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Risk and Joint Ventures: Questions and Answers

Table of Contents (Jump to) There are four types of international risks. Namely (a) Cross-cultural risk; (b) Country risk; (c) Currency risk and (d) commercial risk. Briefly describe each these risks. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a joint-venture or strategic partnership. Why is air transportation and air express so widely used in exporting when ocean transportation is much cheaper? Entering a new market through licensing is generally the best strategy because market potentials can be tested with little or no investment. Comment. Briefly explain why has international trade in agricultural products been expanding at a slower rate than exports of manufacturing goods? A multinational firm needs to have complete control over its subsidiaries in order to make optimum use of its resources and compete most effectively. Comment. References There are four types of international risks. Namely (a) Cross-cultural risk; (b) Country risk; (c) Currency risk and (d) commercial risk. Briefly describe each these risks. Cross cultural risk: Cross cultural risk identifies the risk of adjustment of different two cultures. In international business sectors most of the time mangers send their skilled and intelligent employees to the foreign sectors so that they can play a vital role in the business purpose. But sometimes employees as well as manager fail to understand the local need and demand through their cultural pattern (Moore, 1983). Then they cannot adjust with their foreign environment. They may find food dissimilarity, life style problem and many others think. Country risk: Country risk is a term which is used to define the probable risk of investing in foreign country. In the field of international or global marketing company has to invest a lot of money in the foreign country. But some time the government or local people may go against the company. So in consequences the company has to scarify their profit or even investment. Mass riot or social and economical unrest of the country bring enormous loss. Currency risk: Currency risk is also popularly known as foreign exchange risk. In the sector of international marketing a fixed price is always set by the two sectors to import or export. But due to natural disasters and international pressure this fixed priced can be highly modified. So one of the two sides has to carry the loss. Domestic inflation and economic unrest will affect this sector badly. Commercial risk: Commercial risk is the uncertainty or the probability of the return of the investment in the foreign country. In the field of international business all companies forecast their probable rate of return or the profit so they can understand their future in the market (Pearson, 1987). But duo to political unrest, change in the consumers living stander and the modification of the government regulation may affect it badly. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a joint-venture or strategic partnership. Advantage of the joint venture Joint venture is the recent innovative and effective way of get together of two companies. It provides a lot of facilities to both sides that’s why the number of joint venture companies is increasing day by day. It offers both company to use their innovation and technological advancement. It also provides opportunity to use others regional market place. So the number of consumers will increase. As innovative ideas are bring out more in this sectors proficiency can be achieved through new technological improvement (Hall, 1984). The joint venture helps both companies to use greater natural resources, and more expert employees. That will surely increase their production amount. It also offers to their partners to share their mutual risk. Another important advantage is being elastic in the market place.Any company can act to their consumers quickly and thoroughly through joint venture. Joint venture also helps to understand the new market quickly and easily. Disadvantage of joint venture: Some demerits are also associated with the joint venture production. It is very hard and nearly impossible to find a suitable partner for the joint venture. It takes too many time and efforts to find appropriate joint venture partner. Behind reasons of this problem may be a lot. Unclear aims of the joint venture section may be the first reason. Then all parties may not be interested to the aim. The aims of the joint venture have to be very corresponding otherwise no one will show interest. Disparity of the resources and the imbalance of the technological advancement are also effective reasons not to be a part of joint venture (Paakkunainen, 1992). Dissimilarity and the poor administration system also pave the discouragement of joint venture. Lack of thorough research and poor maintenance system are also responsible for this. Why is air transportation and air express so widely used in exporting when ocean transportation is much cheaper? Transportation is the biggest part of modern international business sectors. Quick response, cheap cost and the arrival power of remote area are the crucial factors of transportation sectors. Considering all other system it can be easily said air transportation system is used regularly and increasingly. The reasons behind this are many. Quick response is the most important and effective criterion in this sectors. All medical equipments and medicine are mostly transported through air express because of their call to reach necessity. Another important factor is remote area reaching power (Puffer, 1941). All electronic and perishable goods are transported by air express. It also carries the products time value and necessity. For quick response the customer can get the latest product and service so they prefer the new one rather than old one. So to grab new growing market most of the retailers like air express. So for fragile and luxury product air express is must. On the other hand sea transportations are cheap but so time consuming. And product like daily commodities and unnecessary product are transported through sea transportation. It takes three to four days for delivering some products on the other hand air express will take few hours to reach the place. Bad and unpredictable weather is another reason of decreasing s the use of sea transportation. Recently the pirates’ problem has increased in an alarming rate so merchandisers like air express over sea transportation (Bailey, 2009). It is very hard to trace the delivery in sea transportation which is another reason of discouraging sea shipment. Entering a new market through licensing is generally the best strategy because market potentials can be tested with little or no investment. Comment. Licensing is a widely used term in the field of international marketing. Specifically licensing is the process of granting application or permitting other party to use own intellectual property like logo, trademark, motto and some other brand name. The party who granted permission to use is called licensor and the other party who get the permission of using this property is known as licensee. Actually licensing is a good term for the new comer in the business sectors. Very few people trust the new comer in the international business sectors. So it is so tough for them to stay on business.Moreover new environment and new customers’ attitude take a tough test from the new comer (Sherman, 1999). So to explore the full recourse of the local environment and become popular in entering position licensing is the best process. Another important and crucial help to company is to pave the pipe to do business with readymade customer and with their trust.Licensing also helps his partner by proving the free advertising which can be very costly and ineffective. So automatically they will get new and potential customer to serve and get reputation. So all the way licensing provide critical facilities like present and future customer, free adverting and market goodwill with little or without any money cost. Briefly explain why has international trade in agricultural products been expanding at a slower rate than exports of manufacturing goods? In modern business sectors all products and services are included in international marketing. They can be divided in two categories. First may be agricultural products and the second can be manufacturing products. But comparing with manufacturing products, agricultural products are exported in a minimal rate. The main reasons behind this are the customers living pattern. Mainly agricultural products are the main base of their livelihood. They cannot easily change it. Or they are not interested to change it. So all their necessary livelihood things are produced by ones native country (Foley, 1999). And they are produced in a high amount. So they don’t need to import them from other country. And another reason of slow export ratio is that the agricultural products are not so suitable to store for a long transportation without using comical which is highly unhygienic for health. So no country wants to depend on others about their main agricultural food. They try to produce them all by themselves. Another reason may be profitable side. Agricultural products may not be so profitable for the exporter. It cost a lot to produce but the cost is nearly similar to the entire county throughout the world. Agricultural products take long time to be produced and need more space. On the other hand manufacturing products provide the competitive advantage to the manufacturer. They can be produced a lot if amount in short time by dent of improved technology. That can be produced after the export order and it take short time to deliver. They can be stored for a long time. And also their transportation facility is easy (Paul, 2008). So considering all those factors the manufacturing products get higher priority to export. A multinational firm needs to have complete control over its subsidiaries in order to make optimum use of its resources and compete most effectively. Comment. Multinational corporations (MNCs) are corporations found in one country but activate throughout the world with permanent amenities and workers in numerous countryside. A few types of multinational companies are Industrial corporations that produce goods and sell them in a variety of countries for example cars, electronics. So the main company is called parent company and the host company is called subsidiary company. Main company holds the authority to negotiate and implement power and the subsidiaries are bound to follow the rules. At the same time the subsidiaries company have to able to amplify their capability. But it is so important that parent company have to have full control over Subseries Company. Otherwise subsidiary companies will loss the power to produce the best. The host companies have to follow the host nation’s regulation and the profitability of the parents companies. So the full control over Subsidiaries Company will provide enough power to negotiate the host government. And some time the host country try to lure the parents company’s investment and authority so proper control over host help to stop this. Some time parent companies have to cut the extra staff and operating cost to maximize profitability. So without enough power no one can do it. And to explore the employees most talent and to train them the parent company need such power. (Tsurumi, 1977). So the parent companies always try to explore the best of the host country. They can use the natural resources best and can meet the all customers demand in a favorable way. References Bailey, G. (2009). Sea transportation. Pleasantville, NY: Gareth Stevens Pub. Foley, J. (1999). The global entrepreneur. Chicago, IL: Dearborn. Hall, R. (1984). The international joint venture. New York: Praeger. Moore, P. (1983). The business of risk. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. Paakkunainen, U. (1992). Joint venture decision. Helsinki: Helsingin Kauppakorkeakoulun Kuvalaitos. Paul, J. and Aserkar, R. (2008). Export import management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pearson, C. (1987). Multinational corporations, environment, and the Third World. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Puffer, C. (1941). Air transportation. Philadelphia: Blakiston Co. Sherman, A. (1999). Franchising

FIU Week 8 Healthcare Economics & Patient Safety Discussion Replies

FIU Week 8 Healthcare Economics & Patient Safety Discussion Replies.

please reply to the following post 100 words one reference each
# 1- Discussion 8 Stephanie Mortimer-Wallace
           Nurses impact the healthcare economy directly as they are a part of the hospital bed costs.  As such, nurses are part of value teams, process improvement, and other activities to improve hospital spending.  Microeconomics enables the study of the economic activities of individuals who make decisions about relatively small resources required for nursing care (Dunham-Taylor & Pinczuk, 2015).  This is usually done in a situations where individuals purchase healthcare or services.  Nurse leaders make purchasing decisions based on price, quality, and quantity and so microeconomics examines these factors in detail.  Price and quantity is complex and so microeconomics examines all three and examines the effect that each has on the others.
           The role of accounting in healthcare is to generate information on organizational cost and how theses cost are managed; in this way managers can make sound decisions when it comes to cost cutting.  Nursing and finance must always work together to cut budgets and nursing being the biggest discipline in healthcare seem to take the most budget cuts.  As staffing in nursing may not be compromised, nurses are constantly being asked to provide quality care with fewer resources.
           According to Dunham-Taylor and Pinczuk 2015, as cost-plus reimbursement ended the era of price competition in health care, hospitals found themselves not competing on a price or quality basis, but instead it became important to perform better to increase patient outcomes.  As healthcare organizations compete to provide optimal service and increase patient outcomes, they are enhancing their profit through pricing strategies, making better decisions about their employees and equipment, and achieving the highest reimbursement through the use of high technology and providing patients with optimal care (Barros et al., 2016).  Therefore striking a balance between reducing cost and increasing quality care is paramount in order to reduce competition.
Barros, P. P., Brouwer, W. B., Thomson, S., & Varkevisser, M. (2016). Competition among health care providers: helpful or harmful?. The European journal of health economics : HEPAC : health economics in prevention and care, 17(3), 229–233.
Dunham-Taylor, J., & Pinczuk, J. Z. (2015). Financial management for nurse managers: merging the heart with the dollar. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
# 2- Shannon Del Orbe Been
Microeconomics comes from the simplicity of its underlying structure and its close touch with the real world. In a nutshell, microeconomics has to do with supply and demand, and with the way they interact in various markets. Microeconomic analysis moves easily and painlessly from one topic to another and lies at the center of most of the recognized subfields of economics. Labor economics, for example, is built largely on the analysis of the supply and demand for labor of different types (2019). Economics, particularly healthcare economics, is more relevant now than ever, although the field’s enthusiasts may appear to be few and far between. For example, due to CVOID 19 budget cuts were initiated nurses were required to take on additional responsibilities to ensure high quality care needs are met. As healthcare costs increase, efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system must take into account nurses’ contribution to ensuring cost-effective, high-quality care.
Accounting disciplines in healthcare settings is the function of managing the organizations payments received, claims processing and revenue generating in general.  Effectively managing the patient revenue cycle for a healthcare organization often requires the use of special medical billing software; in other words, computer technology/software is necessary to accurately keep tabs on the rather-complicated claims processing routine. In fact, the entire financial process in healthcare includes some basic accounting procedures:  collecting patient co-pay, determining patient eligibility, making sure coding is conducted accurately, claims tracking, collecting all payments and following through on denied claims (Haslam & Lehman, 2016).
Health care markets with vibrant competition offer services at lower cost, provide more appropriate care, and, most important, deliver better patient outcomes than do less-competitive markets. Most people have a strong preference for using a hospital near their homes, meaning that hospital markets are largely local. Forty years ago, many regions were able to support several competing local hospitals (Atrianfar, 2019). Hospital admissions are declined substantially especially with tele medicine and other medical attention alternatives. Hospital stays have become shorter and the number of admissions has fallen, even as the population has grown. In a growing number of communities across the country, there just isn’t enough demand to sustain multiple competing community hospitals (Atrianfar, 2019). Making matters worse, community hospitals must compete with large tertiary academic medical centers, which also face declines in demand, as well as with free-standing clinics.
How Do Economists Approach Microeconomic Policy? (2017.). Microeconomic Policy. doi:10.4337/9781848441514.00007
Haslam, C., & Lehman, G. (2016). Accounting for healthcare: Reform and outcomes. Accounting Forum, 30(4), 319-323. doi:10.1016/j.accfor.2006.08.008
Atrianfar, H. (2019). Competing on Price and Quality: Healthcare from Trade Data. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3401094
# 3 – Shannon Del Orbe Been
At my current hospital, I recognize that the values for patient safety and culture consist of implementing protocols focused on medical prevention. Baptist is a magnet hospital, that uses teaching opportunities as a source for expanding knowledge and mastering clinical skills to ensure safety measures are maintained at high quality. Baptist safety and health management system is a proactive process to help the organization manage healthcare errors. Patient safety culture is a cornerstone of healthcare quality. Fostering patient safety culture requires an understanding of an organization’s values, beliefs, and norms (David, 2019).
Furthermore, it requires an understanding of the appropriate attitudes and behaviors related to patient safety. Currently the hospital has been focusing on teaching specific to CLASBI, CAUTI, and HAI’s numbers which have seen an increase in the past 4 months. Team members have reported having insufficient training or time to implement all the necessary interventions to preventing infections. The hospital recognizes a recent hiring surge related to CVOID 19 pandemic, limited the hands-on trainings available to new team members as well as refresher courses. Many of the new hires are inexperienced team members and new nurse graduates. Another concern is the increase in patient acuity and feeling overwhelmed due to the workload given. Several staff members have expressed their concerns for patient safety and meeting high quality care requirements when the patient load is higher than usual.
Organizational leaders have made efforts to have risk management and infection control team members make rounds to ensure all staff members are confident in their skills. It’s important for leaders to demonstrate their commitment to safety training by creating formal, written training materials; tracking employee training; and checking for employee understanding. I believe that formal training should happen frequently enough for employees to feel prepared to safely do their jobs. MSN Essential VIII applies and integrates broad, organizational, client-centered, and culturally appropriate concepts in the planning, delivery, management, and evaluation of evidence-based clinical prevention and population care and services to individuals, families, and aggregates/identified populations (AACN, 2011). I believe it most applicable to this week’s discussion on safety and culture.  
David, D. S. (2019). The Association Between Organizational Culture and the Ability to Benefit From “Just Culture” Training. Journal of Patient Safety, 15(1). doi:10.1097/pts.0000000000000561
The Organizational Culture That Supports Patient Safety. (2019). America’s Healthcare Transformation, 42-59. doi:10.36019/9780813572246-006
The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Homepage. (2020). Retrieved June 25, 2020, from
# 4 –  Stephanie Mortime-Wallace
           Healthcare organizations and the nursing profession have an ethical obligation to keep their patient population safe.  According to McGonigle and Mastrian 2018, a vital part of the safety culture is ensuring an environment that is free of blame.  My organizations continuously encourage staff members to report errors, and near misses, so that they can be methodically scrutinized and whatever necessary changes or new policies, if required can be implemented.  Organizations must foster a culture that everyone has the responsibility to question when something is not right.  In my organization this behavior is encouraged and supported as it can save a life.  
Mistakes in healthcare organizations, although costly, can be a learning process and can change the landscape of the organization to ensure there is a culture of safety where mistakes can be reported without fear of retribution.  In my organization, team training, patient involvement, and transparency are three aspects that can be enhanced.  Team training on safety can be used to ensure that the entire organization is aware of the safety culture that are in place to prevent errors such as ensuring the use of electronic health records system to manage medical errors (Freytag, 2017).  An environment of patient involvement should also be encouraged, as patients should be more involved in all aspects of their care.  This can be done by ensuring they utilize available technologies such as smartphone’s, tablets, and medical applications to enhance their own safety.   Transparency is also an aspect that is in need of change because, as healthcare providers, we must be transparent and report incidences when they occur and not make it seem as if the organization is hiding something because perception is everything in healthcare and organizations are always under a microscope. 
MSN essential III is appropriate for this discussion as it encourages nurse leaders to be communicative in encouraging proper safety standards as they relate to safe quality care as set out by their organizations (AACN, 2011).
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), (2011, March 21).  The essentials of master’s education in nursing Retrieved from
Freytag, J., Stroben, F., Hautz, W. E., Eisenmann, D., & Kämmer, J. E. (2017). Improving patient safety through better teamwork: how effective are different methods of simulation debriefing? Protocol for a pragmatic, prospective and randomised study. BMJ open, 7(6), e015977.
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
FIU Week 8 Healthcare Economics & Patient Safety Discussion Replies

U2CD: Leadership and Issues in Diversity

help writing U2CD: Leadership and Issues in Diversity. I’m trying to learn for my Law class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Using 400-600 words respond to the following questions:

George is a college student in North Carolina. Every weekend, he drives into Georgia to visit his family. George’s family is well-respected and are influential members of their community. They are wealthy enough to give George a good education and supply him with an upscale, flashy, and expensive automobile.
George is very religious, has extremely high ethics, but is also an eccentric and unique individual. He does not follow the trends in clothing or personal presentation. He has long hair, a flashy car, and wears “hippie” attire. Every time he travels through the northern counties of Georgia, he is either stopped by the Georgia Highway Patrol or the local sheriff’s office. They stop him because he fits the profile of a drug dealer.
The Georgia Highway Patrol and the local sheriff’s office have policies and procedures pertaining to drug trafficking. The highway that George is traveling is known as a “drug pipeline.”

Do you think these repetitive stops are reasonable? Why or why not?
What would be the reasoning behind the stops? Explain.
If these stops are based on policy and procedure in your state, what would the major in the Georgia Highway Patrol and the sheriff of the local county say to officers who did not stop George? Explain.
If the patrol had a field training officer (FTO), and you were a new recruit, how would you react if the FTO said “just skip him”?

On his last trip home, George passed a large city, and the highway patrol stopped him. This officer carried tools and a battery-powered screwdriver. He proceeded to take George’s car apart, piece by piece. When he did not find drugs, this officer just drove off, leaving George stranded. It was found that this officer just received a commendation for the highest amount of drug busts on this highway.

Should he be put up as an example of a good leader to follow for other drug officers? Why or why not? Explain your rationale.

Support your answers with scholarly sources and research into the laws and policies of LOUISIANA.
U2CD: Leadership and Issues in Diversity

NUR 674 Grand Canyon University Leadership Journal Paper

NUR 674 Grand Canyon University Leadership Journal Paper.

Journaling provides a valuable tool for recording, reflecting on, and reviewing your learning. This approach provides an opportunity for you to “connect the dots” and observe the relationships between and among activities, interactions, and outcomes.Unlike a personal journal of thoughts and feelings, this leadership journal is a record of your activities, assessments, and learning related to this academic experience.Journal entries should include a record of the number of hours spent with your nurse leader each week.Write a journal entry of 750-1,500 words on the subject of serving, including the following:Practicum Activities Reflection: Provide observations and thoughts on the activities in your practicum setting during Topics 9-10.Application of Leadership: Identify three to five personal values or characteristics that you believe are critical components of a good leader, such as honesty, compassion, or fairness. How do you express those values in your professional life?Practicum Project Preparation: How have you prepared those who will be affected by your project for its implementation?Leadership Video Reflection: Reflect on at least two things you learned from the “Servant Leadership – Issue of Example” video.Use the “Leadership Journal Template” to complete this assignment.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
NUR 674 Grand Canyon University Leadership Journal Paper

Please research a current case of the False Claims Act being used to litigate health care fraud. In your

Please research a current case of the False Claims Act being used to litigate health care fraud. In your post, please describe the facts of the alleged violation of the FCA and explain what specifically was false about the claim. In your response posts, please discuss and debate, with supportive evidence or references. For example, explain if it was an upcoding violation; a violation for charging for services that were not rendered or not medically necessary; etc, and WHY with supportive evidence or references.