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Respecting Client Autonomy: Facilitated Suicide

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Respecting client’s autonomy is the most important principle for a mental health nurse to follow The clinical entity of suicide is generally subdivided into the three sub-categories of unassisted suicide, facilitated suicide and assisted suicide. (Pabst Battin, M., 1996). The bioethical model considers each of these entities separately. The first category includes all cases where the individual has made an autonomous decision to end their life without the knowledge or assistance of any other person. The facilitated suicide is a very specific group where the victim undertakes suicide in a situation where they have been under the care of a healthcare professional who had knowledge of the potential risk and that means of either suicide prevention or intervention were available but either not used or not considered. There is a clear distinction between this group and the next to be considered, as there is not a suggestion that the healthcare professional did anything positive to assist the suicide attempt, but there is an element or suggestion of neglect or failure of duty on the part of the healthcare professional to protect the patient. (Kupfer J 1990). The assisted suicide is where either a healthcare professional or another person actively assists, either in terms of providing the actual means of death or the knowledge and guidance as to its use, in the death of another. Most arguments aimed at supporting this situation are based on an assumption of rationality and competency on the part of the victim. The majority of such situations, if analysed critically, involve severe pain, disability or occasionally stress, each element has the ability to substantially impair rational thought and decision making. (Salvatore A 2000) Bioethics is the study of value judgements pertaining to human conduct in the area of biology and medicine. It espouses a number of ethical principles which are central to the field but are overlapping, occasionally contradictory and, in the field of suicide in particular, are frankly capable of producing considerable confusion. (Donnelly, J., 1998) We shall briefly consider the main principles that are relevant to this consideration. Perhaps the most central ethical principle to consider is that of autonomy. John Stuart Mill (Mill 1982) produced on of the most celebrated treatises on autonomy, which, taken on face value, allows any individual the right to self-determination of all his actions. In most fields of medical practice the principle of autonomy is considered virtually sacrosanct and explicit personal consent is required for most procedures. (Gillon. R. 1997). The practical difficulty arises when the patient is not “competent” (a legal term – not an ethical one). The arguments that surround the issue of autonomy in relation to suicide effectively turn on this issue. Those who support the autonomous right to suicide arguing that JS Mill was right, and on the other extreme there are those who oppose it pointing out that anyone who comes to the decision to take their life is, by definition, incompetent (legal definition again) (Coulter A. 2002). Other principles help us further. The Principle of Beneficence (often referred to as the First Principle of Morality), at its most basic level requires the doing of goodness and of being good. This immediately presents the analyst with a problem because the definition of “goodness” is dependent on both environment and culture. What is considered good in one circumstance may not necessarily be good in another. Critically, beneficence implies that the healthcare professional will have carried out his duties, obligations and responsibilities in a spirit of goodness. (McMillan J 2005) If we also consider the principle of Non-maleficence. Primum non nocere, which literally means “no malice”. Carrick (P 2000) points to the fact that Hippocrates encapsulated this Principle in his dictum “first do no harm”. In its more modern interpretation, it means that not only must the healthcare professional do no harm to the patient, but, critically in this regard, they must take all necessary steps to see that no harm comes to the patient. (Dimond. B. 1999). The World Health Organisation widens this interpretation to one which includes a duty to try to minimise any harm which is unintended or accidental. (WHO 1996). There are some circumstances, and these certainly have a bearing on consideration of suicide , where, if a clinician or healthcare professional feels that they cannot do good without the possibility of doing harm, then they should take no action at all. We should note that this is primarily a theorist‘s view and, in the real world it is almost impossible to take any action that does not have the possibility of doing harm to a patient. In conclusion one can agree that, in general terms, autonomy is indeed an important principle for mental health nurse to follow but, in the case of suicide, it is not the most important principle. Mills felt that autonomy required the exhibition of respect, dignity, and choice with the latter being considered generally the most important. Healthcare professionals have to have respect for personal rights. Suicide has to be seen (generally) as the outcome of a number of processes which result in psychological debilitation. The extension of autonomy to such individuals facilitates suicide. It is generally accepted that respect for the individual patient in these circumstances is more usually demonstrated by recognising their vulnerability. It is a common finding that the principles of ethics can be antagonistic. Failure to observe one Principle in order to facilitate another does not render an action necessarily unethical. Beneficence must not be sacrificed for autonomy (Minois, G., 1999) Beneficence is about caring and not just treatment. Every attempt at intervention is warranted. The adoption of the Principle of Non-maleficence calls for the healthcare professional to do whatever is necessary to protect the patient from harm and for whatever it takes to assure the client’s life. (Rich K et al. 2004) It is generally a mistake to consider that the ethical requirements and the legal requirements in these circumstances are the same. The law sets a minimum set of standards, ethics requires considerably more. We could conclude by considering the Socratic maxim which is particularly relevant here “Primum non tacere” (First, do not be silent) References Carrick P 2000 Medical Ethics in the Ancient World Georgetown University press 2000 ISBN: 0878408495 Coulter A. 2002 The autonomous patient. London: The Nuffield Trust, 2002. Dimond. B. 1999. Patient’s rights and responsibilities and the nurse. 2nd ed. Salisbury.: Quay Books 1999 Donnelly, J., 1998, Introduction, in Suicide:Right or Wrong?, J. Donnelly (ed.), Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus. 1998 Gillon. R. 1997. Autonomy London: Blackwell 1997 Kupfer, Joseph, 1990, Suicide: Its Nature and Moral Evaluation, Journal of Value Inquiry, 24 : 67-81. McMillan J 2005 Doing what’s best and best interests BMJ, May 2005 ; 330 : 1069 ; Mill JS 1982 On Liberty, 1982, Harmondsworth: Penguin, p 68. Minois, G., 1999, History of Suicide: Voluntary Death in Western Culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1999 Pabst Battin, M., 1996, The Death Debate. Ethical Issues in Suicide, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall 1996 Rich K
RSCH 8210 Walden University Wk 7 ANOVA Testing Discussion Post.

To prepare for this Discussion:Review the Learning Resources and the media programs related to ANOVA testing.Search for and select a quantitative article specific to your discipline and related to ANOVA testing. Help with this task may be found in the Course guide and assignment help linked in this week’s Learning Resources. Also, you can use as guide the Research Design Alignment Table located in this week’s Learning Resources. By Day 3Write a 3- to 5-paragraphs critique of the article. In your critique, include responses to the following: Please itemize each point so that you show that you have addressed each point.Which is the research design used by the authors?Why did the authors use ANOVA test?Do you think it’s the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?Did the authors display the data?Do the results stand alone? Why or why not?Did the authors report effect size? If yes, is this meaningful?Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.By Day 5Respond to one of your colleagues’ posts and:Make recommendations for the design choice.Explain whether you think that this is the appropriate test to use for the research question. Why or why not?As a lay reader, were you able to understand the results and their implications? Why or why not?
RSCH 8210 Walden University Wk 7 ANOVA Testing Discussion Post

Pulmonology Case Study, health and medicine homework help.

I picked the 65 year old pulmonology patient case study  You will pick one of these cases to analyze and create a comprehensive care plan for acute/chronic care, disease prevention, and health promotion for that patient and disorder. Your care plan should be based on current best practices and supported with citations from current literature, such as systematic reviews, published practice guidelines, standards of care from specialty organizations, and other research based resources. In addition, you will provide a detailed scientific rationale that justifies the inclusion of this evidence in your plan. Your paper should adhere to APA format for title page, headings, citations, and references. The paper should be no more than 10 pages typed excluding title page and references. Criteria:Case Study Evaluation Analyze the disorder addressing the following elements: pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, progression trajectory, diagnostic testing, and treatment options. Differentiate the disorder from normal development. Discuss the physical and psychological demands the disorder places on the patient and family. Explain the key concepts that must be shared with the patient and family to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes. Identify key interdisciplinary team personnel needed and how this team will provide care to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes. Interpret facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes. Describe strategies to overcome the identified barriers. Care Plan Synthesis Design a comprehensive and holistic recognition and planning for the disorder.  Address how the patient’s socio-cultural background can potentially impact optimal management and outcomes. Demonstrate an evidence-based approach to address key issues identified in the case study.  Formulate a comprehensive but tailored approach to disorder management. Submit your document to the W5 Assignment 2 Dropbox by Thursday, August 25, 2016. CriteriaWeightCase Study EvaluationAnalyzed the disorder addressing the following elements: pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, progression trajectory, diagnostic testing, and treatment options. Differentiated the disorder from normal development. Discussed the physical and psychological demands the disorder places on the patient and family. Explained the key concepts that must be shared with the patient and family to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes. Identified key interdisciplinary team personnel needed and how this team will provide care to achieve optimal disorder management and outcomes. Interpreted facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes Described strategies to overcome the identified barriers. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Care Plan SynthesisDesigned a comprehensive and holistic recognition and planning for the disorder.  Addressed how the patient’s socio-cultural background can potentially impact optimal management and outcomes. Demonstrated an evidence-based approach to address key issues identified in the case study. Formulated a comprehensive but tailored approach to disorder management. 20 20 20 10 APA Style/Format: Free of grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Citations and references are written in correct APA Style.10Total150
Pulmonology Case Study, health and medicine homework help

Tourism And International Cooperation Tourism Essay

This paper examines the role of international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the European Union and host of other regional based bodies in the promotion of tourism as a tool for development, poverty reduction, socio-economic integration and economic diversification. There is no doubt that tourism has had immense contribution to many third world countries. As a matter of fact, Sharpley and Telfer (2002) opine that among the contemporary economies, tourism has continuously been referred to as the world’s largest industry (p.2). This is because it is one of the fastest growing economic sectors with its contributions being different from other sectors as it contributes to development by generating foreign exchange. As Grenfell (2010) finds, most developing countries depend on tourists from the developed countries and that foreign tourism in many developing nations is more valued and developed than domestic tourism which is underdeveloped and undervalued (p.3). Tourism can therefore help in eliminating the economic gap that exists between the developed and the developing nations. For international community (developed world) to meaningfully help the third world countries, they need to be actively involved in the vital sectors of economy of these countries. It is therefore crucial that the international community should help these third world countries in the creation of infrastructure in order to promote tourism activities which in turn contribute to the overall economic advancement of these countries. The paper considers ways through which these international bodies can help boost tourism activities in less developed sub-Saharan countries to transform them to performing economies. To this end, the paper will utilize the case of Kenya and Egypt, two sub-Saharan countries experiencing steady economic growth. So as to make a strong argument the paper holds that while many third world countries are endowed with a wide range of economic resources and/or activities, international tourism has over the years continued to play a central role in shaping their economic destinies. International Tourism and Development Tourism in its simplest definition refers to the industry that provides travel and entertainment facilities for people away from their own homes (Richmond, 2000). However, it is important to note that in tourism, there are seasons when the activities are at peak and other times when they go off peak. Most tourists usually go for tourism activities during their vacations which might be based on domestic and/or international calendars. International tourism evolved after the Second World War and by the year 1999, it accounted for six percent of the global economy (Ghosh, Siddique

Conceptual Understanding & Self-Reflection Essay

cheap assignment writing service Conceptual Understanding & Self-Reflection Essay. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

A concept paper is similar to an essay exam; you have an opportunity to communicate your learning by address questions that capture key connects or big ideas presented in the text. This is a 10-12 page paper.
Instructions: In your textbook, at the end of each chapter you will find “personal reflections” and “critical thinking questions.” In your concept paper, please answer the questions listed below. Remember to define any critical terms as part of your introduction to the paper.
Personal Reflections Questions:

Chapter 1 Questions #2- Page 46
Chapter 2 Questions #1 and 2 – Page 77
Chapter 3 Question #2 – Page 111
Chapter 4 Question #2 – Page 141
Chapter 5 Question #2 – Page 179
Chapter 6 Question #1 – Page 218

Critical Thinking Questions:

Chapter 1 Question #2 – Page 46
Chapter 2 Question #2 – Page 78
Chapter 3 Questions #1 and 2 – Page 111
Chapter 4 Question #1 and 2 – Page 179
Chapter 5 Question #2 – Page 179
Chapter 6 Question #2 – Page 218

Paper Outline:

Cover Page
Introduction and Definition of Key Terms

You should define terms that are from the reading and that you will use in your paper, such as race.

Make sure to define: race, ethnicity, and inequality; provide reference information, including the page number.

Personal Reflection Questions

You may answer these questions in essay format or as Q&A, with a 1-2 paragraph (substantive) response per question.

Critical Thinking Questions

You may answer these questions in essay format or as Q&A, with a 1-2 paragraph (substantive) response per question.
When responding to the above critical thinking and personal reflection questions, make sure to support your answers by referencing your PDF textbook; include page numbers and proper in-text citation information.

You are required to reference throughout your paper a minimum of 9 other sources (media, articles, PowerPoints) assigned during weeks 1-6. You do not need to have an additional source citation for every question but you should reference up to 9 additional source in total. Thus, your reference page will include a total of NINEreferences plus your textbook. If you have questions, please ask your peers or instructor.

Conclusion

Provide a brief summary of what, if anything, surprised you most about the materials you incorporated.
Share personal connections you made between the materials you selected and your daily life.

Reference Page

Should include a minimum of 10 sources from the class including the textbook.

Writing Assignment Requirements:

12-point font
Times New Roman (or an easy reading font) throughout. Please *Do Not* use multiple font types.
1 or 1.5 spacing, preferred. Please *Do Not* double space your paper.
APA or MLA style cover page
APA or MLA style reference page or bibliography, if needed
Major Assignments – Writing Guidelines
Editorial Support, Plagiarism Checkers & Academic Integrity

Don’t forget:

Cover page clearly identifying the concepts you aim to explore (e.g., race in the media, anti-racism, prison industrial complex, etc.)

Creating a cover sheet: http://libanswers.snhu.edu/faq/158883 (Links to an external site.)

You do not have a required page count for your concept paper; you are simply required to address all of the above. Generally, if you adequately address all of the requirements above, you will most likely have a 5-6 page essay.
Properly cite all sources throughout your document and include a reference list.
Show proof of either NetTutor (see left navigation bar), the Writing Center (Links to an external site.), Grammaly (Links to an external site.), or another review program to ensure your paper is well-written and materials are properly cited.

Grading Rubric:

Paper includes key concepts and provides evidence of understanding through examples and facts. (60 points)
Paper includes clear self-reflective statements on learning topics as well as conceptual integration. (40 points)
Formatting includes a correctly formatted cover page, reference page, in-text citations, etc. (15 points)
Reference page has a minimum of 10 sources (including the textbook) from the class; weeks 1-6.

3-4 articles
3-4 class films
3-4 PowerPoint presentations

Academic Writing: Correct spelling, clear, concise, and provided proof of plagiarism and editorial support/review(15 points)

Conceptual Understanding & Self-Reflection Essay

TUI Product Management and Situational Analysis Strategic Marketing Essay

TUI Product Management and Situational Analysis Strategic Marketing Essay.

I’m working on a marketing question and need support to help me understand better.

Module 1 – SLPSTP, PRODUCT MANAGEMENT & SITUATION ANALYSISTarget Audience and Competition are the next components to be addressed in the process of developing a Marketing Strategy. To choose an appropriate target market, one must understand how consumers make purchase decisions.ResearchResearch and discuss Maslow’s theory of needs and how it is applied to marketing. Resources MUST include articles in the library’s full-text article databases (Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete, and/or ProQuest Central).Define the stages of the consumer behavior model (or industrial model, if appropriate) and apply how the concepts affect the marketing effort. Resources MUST include articles in the library’s full-text article databases (Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete and/or ProQuest Central).Application to Product/ServiceProvide a quick overview of the product or service you created.Even though you have “created” a product or service, the applications and research in this section will be real.Identify your target market. Provide a specific demographic profile and rationale for this decision. Another source that may help you: The US Census Bureau’s American Fact Finder. Consider the size of the market and its purchasing power. Research is required to back-up your selection and to provide statistics to show that it is a viable market.Analyze your competition. Who are they? Who are the biggest players? How large is the market? What are the trends/forecasts in the industry? How does your product/service fit in? IBISWorld in the Library is a good tool for this section; it may be accessed under “ADDITIONAL LIBRARY RESOURCES” and then scroll down to the database.The assignment requires the use of ARTICLES from the library’s full-text databases. Articles are found in periodicals. These are not to be confused with eBooks or Reference Books. The most popular databases in marketing are: Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete, and/or ProQuest Central.Effective academic and research writing requires a 3rd person voice. This SLP will be written in 3rd person. Do not use any quotations. For more information see Differences Between First and Third Person. Since you are engaging in research, be sure to cite and reference the sources in APA format. NOTE: the Analysis in the Appendix may be written in 1st person.Use the attached APA-formatted template (MKT501 SLP1) to create your submission.SLP Assignment ExpectationsYour submission will include:Trident University International’s cover pageA 2- to 3-page paper with APA citations (2-to 3-sentence introduction, body, 2-to 3-sentence conclusion)The reference list in APA format
TUI Product Management and Situational Analysis Strategic Marketing Essay

HSN476 Phoenix Health Care Organization and Finance Discussion

HSN476 Phoenix Health Care Organization and Finance Discussion.

Assignment Content – Health Care Organization and Finance Top of Form Health care changes rapidly. This assignment is designed to help you understand how health care is organized and financed. In your assignment: Explain the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 on health care organization and finance.Explain how the ACA incorporated social determinants of health into health policy.Summarize the proposed changes to the health care system under the current administration. Cite at least three peer-reviewed sources published within the last five years that support your assignment. Include an APA-formatted reference page. 875-word paper Bottom of Form Resources to help with this assignment Week 1 University Library Readings Watch the “What is a Life Worth?” segment of The Future of Health Care: Meeting of the Minds from this week’s University Library Readings.Explore the CDC Social Determinants of Health: Know What Affects Health web page to understand social determinants of health. Explore the CDC Policy Resources to Support Social Determinants of Health web page to see programs that address social determinants of health. As you explore the web pages, think about how organizations can use social determinants of health to reduce overall health care costs. Christianson, J. B., Wellever, A., Radcliff, T., Knutson, D. J.(2000). How do urban organized health care delivery systems link with rural providers? Health Care Management Review, 25(3), 36-47. Guerriere, D. N., Wong, A. M., Croxford, R., et al. (2008). Costs and determinants of privately financed home-based health care in Ontario, Canada. Health & Social Care In The Community, 16(2), 126-136.
HSN476 Phoenix Health Care Organization and Finance Discussion

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