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Rhyniophytes Seedless Vascular Plants Characteristics

Rhyniophytes Seedless Vascular Plants Characteristics. Rhyniophytes are a group of fossil plants, which compose the first land flora, These seedless vascular plants that developed during the early Devonian period and during the Paleozic era, occurred in the Rhynie Chert deposit. Some signs of this appeared as early as in the Silurian period as well. The first land flora is a clasificationof three extinct earlyvascular plant groups (the Rhyniophytes, the Zosterophyllophytes and the Trimerophytes), that flourished around 425to370million years ago. Despite the fact that these were very simple plants containing no seeds, flowers, and were even leafless, they bear a very striking resemblance to the plants we see today. The vascular tissue was comprised of a protostele or of one vascular bundle. A number of unicellular organisms were preserved in this location, such as fungi primitive plants and arthropods, leading researchers to believe that conditions were perfect for the process. The Rhyniophyta are notorious thanks to the prominent fossil record held in the village of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Rhynia, one of the most notable plant groups, are primarily characterized by their moderately small structure and dichotomous branches, with various lateral branches, most of which was common in all three groups with minor differences in size and location of sporangia. In the Rhynia, the sporangia were located mainly at the top of the main branches, but were usually overtaken by the growth of lateral branches. The sporangia present in the fossils found, contain enough cellular detail to tell which plants are the sporophyte generation. Significant unique features, like reproductive structures, can be seen connected to their parent plants, thanks to the fact the plants were buried in-situ. Fossils also showed first indication of wounding by insects in the form of penetrating wounds, likely by arthropods. Another important characteristic to take note of is homospory, each plant having the same size spores. This gives researchers more information into the kind of ecosystems these early plants evolved. During the second land flora or the coal age in specific regions of the globe, such as North America and Europe, were covered by shallow seas and swamps where favorable conditions yielded year-round growth with a tropical climate. Given these conditions five groups of plants thrived during this period, three of which were seedless vascular plants ferns, lycophytes, and equisetophytes. The other two dominante plants were of the gymnospermous type, the seed fern and the cordaites. These more complex groups dated from the late Devonian (375 million years ago) through the Carboniferous (290 million years ago). During the carboniferous period plants such as these grow high it the sky producing forests, but became extinct due to a time of increasing tropical drought during the Late Paleozoic. Leaving behind only a few relatives such as the herbaceous, several groups of ferns, and the conifers; some of these plants such as the fern and the herbaceous still exist today. The plants of this period were classified by having more modern characteristics, things like pseudomonopodial branching, monopodial branching, microphyllous leaves, and sporophylls leaf that covered the sporangia. Even ferns, had developed megaphyllous leaves and eusteles. The third flora more commonly known as the gymnosperm flora signifies a sequence of evolutionary lines of seed baring plants. Late into the Paleozoic era the progymnosperms existed, which is considered to be the intermediate between the seedless vascular plants and the gymnosperns that predominantly characterize the later period. The progymnosperms carried some of the traits for their predecessors as well as their successors, with the production of secondary xylem similar to living conifers and reproducing by means of freely dispersed spores, but most importantly the presence of a bifacial vascular cambrium. Progymnosperms became extinct around 340 million years ago in the Mississippian period. Evidence suggests that seed plants developed from similar plants such as these. Gymnosperm, which means naked seed, is a broad expressive term for plants like conifers, which have seeds that are borne naked, the primary characteristic of the classification. They are pollinated by wind. It was the global climate change that brought an end to the Carboniferous Period and the succeeding growth of the third major land flora, set apart by forests of gymnosperms. The extinct gymnosperms existed from Devonian period up until the Jurassic and range from a number of groups and characteristics. The Ptericdospermales or seed ferns and Cordaitles varied in form, from plants that looked like tree ferns to smaller slender branch plants. There are also a number of extinct Mesozic plants that are included with the gymnosperms on occasion, with seed ferns as well as a series of other Carboniferous and Devonian seed ferns being inclded. There is also some debate as to the lineage of the Bennettitales, which was an enigmatic group of Mesozoic gymnosperms characterized by its palm like leaves that faded out during the Cretaceous period. The four phyla of gymnosperms that came about still have existing representatives, which including the Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta and Ginkgophyta. The relationship between the four groups is still uncertain. Gymnosperm forests grew dominate for almost 150 million years, well into the Cretaceous Period where they began to diminish in size, around 145 million years ago. They became overshadowed by the flowering plants that emerged and ultimately rose to dominance around 90 million years ago. What resemble modern day cycads and cycadeoids first emerged at the end of the Paleozoic Era, approximately 290 million years ago and became plentiful in the Mesozoic Era, characterized by the dominate trait of the period the cone. Cycadeoids fell to extinct before the end of the Cretaceous period, but conifers being the most abundant group of gymnosperms, still live on today with around 7 families and ap 600 species. Conifer is a woody plant and most are evergreens. The leaves of conifer are long, thin and needle-like such as pine. Ginkgophyta is a monotypic phylum that lives on through one species, Ginkgo biloba or more commonly known as Ginkgo, which has spanned over 150 million years. It has reproductive qualities like the cycads and vegetative qualities much like the conifers. Gnetophytes are considered to be the closest existing relations to the flowering plant, dating back all the way to the early Cretaceous. Angiosperm, which literally means covered seed, is a broad expressive term for flowering plants whose ovules or seed are covered by the ovary. The angiosperms comprise only a single phylum, while gymnosperms consist of several phyla. The phylum consists of two major classes, Monocotyledones and the Eudicotyledones as well as a much less sophisticated and primitive group called Magnoliids, all of which encompass approximately 235,000 different species of plants. Flowering plants started to appear during the Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago. They are considered to be the most successful vascular plants to evolve, since they are the largest, most widespread, and diverse. Some of the possible causes for the flowering plants success include a range of adaptations for drought confrontation, together with the development of the deciduous habit, as well as, possibly the most important, the evolution of resourceful and specific systems for pollination and seed distribution. The first recognized flowering plant was the Archaefructus, which was only recently discovered. It has many of the major characteristics of angiosperms including slight roots, floral axes with sealed carpels on top as well as sealed stamens at the bottom, and bisected leaves, Angiosperms major characteristics consist of the most concentrated megagametophytes and microgametophytes of the vascular plants, fruits, flowers, ovules with two integuments, and “double fertilization”. Vessel elements are present in flowering plants xylem and in their phloem there are sieve tube elements. Some plants like the primitive class mentioned earlier lack these cell types. Sporophylls are leaves that folded to enclose the sporangia, which was most likely a defense mechanism to protect the reproductive materials. Different sporophylls undertake different jobs, while some produced male sporangia which became the stamens, others produced the female reproductive structure or pistil and some that don’t produce reproductive sporophylls became the petals and sepals. The anther, which are the folded sporophyll that are positioned at the tip of the stalk or filament, are the location of the male sporangia. In the sporangium, spores are formed which divide almost instantaneously to generate gametophytes. Once mature, the anthers open to discharge the mature male gametophytes or pollen grains. The pollen grain is carried by wind or by animal to the female gametophyte. When the male gametophytes find a well-matched stigma, a pollen tube develops to reach the female gametophytes, through the pistil and into the carpel. Flowering plants rely predominantly on insects for pollen transfer. Insects get a sweet nectar reward and as flowering plants discharge odors to draw bees, beetles, butterflies, and wasps to their blossoms. Other larger pollinators include bats, mothhawks, and hummingbirds. There has been a co-evolution of flowering plants and their pollinators as modifications of plants and pollinators have been a key factor in the success of the flowering plant, which can be seen with an look at the flowering plant visitors. Rhyniophytes Seedless Vascular Plants Characteristics
Key Theories from Human Communication Studies Worksheet.

All linked are powered by “Scribd” for any files (other then the CLASS BOOK.)CLASS BOOK: Understanding Human Communication / Edition 13Length: 4 – 6 minutes Visual Aid: RequiredSpeech Transcript: Required There are two parts to this assignment – a presentation and a full-sentence transcript. This assignment details the full-sentence transcript only.To review the presentation requirements. PurposeThe purpose of this assignment is to show you how to connect the concepts and key theories from human communication studies to your personal life.Choose a particular moment in your life in which you learned a valuable lesson or fact. It could be something you learned in hindsight or something you are still trying to understandExpand on this topic by focusing on how this lesson learned connects to a key term, theory, or concept from the textbook. You will be choosing your concept from a list of topics provided below.ObjectiveIn addition to presenting on video the narrative speech, you will also be turning in your written outline detailing what you plan to say within your presentation. This full-sentence outline is called a “speech transcript” because it is required to be written in full and complete sentence form with in-text citations and a works cited list attached at the end. While you will be conveying a story in this speech, you must still follow the speech organizational pattern: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion! You will be required to have 3 outside sources cited within your presentation, as well as cited in your speech transcript (Hint: the class textbook is 1 source! Find 2 more!). You will be required to follow the Narrative Speech Transcript Skeleton Outline – located here – for this assignment. While there is not a page requirement for this full-sentence transcript, your writing must convey the full message – beginning, middle, and end- and connect directly and explicitly to the concepts being defined. Speech Transcript Grading Criteria (15 points)Your outline should follow proper APA or MLA structure (your choice), typed, double spaced with 1” marginsFollow the narrative speech transcript skeleton provided – here. 3 outside sources that explain or describe the communication theories and concepts chosen must be cited in the outline using in-text citations as well as on an attached reference/works cited list.You must include a CRAAP worksheet -located here – for all sources used within your presentation and transcript. The theories or concepts assigned must be explained and described in detail within the speech transcript. Theories and concepts must connect directly to the personal narrative being shared, and the connection needs to be explicit within the writing of the transcript. Your speech transcript should follow basic essay structure including: introduction, 3 main body paragraphs, and conclusionYour outline should be free of grammar errors, be in complete sentence structure, and coherent organization of thoughts and ideas.Thank You.
Key Theories from Human Communication Studies Worksheet

Colombia Southern University Environmental Science Question Paper

Colombia Southern University Environmental Science Question Paper.

Boulder, Colorado, has been a leader in controlling urban sprawl by limiting new construction and population growth. One consequence has been skyrocketing housing prices. Write a short essay of at least 1 page discussing issues related to the impacts of the housing price increase on the availability of housing for poorer people. Do you think this limit on who can live where is moral or ethical? With this in mind, also discuss the impacts of urban renewal on the availability of housing and urban sprawl (urban renewal is very common). How does this practice of renewal impact the poor? Submit your paper to the appropriate folder in the Dropbox area of the course.1-page… NO Plagiarism…APA Format for any references
Colombia Southern University Environmental Science Question Paper

Psychology Oscar Behavioral Theory and Therapy Case Discussion

custom essay Psychology Oscar Behavioral Theory and Therapy Case Discussion.

Read the vignette below. After you finish reading the vignette, visit the website From the list of behaviors on the webpage, select one behavior that is most similar to an issue of concern from the vignette. Click that behavior and then select two Tier 1 interventions to implement in the classroom. Also, select one Tier 1 data tracking tool that would be used as part of the behavior intervention plan.Oscar is an 8-year-old African American male who is having trouble focusing and concentrating in school. During class he often stares out the window and appears to be “lost in his thoughts.” He has a very strong interest in the solar system and often talks about different planets, the moon, and the stars. He often wants to play “astronaut” with other kids and may refuse to play anything else. During lunch or at recess he is often alone and does not play with others. He has had difficulty making friends and the kids describe him as “odd” or “weird.” They complain that he is annoying and when entering a social situation he has trouble following along in conversations and blurts out things while others are talking. Academically, Oscar has good grades, but often worries that he is completing assignments incorrectly or is worried that he won’t have time to finish. He asks many questions in class and gets upset when he doesn’t know how to solve problems. He has started complaining of headaches and stomachaches at school. He is polite and well-mannered and tries hard to follow the rules, but has some difficulty during times of transitions. He has had some termper tantrums in the classroom that range from either uncontrollable crying to standing frozen in the hallway. More recently, the tantrums have escalated such that he is kicking, yelling, and screaming.Outline what behavior you selected and why, what the interventions are that you selected, and how you will introduce these interventions to Oscar and his teacher, as well as what data tool you will use. Be sure to discuss any cultural or ethical considerations as well in developing an intervention plan. Also be prepared to discuss your intervention plan during the synchronous session.
Psychology Oscar Behavioral Theory and Therapy Case Discussion

Marian Mochozuki Experimental Program Case Questions

Marian Mochozuki Experimental Program Case Questions.

I’m working on a sociology writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Why is it important that those being evaluated fully support the evaluation? Beyond what was done in Marian’s evaluation can you think of other ways to gain buy-in from program staff being evaluated? How might managers staff members, have different interpretations of the data? What do you think the maximum length of the questionnaire should be?2. Identify what the question wants to do (in this case, you need to read the case study presented in chapter 3)4. Before you sit to write your answer, write an outline: a. Remember you are focusing on the case study b. Once you decide what your answer is, make sure you provide examples c. If you can, talk to your classmates or friends about the question.5. Your essay should be at least a page and a half and two pages at mosty successfully completing the assignment, you will deepen your understanding of critical aspects and terms used in policy analysis.By successfully completing the assignment, you will practice identifying key terms and definitions that comprise policy.By successfully completing the assignment, you will acquire a critical thinking lens to identify and analyze policies that affect you, your loved ones, your clients, and society.
Marian Mochozuki Experimental Program Case Questions

Pestle Analysis Is An External Analysis Economics Essay

It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market research, and gives an overview of the different macro environmental factors that the company has to take into consideration. This analysis of the external environment will lead to the identification of a number of opportunities and threats. 7.1 PESTLE Analysis of Royal KPN Political Factors The Netherlands’ opening degree of its economic, commercial laws and investment policy is well-known in the world. The Netherlands’ economy is very internationalization with minimum interference from the government, and its trade investment policy is the most open one in the world [1] . The government offers many kinds of policies to encourage international investment, and support foreign companies to enter the Netherlands. In addition, the Netherlands has well-done taxation system and commercial environment. The Netherlands’ low tax rate and widespread tax revenue treaty network in Europe make its taxation environment favorable and attractive (L Zeng 2008). The new Dutch telecommunications regime is relatively liberal, with no barriers to entry, no line-of-business restrictions and relatively few controls on prices. After deregulation, a large number of companies have been in the local market to provide telecommunication services and invest in facilities. [2] In addition, the EU telecommunications regulators never reduce the regulation for the telecom industry. The policies about cut settlement cost and roaming charges are continually published. The Netherlands, like most Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, is facing a double challenge: to complete the liberalization of the telecommunications market, and to prepare for the next generation regulatory regime in the face of convergence. Economic Factors The Netherlands is called the gate of the Europe due to its predominant geographical position. It has a flourishing and open economic which depends heavily on foreign trade [3] . It is one of the main foreign investment countries with the most favorable and attractive business environment in the world. The Netherland is also playing an important part in the economic and trading development, and having a large number of customers in the EU market. By the end of 2011, the GDP of the Netherlands is currently ranked 16th in the world, and it is the eighth in imports of goods and services from the United States [4] . Moreover, the Netherlands has developed communication infrastructure and advanced transporting network, with two biggest ports (Rotterdam and Amsterdam) and the third largest airport (Schiphol) in the Europe Union. The Netherlands is also famous all around the world by its leading technologies and management experience in many fields of industries, such as the telecom and electronic industry. In short, the Netherlands’ open economy is developing mainly depends on its good geographical position, the developed transportation system, the advanced communication infrastructure and the developed logistic service, as well as the powerful government support and attractive commercial environment, make the Netherlands the most favorable economic environment for doing business among all the European countries. But in recent years, the whole economy in Europe is seriously threatened by the European sovereign-debt crisis. In many experts’ view, economic downturn in the Euro zone will still keep for a long time and this also affected the telecom industry. The constantly depraved macro economy make an apparently decrease in revenues of the European telecom companies, lead to the profit declined, liquidity squeeze and market demand weak. Social Factors The Netherlands has a modern and international society, the people living here has a high quality of life. The Netherlands has a long and colorful history; its special social culture is so open and become very suitable for foreign people. During several centuries, the Netherlands has accepted massive immigrants from all over the world. As a result, the colorful social history and international social environment make it favorable for the investors to take part in varies of business activities. In the meantime, the favoring commercial policy and stable political environment provide equal development opportunities for both local and foreign companies, which make the Netherlands’ business environment more diversification. In addition, the Netherlands has high quality labor force. Most of the Dutch citizens have received high education or job training, and master one or two foreign languages [5] . Moreover, they are qualified with the complex skills that are needed in the high-tech economy. The Netherlands has a small but advanced telecom market. The broadband, Internet and mobile penetrations are all far ahead of the EU average. The Netherlands has consistently ranked among the top rated telecommunications markets within Western Europe. Broadband services will supply greatest opportunities for growth, while fixed lines are expected to continue to decline. Mobile broadband connections in the Netherlands have increased to 882,000 in the middle of 2010 and Mobile penetration reached about 130% in early 2010. [6] Despite the recessionary conditions such like economy slowdown and debt crisis in Euro zone, Dutch subscribers have shown that they will continue spending, especially due to their desire for the latest technologies. Technological Factors The Netherlands has the leading communication networks and IT technologies in the Europe, which mainly benefits from the government support and technological development [7] . Now consumers in the Netherlands can enjoy a variety of communication methods and an increased range of services, such as network and wireless network operation. The industry has evolved the past previous limits that confined services to voice related ones, which makes the computer and based IT and telecom technologies become the part of the normal life [8] . As a result, it is becoming more efficient to do Internet trading among companies in different countries due to the rapid development of communication and IT technologies. Moreover, the Netherlands’ perfect commercial laws and well-operating consumer market have provided a good business environment for the telecom companies to develop their technologies and make broader distribution channels. Besides, the Netherlands is among the world’s most wired countries with a state-of-the-art, 100 percent fiber-optic infrastructure, the largest bandwidth and Internet Exchange on the European continent, and a pro-technology government that is committed to continued research and development. [9] Telecom providers in the Netherlands offer a wide range of services and are keen to introduce new technologies. The Netherland’s telecom market has one of the most advanced infrastructures in Europe, which providing a solid foundation for emerging bundled services offerings. Legal Factors The legal institution of the Netherlands is also highly praised because of its business laws which take laws letter as main body and assisted with legal principle theories (L Zeng 2008). The Independent Post and Telecommunications Authority of the Netherlands (OPTA) promote competition, encourage innovation and protect consumers in telecom markets. OPTA also issues licenses for telecom operators, sets interconnection prices for providers and end-users’, and solve disputes between telecom carriers. Radio communications Agency Netherlands is responsible for obtaining and allocating frequency space and monitoring its use. Dutch Media Authority upholds the rules which are formulated in the Dutch Media Act as well as in the regulations based on this act for example the Media Decree. [10] Dutch Telecommunication Act entered into force in December 1998. The Dutch government adopted the EC Electronic Communications Framework (IRIS 2002-3:4) and amended the Act in 2004. Major modifications include: 1) Adoption of electronic communications in various fields; 2) Expansion of OPTC’s authority in rule making; 3) Improvement of consumer protection, anti-spam regulations, application of competition law; 4) Single framework applies to all kinds of electronic communication networks including cable TV networks. The revised Act entered into force on May 19, 2004. Environmental Factors In the Netherlands, very high densities of both population and economic activities have led to very intense pressures on the country’s environment. In addition to levying environmental taxes, governmental administrations, like Water Boards, have the possibility to charge fees. Companies and households are charged directly for some polluting activities, for instance the discharge of waste water to the sewers and the production of waste (Statistics Netherlands, 2012). For companies, these fees would be accounted as parts of environmental costs which are quite high each year. Care for the environment is an integral part of KPN’s business operations. KPN is particular focus on responsible energy use, because the telecommunication and ICT sector consumes a lot of energy and ICT can help to reduce its customers’ energy consumption. They aim to continuously enhance their environmental performance and to become an example in this sector, as well as to observe relevant regulations and legislation [11] . In addition, KPN is dedicated to proper management of cables, reduction of waste, and other issues that contribute to make a better environment. In the Netherlands and Germany, KPN has a certified environmental management system (ISO14001). This international standard is used to develop environmental policy, to manage environmental aspects and to improve the environmental performance of an organization. 7.2 PESTLE analysis of Deutsche Telekom Political Factors Germany has a very stable government which provides a safe environment for business. The efficient regulatory regime and open-market policies treat the foreign business investments much the same as German investors [12] . Its political system is open to international business and strives to find ways in which to attract new businesses and investors, such as recently lowering its corporate profit taxes [13] . The main challenge for the government of Germany is dealing with the debt crisis in the Eurozone, which had a significant negative impact on public finances and economic growth. The bailout of financially weak European countries is unpopular among German taxpayers which also represents a political risk [14] . Despite there is a challenging external economic environment aggravated by the European debt crisis, Germany is still one of the world’s most dynamic and powerful economies. The foundations for long-term competitiveness and stable economy growth have been deeply rooted in the high quality of the judicial regime, which maintains a strong rule of law. Economy Factors Germany is the world’s fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP and fifth by GDP (PPP) in 2011. Germany is also the largest national economy in Europe, accounting for about one-fifth of the gross domestic production (GDP) of the European Union (EU) [15] . Germany is the world’s third largest exporter with $1.408 trillion exported in 2011 (Eurozone countries are included) [16] . Germany is one of the world’s high-income countries and the largest European trade and investment partner of the United States. Although its economic and commercial policies are increasingly determined within the EU, Germany plays a key role in influencing EU policies (Paul Belkin 2009). Germany’s economy has been on a lower growth rate in recent years, and unemployment has also risen steadily. Especially hit by the international financial crisis, which led to a steep 5% decline in the GDP growth of Germany in 2009 [17] . The crisis also raised questions about the long-term vitality and strength of the German economy. After resuming in 2010, economy growth in Germany slowed down again in 2011 as a result of the debt crisis in the Eurozone and the specter of recession. With declining economic growth and rising expenditures on social protections, Germany is facing significant budgetary issues and resource constraints. The telecom industry plays an important part of the Germany’s economy and has important strategic significance for the economy’s development. So the aim of market liberalization in Germany includes not only the benefits to consumers of improved prices, choice, quality of service and widened product range, but also overall economic development [18] . The government recognizes that investment in communications infrastructure, services and broadband will mainly come from the private sector. And pro-competitive regulatory reform is considered the most effective way to promote the private sector investment and innovation. Economic slowdown in Germany makes these broader aims more pressing and important. Social Factors Germany has the largest population in the European Union with 81.8 inhabitants in January, 2011. The prosperous German economy attracts millions of immigrants from around the world as it is the third largest country in terms of immigration [19] . Germany has a modern and open society; most people are well-educated and enjoy a high standard of living. Germany is also famous for its well social security system which mainly due to their flourishing economy. Besides, there are more than 40 million workforces in Germany which making it the largest pool of labor in the EU. Germany’s world-class education system ensures that the students will receive the highest-standard education. More than 80 percent of the German workforce has received formal professional training or owned an academic degree [20] . Germany is also the largest and most mature mobile market in Western Europe, with average penetration in the broadband and mobile sectors. Its high levels of literacy, urbanization and strong economic performance make Germany a welcoming telecommunications market. In Germany, the mobile penetration reached more than 135% by early 2011 [21] . Regulatory pressure on voice roaming and termination rates will encourage operators to further promote their development of data applications to improve profits. In 2011, Deutsche Telekom saw a growth in its German customer base and data use, with more than one million new mobile contract customers, although there was a historical low in the number of line losses in its fixed network of 21 per cent during the year [22] . Technical Factors New technologies and innovation are significant to maintain Germany’s international competitive power. German companies are one of the global leaders in the development of new technologies. Depending on high quality and innovation, the “Made in Germany” brand has been a guaranty of quality. Moreover, Germany is the number one location for research in Europe. Germany’s unique scientific tradition and great variety of research fields offer ideal conditions. Research-intensive products and services contribute 45 percent to the creation of value in Germany, more than in any other industrialized country [23] . As one of the world’s leading exporters, Germany clearly understands that science and technology lay the foundation for its future position on the world markets. They are the key to competitiveness and sustainable economic growth. The German Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry is the largest in Europe and fourth largest internationally. The sector plays a significant role in promoting successful R