wide from Brussels, all the way to Germany, Italy and Spain. In the studios of the Netherlands it ruled pictorial invention and methods of work throughout the second half of the century. Van der Weyden run a large workshop where copies were being made to his design. The students later repeated Rogier’s compositional ideas, with more or less success. In van der Weyden’s time there was no simple divide between ecclesiastical and secular patronage. The bishops and heads of religious houses often came from the same noble families as the courtiers. All the personages who have been identified as donors of altarpiece of Rogier’s hand (Pieter Bladelin, Nicolas Rolin, Jean de Chevrot, the Bishop of Tournai) were eminent men who had grown great in the favour of the court. His art was well suited to express the sombre splendour of secular as well as religious ceremonial, and it appealed especially to the dignitaries of the church. The position Van der Weyden had achieved through his art could be illustrated by his association with the highest levels of society. He belonged to the prestigious confraternity of the Holy Cross in the church of St-Jacques-sur-Coudenberg and prospered sufficiently to make not only investments in Tournai stock but also, as I have already mentioned, he was able to present religious foundations with gifts, particularly to the Carterhouses of Scheut and Herinnes where his son was a monk. However, the access to one of the greatest painters of the age was not restricted to dignitaries of church and state. Van der Weyden’s service was available to all who could afford it. Corporate commissions, such as that of the Louvain Archers’ Guild for the Descent from the Cross, could involve lower-ranking members of society in the commissioning the work of art. The Descent from the Cross is probably Rogier van der Weyden’s most impressive work. According to Davies, this picture alone makes it easy to credit that Rogier was the dominating painter of the north in the fifteenth century: “A sentiment of pity, so much then in people’s minds, clear presentation of forms easily recognised; strong and sincere piety; spirituality without strangeness; technical mastery”. The Descent from the Cross made a profound impression on his contemporaries, as testified by many copies and copies and imitations, and it almost certainly established Rogier’s fame. Susie Nash adds: “The originality of these figures, and the beauty of their shapes were so powerful that artists repeated them throughout Europe for a hundred of years: this is arguably the most influential painting of the fifteenth century”. In Early Netherlandish Art Max Frieländer talks about two cogent reasons why Rogier van der Weyden became the most influential painter of the fifteenth century outside Italy: ‘firstly, his retrospective, completely non-revolutionary art was in harmony with the traditional tendencies still existing everywhere, and secondly, the essential character of his style proclaimed itself, not, as in the works in van Eyck, in the execution, but in the design, for which reason it was easier to learn and led to a more or less satisfactory result, even if the pupil was incapable of rising to the height of master ship. Even a retrospective artist is, however, up to a certain point, limited to the artistic tendencies of his own time. Van der Weyden was often obedient to the stylistic demands of the new naturalism. He had to struggle to achieve a certain lifelikeness of effect, which in his works, is not an essential factor as it is in the works of Robert Campin and van Eyck. This is why fifteenth century painters outside the Netherlands, especially the Germans Spaniards, and French, became familiar with the new Flemish realism through the works of the most naturalistic of all old Netherlandish masters’. Rogier’s influence goes into breadth. His contribution consists of ‘ideas, types, themes, joy and the sound of music on the one hand, dramatic tension and moral grandeur on the other’. Bibiography Ludwig Baldass, Jan van Eyck, Phaidon Publishers Inc., New York, 1952 Jan Bialostocki, Sztuka cenniejsza niz zloto, Tom 1., Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa 1991; Adam Bochnak, Historia Sztuki Nowozytnej, Tom 1., Panstwowe Wydawnictow Naukowe, Warszawa Krakow 1985; Davies M., Netherlandish Primitives: Rogier van der Weyden and Robert Campin, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 71, No. 141 (Sep., 1937), pp. 140-145, Valentin Denis, All the Paintings of Jan Van Eyck, Vol. IV in the Complete Library of World Art, Oldbourne Press, London 1961; Brian Fallon, Van Eyck, Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 71. No. 284 (Winter 1982), pp. 360-377; Max Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, Vol. I, The Van Eycks – Petrus Christus, A.W. Sijthoff, Leyden 1967; Max Friedländer, Early Netherlandish Painting, From Van Eyck to Bruegel, Phaidon Press Ltd., London 1956; Davies M., Rogier van der Weyden. An essay with a critical catalogue of paintings assigned to him and to Robert Campin, Phaidon Press Ltd., London 1972; Susie Nash, Northern Renaissance Art, Oxford University Press, 2008 Wauters A.J., Rogier van der Weyden – I, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 22, No. 116 (Nov., 1912), pp. 75-82; Rogier van der Weyden Biography

Economic Man Or Homo Economicus Business Essay

Job design is a term that is widely used in the management of todays modern organizations structure as a strategy to increase their profitability and productivity. Daft, et al., 2010 It is mainly concerned with the process of planning, setting up and organizing systematic tasks within the organization according to the organization’s needs and employee’s capability. In order for the strategy to be effective and efficient, management put the responsibility to their employees and explains how the implementation process of their organization work arrangement will be in their management system. (DuBrin, 2008) Virtual organization is an association that exists but cannot be physically seen by the naked eye. It’s a concept that changed in line with the current vast developments. (Burn, J., et al., 2012) The virtual organization is very flexible and responsive because it does not necessarily require an office to operate but the existence of this virtual organization can be felt and experienced throughout the business process. Thurow (2011) states that business processes refers to the networking system used along the production process which conducted virtually through the way of communicating using electronic devices as the main telecommunication form. According to Parker, Craig and Craig (2008), matrix structured organization has the advantage of giving the opportunity for the top management to develop their skills in conducting and managing project-based strategy as well as gaining experience. It also practices a decentralization decision-making system that encouraging improvements of employee’s self motivation level as they have the chance to make decisions and act independently. Matrix structure organization also creates the flexibility of cross-communication system in exchanging information and ideas among the team members from different departments which can helps on saving time and cost. ( Gido and Clemens, 2008) Chain of command function as an organization system that showing how the operational and management within the organization works in a systematical manner to ensure efficient flow of work activities. It clarifies the organization reporting system between the subordinates to their superior which resulting as the unity of command. (Madura, 2007) According to Lunenburg and Ornstein (2011), it signifies the continues line of authority from the top managerial position to the lowest levels of an organization that showing the distinctive status, roles, responsibility, and the rights inherit in varies positions of the organization itself. Question 14 Maslow’s need theory consist of physiology needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Each level must be completely fulfilled before moving on to the next level. (Robbins, 2009) Physiology needs refers to our physical needs. Safety needs are needs of safety and security. Both levels are the low-order needs that can be satisfied internally. The high-order needs that can be satisfied internally are the social needs that seek for love and affection, then the esteem needs that refer to the needs of self-esteem and lastly the self actualization which is the needs of becoming fully matured human. (Shajahan, 2007) Question 7 Scientific management mainly focuses on the application of scientific method of study and also analysis into a problem which occur during management. Scientific Management basically referring on understands what one wants his subordinates to do and see it to be done efficiently and effectively. (Sahni and Pardeep, 2010) According to Murugan (2007), among the principles of scientific management are Science not rule of Thumb, scientific training and development of workers, close cooperation between employees and manager, equal division of works and also responsibility, maximum prosperity of employer and employee and mental revolutions. Question 15 Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model consists of five characteristic such as skill variety which means variety increases when overcome new problems each day and implementing various skills in completing tasks. Secondly, task identity, where employee’s working performances is acknowledgeable. Third, task significant is where an employee contributes positive result to the company. Fourth, autonomy is where the employees are given the freedom in planning while carrying out tasks. Lastly, the feedback where there will be an evaluation on employee’s performance in order to improve any deficiency. (Daft and Marcic, 2010) The application of these characteristic may increase the productivity and produces more motivated and productive the employees. Question 13 Montana and Charnov states the Expectancy Theory of motivation was proposed by Victor Vroom, a business school professor. The theory is more on the individual goal which focuses more on outcomes and their expectations while achieving it. (Jex and Britt, 2008) Employees are able to receive rewards according to his or her performance while working. The theory’s method will keep the employees motivated at all times as they hold their personal expectations of the rewards. (Montana and Charnov, 2008) The expectancy of increasing effort by the employees will lead to the increment of performance which will increase the productivity and positive result. Question 10 According to Wright (2010), Hawthorne studies were first attempted by Elton Mayo showing how lighting affected the employees working performance. But it shows that the physical conditions of the workplace do not influence the performance or motivation. In his finding, taking interest in all individual was enough to increase their work efficiency and output. Hence, the Hawthorne Experiment continues to show its result from time to time. Companies which value their employee’s ideas and opinions will result a higher standard of achievement. (Wong, 2010) This will also increase the ability and self esteem of the employees. Thus, increase their performance and productivity while working. Question 12 Montana and Charnov (2008), states the theory of X and Y was proposed by Douglas McGregor. In theory X, managers will assume that their employees are less ambitious, less responsible, dislike their job and prefer to wait for instructions rather than to lead a task. Managers with theory X are stricter and may threaten their employees to motivate them. But manager who holds the theory Y will assume that the employees are more responsible, willing to do work, more creative and self-directed. Thus, in theory Y the managers will not control much on their employees because they believe that employees are capable to perform well. (Shermerhorn, 2011) Question 16 The effectiveness of an organization internal communication can be improved through creating forum site on social websites such as Facebook and Twitter for discussion related to a matter. (Heath, 2005) Furthermore, any perceptions and ideas proposed by the employees should be considered and not being excluded in order to improve good relationship with other teamwork. Next, employers and employees should also instill proactive attitude to ask when in doubts related to a matter in order to avoid conflicts and distorted message. Lastly, employees should be train on communication skills to improve their self-esteem and communicating potential. (Quirke, 2012) Question 5 Public sectors are basically a bureaucratic government-based organization which normally focusing more on providing services to public rather than making profit. (Lienert, 2009) A simple example of a public sector organization is the government hospitals. The organization emphasizes more on accommodating the health service to the community by providing free to low-cost medical aid. However, privates sectors are non-government owned organization and runs on the main motive on making profit. (Rees and Porter, 2008) For example, supermarket such as Tesco and Carrefour in Malaysia are operated by private enterprises and not the government. Question 6 Planning stage is one of the functional approaches involved in the management process. According to Schwalbe (2006), it concerns activities such as setting goals and objectives of the work in an effort to keep it on track throughout the operation process. Next step would be, create and considering relevant strategies to achieve goals effectively. At last, the final step is simulating plans to coordinate and objectify activities in various possible ways it can succeed. (Lewis, et al., 2006) Within this stage, it requires a lot of critically thinking creativity and innovative aspects from that individual to come out with a radical and quantum ideas. Question 9 Fordism is a term that was named after an American entrepreneur; Henry Ford which was the founder of Ford Motor Company. (Schhlosser and Simonson, 2009) Fordism is a philosophy of manufacturing that being conducted based on the Taylorism theory that emphasizes in machine and efficiency of employees working performance. Fordism philosophy aimed to increase the productivity and reduce costs by adjusting output, set the installation process in phases, and dividing the work into small tasks according to employee’s expertise. (Blyton and Jenkins, 2007) The effectiveness of the philosophy enables an organization to maximize their profit and performance. Question 11 Personality is an influential matter that affecting a person’s decision. It is developed through their education, ways of socialization and nurturing since they were a child.

TU Conquest of America Book Strategy of Interpretation & Montezuma Discussion

custom essay TU Conquest of America Book Strategy of Interpretation & Montezuma Discussion.

1- Todorov tells us in the opening line of his book Conquest of America that his subject is “the discovery self makes of the other” (p. 3). Briefly explain what you take this to mean and provide ONE reason why this is an important subject for students of international studies?2- Identify and briefly discuss the kind of “strategy of interpretation” applies to the new world he encounters?3- Identify and briefly discuss ONE reason why Montezuma is reduced to silence and inaction when the Spanish launch their invasion of Mexico?Requirements: around 20 words for each question
TU Conquest of America Book Strategy of Interpretation & Montezuma Discussion

transition (Energy structure)

transition (Energy structure).

The readings were hard for me to understand, but I would say this is what I understood.We live in a word that is described as socio-technical systems. The systems are made up of people and how we use technology for people’s activities in society. People’s behavior in society is influenced by social norms and technical structure. For ex: the Energy structureThe system is made up of energy generation, transmission infrastructure that gets the energy to buildings, and how we use the power in each building. This system is called the regime that refers to mainstream activities and structures.The regime is influenced by changes in society. The landscape could mean high gas prices for example or public awareness. As the regime develops, new ideas are also developing. These people often work in Research and Design Labs. These people would be working on things not currently mainstream such as solar power and wind power, and that is known as a niche developments. Consumers are now connected to the primary structure, but since ideas are developed some users may prefer one of the niches such as the wind power better. Changes in the landscape may be something such as a thunderstorm that makes the windpower stronger (the niche) and puts [ressure on the traditional method of power.  This creates an opportunity for other consumers to see how good this new niche is and join in. So now, the social structure has to be redesigned to support new technologies. Overall:Landscape: influences regimeRegime: mainstream society supported by societyNiche: ideas can grow until they challenge the regimeMy question is: More companies are using the word sustainability to promote their products; however it seems like though companies have these products, there is a resistant to change from consumers. For example, not many people use alternative energy sources for buildings. What is behind the resistance? 
transition (Energy structure)

“Public Policy and Couple Relationships” by Doherty Essay (Article)

Introduction This article relates to a study conducted on fragile families in low-income communities. The study sought to interrogate the dynamics of fatherhood and couple relationships. In the study, urban couples are enlisted during childbirth and trailed for a period of four years. The study created a deeper understanding of circumstances that surround absentee fatherhood and the inherent features of couple relationships in low-income urban communities. The main focus was the involvement of fathers in raising a child and hurdles encountered by couples in relationships. Through this study, it is evident that a large number of fathers participate actively in raising their child despite economic hardships. The study also examines the aspect of enduring father involvement. The study seeks to establish whether prenatal involvement extends to later stages in child development. The study also focuses on the relationship between prenatal and postnatal involvement. Main Body According to research, the quality of couple relationships affects the level of father involvement. However, earlier studies have failed to determine the interdependent relationship between father involvement and couple relationship. The study underscores the importance of involvement by both parents in raising a child. Fathers involved during prenatal stages are likely to enjoy a healthy relationship with mother and child. If he continues to live with his mother, he is likely to be active in the child’s life. In this case, prenatal involvement is gauged by the presence and support of the father during pregnancy. This stage is helpful in determining the reliability of fathers. Paternal engagement relates to other aspects of parenting such as physical interaction with the child. Physical interaction occurs through play, narrating stories, and active display of physical affection. Active fatherhood demands availability and presence during major developmental stages in a child’s life. The study established that prenatal involvement leads to a healthy and fulfilling relationship with the child in later stages of development. This relationship accords the child an enabling environment for normal development. Fathers actively involved during pregnancy are likely to forge a healthy relationship with the child after birth. This study is a confirmation that family structure has an immense influence on the involvement of fathers. Active fathering is tasking in cases where both parents lack residential proximity. However, fathers who live with the child’s mother seize the opportunity through active involvement. Public policies should make it easier for couples in low- income areas to live together. This ensures that both parents participate in raising their children. The study indicates that married couples are more stable compared to cohabiting partners. Cohabiting parents put children at risk of witnessing their separation. This is true because cohabiting parents have a high likelihood of separation. The study proposes efforts by policymakers to ensure that low-income families get the necessary support to develop healthy family structures. This ensures that both parents participate in raising their children. Conclusion This research undertaking appreciates the need to formulate a public policy that addresses concerns relating to low-income families. This segment of society is under constant social and economic pressure. The study seeks to underscore the relevance of healthy family structures. In my opinion, this article explicitly addresses issues that relate to family. The issues tackled in the article are relevant in contemporary society. Father involvement is very important to a child’s wellbeing. This can only be achieved if both parents live together. It is important to have a public policy that encourages parents to live together for their child’s sake. By and large, a child’s development is largely dependent on the surrounding social circumstances.

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