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In recent years, the amount of media coverage surrounding assisted suicide, or euthanasia, has increased. The term evokes a multitude of emotive responses. The Royal College of Nursing completed research on the issue of euthanasia initiating change in their policy of opposition to euthanasia (Robinson, Greenwood, 2009). This particular study received criticism based on the small sample size used for the study.

Research is an organized inquiry carried out to provide information for solving problems. Solid research generates dependable data derived by professionally conducted practices and that can be used reliably for decision making (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). Our group seeks to address the research question, hypothesis, variables, and ethical issues along with discussing the significance and magnitude of finding some logical solution to the issue called “Euthanasia. ” Assisted suicide gives the health care provider the option of avoiding care giving during a time of little demand for euthanasia services.

Research Question Comprehending the term “euthanasia” in the medical world is vital because its controversy always develop suspicious questions. Euthanasia is defined as the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable, painful disease or an irreversible coma. At times families and doctors have a pivotal role when a dying patient is in a situation in which nothing more can be done. Some research questions can establish certainty about the patient choices, but this presents a difficult situation because many times the patient cannot make such a drastic decision to end his or her life.

This decision can be extremely painful for the family to make, but if the help is provided by medical staff and nothing can be done, the patient should not have to endure pain. Another research question: if euthanasia is already happening in United States, would it be better to legalize it? If euthanasia is carried out against the law, this shows that the law is incapable of controlling euthanasia (Colantuoni, 2012). Legalizing euthanasia will not fix this problem (Colantuoni, 2012). Objective Euthanasia. Is it legal? Can anyone do it or only professionals?

These are questions that have to be asked. The idea of assisted death has been debated in the health care field for years with doctors, nurses, and the public all possessing their own opinions of what is right. In some countries and states it is legal to aid in the death of someone. The question about it being right for a health care professional to help someone take his or her own life or is it murder, is commonly asked. Many believe that it is without doubt wrong to kill for any reason. When an animal is severely injured we euthanize it, why not a terminally ill human?

Is it humane to leave someone lying in pain or should we do whatever is in our power to help him or her? The question has been asked, at what point does helping turn into murder? Nurses have a pivotal role in caring for terminally ill patients and sometimes are involved with euthanasia practices. However, their attitudes about it may not always be acknowledged or considered. The hypothesis is that nurses have different levels of attitudes toward assisted suicide possibly related to religious or demographic orientation, and work-characteristics.

In our research of nurses and euthanasia independent and dependent variables were considered. Variables Independent variables considered depends on the situation presented such as pain and suffering, fears of burdening others, comatose patients, family objecting to a loved one being taken off a respirator. These variables change and are different for everyone. A dependent variable in our study is active nurses in the medical field. Nurses are caregivers, asked to tend to patients needs, sometimes following procedures against their own preference.

The design of our research was qualitative seeking to obtain opinions, experiences, and situations nurses are presented with along with particular influences affecting their actions. Research Design Research design gives us a layout of material at different levels that guides the operations of a study. The collection of data and the viewpoint or perspective is an effective design. In this type of research insight is gained through reviewing unforeseen circumstances or facts, and interpretations on how people think.

Through this design method, the collection of data will be gathered through structured interviewing to a specific group of personnel in this case consisting of nurses in which the same list of questions, some open-ended questions will be asked and in the same sequence. “Standardized open-ended interviews are likely the most popular form of interviewing utilized in research studies because of the nature of the open-ended questions, allowing the participants to fully express their viewpoints and experiences” (Turner, 2010, p. 3). Design Instrument

The process of collecting data initially will start with a letter introducing the study followed by a pamphlet given to all participants. A letter would initiate the participation of registered nurses staffed in the ICU or CCU at select hospitals. The pamphlet would include information on definition of euthanasia, patients’ rights, the effects, and laws regarding euthanasia. The design of interview questions would include each participants age, gender, work experience, beliefs in religion, and education background. A scheduled time frame of 45 minutes for each interview would ensure the process is well-organized and successful.

The researcher should be well prepared for good note taking during the interview. Following the interview of nurses an interview with the director of nurses should be completed. The data should be collected, compared, and categorized for review and analysis. Each participant should be given a number instead of using names to maintain anonymity. An important analysis tool would be to include an expert qualitative researcher involved in this process also, to interpret the data collected and categorization of materials. Our qualitative research includes an appropriate sampling method. Sampling method

When developing a sample, the following questions need to be answered. What is the target group? What are the parameters of interest? What is the sampling frame? What is the appropriate sampling method? What size sample is needed? Our learning team answered the above questions and determined that the target group for the “Euthanasia” research is registered nurses working in different hospitals. We have determined that the non-probability sampling method is the most appropriate method to conduct research about “Euthanasia. ”

Non-probability sampling method with the selected target group, or population is “not random. It has been decided that nurses in the hospitals are the best target group for the “Euthanasia” research because they are the only ones that meet the sampling objectives. The sampling objective is patients suffering from incurable and painful diseases. In addition to sampling objectives the non- probability sampling is cost-effective and not time consuming. Determining the sample size is crucial to a more accurate measure of the population. Sample Size We chose to use the staff directory at select hospitals, to determine how many will take part in the interview.

In determining the sample size, a variety of nurses from different hospitals and their head nurses are asked to take part in the study. Our team determined the appropriate sampling size will have two different subgroups. 1,000 nurses will be drawn from more than 20,000 nurses working in 10 states in the United State of America. Each subgroup will be assigned to 2 groups of 500 nurses. The two different groups will be based on the section that they are working in the hospital. The first group will be the nurses who work in ICU and CCU sections and the second group will be nurses who work as regular nurses in the hospital.

The reason that we divided the nurses to two different subgroups is the probability of their interaction with “euthanasia”. Those who work in CCU and ICU sections are dealing more with the patients who are suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma comparing to those who work in different sections in the hospital. Each will be given a pamphlet or booklet of information in a close-ended environment. Looking to one hospital can lead to judgmental issues because many nurses work together and do not wish for an uneasy work environment. Sample Frame

The list of all population elements from which the sample will be drawn is called sampling frame. The sampling frame is closely related to the population. The target group that our team was interested to conduct the research is the nurses working in different hospitals in the ICU or CCU section. Considering that our team wants to do the research in the United States, it is essential to pay special attention to the ethnic and cultural sensitivity because of the influence it has on every decision of researchers and participants. Our chosen method of statistical testing will be ANOVA. Statistical Testing

Statistical testing is such an intriguing process, especially within organizations because it creates a vital perspective on the companies: financial, individual performance, groups, etc. In this particular situation involving the medical field within the nurses’ category and the nurse director face-to-face interviews, from a personal perspective the best appropriate statistical testing method is One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This test allows conducting testing utilizing multiple groups, and it allows researchers to study two or more groups to distinguish any differences that are developed.

Nurse investigators who want to assess the levels of helplessness among three groups of patients–long-term, acute care, and outpatients-can administer an instrument designed to measure levels of helplessness and calculate an F ratio (Basic Statistical Concepts for Nurses, 2011). ANOVA is classified into two types: simple analysis of variance and complex analysis of variance or two-way analysis of variance, and the larger the F-ratio the more ineffectual the hypothesis is likely to be rejected.

Another test that can be administer is post hoc comparisons, which can also display the results differently from a delineate perception to critically analyze the methods considerably to act-upon specific statistical testing. These methods can have an integral role on the nursing situation, and to discuss any means of significant topics that can have a decisive impact on the nursing organization.

Results Display Histograms are used to show numerical information in graphic form, but generally follow a bar-graph format this is how it would display the esults: hospitals on left side, nurses for euthanasia in middle, nurses against euthanasia on right side. In order to improve institutions like health-care or education, analyzing data and how it is being affected, also histogram can provide vital information and enables to study any changes, and patterns. In addition to research questions, hypothesis, sample methods, and variables there are some ethical issues that must be taken into account. Ethical Considerations Ethics is a measure of behavior directing moral choices within relationships and personal behavior.

Ethics protects rights, safety, and keeps people from harm, discomfort, pain, or embarrassment. According to The Life Resources Charitable Trust, the first human right is the right to life, and the first duty of the state is to protect that right (A Duty to Die, 2011). The issue of euthanasia stirs up controversy about ethics. Human life in this case is measured according to the financial expense laid upon the family of the terminally ill or disabled. Some disability advocates are concerned; euthanasia or assisted suicide directly breaches the responsibility of government to protect life with intentional killing (A Duty to Die, 2011).

The UK and Holland have legalized euthanasia creating fear of the medical environment causing people to carry ‘anti-euthanasia passports’. Fear of being forced to die, strips one of security, self-respect, and safety. Case upon case of assisted suicide is recorded demonstrating a lack of respect for human life. Taking another’s life into our own hands is changing the definition of ethics and human rights. Many years ago the topic of euthanasia was considered to be shocking and not as common, but today many people believe in the act to relieve the suffering of patients, although it is a very controversial topic.

Euthanasia is ending a life to ease the suffering of patients but is it ethical and legal? It is illegal and not an acceptable active practice? The act of euthanasia is considered to be a forbidden crime, and the result is life in prison. Some considered it to be morally wrong and do not agree with the act and others believe it alleviates pain and suffering and is excusable. It is a tough choice to make but each individual has a different opinion on the controversial matter. It is important for each individual to trust others in making decisions on choosing life or death.

Nurses are in the tough position of care taking for the terminally ill. Our study will show not only the controversy among patient rights and nurse responsibility, but also a broader range of attitude depicted by the nursing community. The results will demonstrate the degree of support or lack thereof in nurses for the practice of euthanasia. Uncertainty will most likely be shown among this medical profession concerning their role in the performance of euthanasia.

case study on the pathophysiological disease process by searching for evidence-based practice treatment and advanced practice nursing role implications related to the disease.

Conduct an evidence-based literature search to identify the most recent standards of care/treatment modalities from peer-reviewed articles and professional association guidelines (www.guideline.gov (Links to an external site.)). These articles and guidelines can be referenced, but not directly copied into the clinical case presentation. Cite a minimum of three resources. IN THE 4-5 PAGE CASE STUDY ON TB PLEASE READ ATTACHED DOCUMENT FOR CASE STUDY DETAILS AND PATIENT TB QUESTIONNAIRE ATTACHED Answer the following questions: What is the transmission and pathophysiology of TB? What are the clinical manifestations? After considering this scenario, what are the primary identified medical concerns for this patient? What are the primary psychosocial concerns? What are the implications of the treatment regimen, as far as likelihood of compliance and outcomes? Search the Internet to research rates of patient compliance in treatment of TB, as well as drug resistant TB. Identify the role of the community clinic in assisting patients, particularly undocumented patients, in covering the cost of TB treatment. What resources exist for TB treatment in community health centers around the United States? Compare the cost for treatment between subsidized and unsubsidized. What are the implications of TB for critical care and advanced practice nurses? The use of medical terminology and appropriate graduate level writing is expected. Your paper should be 4–5 pages, excluding cover page and references page. Your resources must include research articles as well as reference to non-research evidence-based guidelines. Use APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources. Your source(s) should be integrated into the paragraphs. Use internal citations pointing to evidence in the literature and supporting your ideas. You will need to include a reference page listing those sources. Cite a minimum of three resources.

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