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Research on the wechsler intelligence scale for children

Research on the wechsler intelligence scale for children. Dr. David Weschler, a clinical psychologist, was the founder of the Weschler intelligence scales. The purpose of his test was to measure the intelligence in adults. It was published in 1939, the time Wechsler decided to construct the WBIS based on an observation he made that intelligence tests for adults were of great similarity of tests for children and had little face validity for other age groups. By 1939, three scales had already been developed in order to accurately measure intellectual functioning in children and adults. Wechsler has also created an intelligence scale concerning adults only by the name Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). Also, Wechsler designed for children between the ages of 6 to 16 another intelligence scale, called the Wechsler Intelligence scale for children-IV (WISC-IV), while in the meantime he had already generated an intelligence scale for pre-school children between the ages 4 and 6.1/2 yearls old called the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of intelligence-III (WPPSI-III). For Wechler, intelligence was the ability an individual has in order to adapt and in the case he needs, to solve any problems that concern him in the environment. Weschler measured intelligence in terms of performance rather than capacity. By that said, Whescler meant that his scales were not created in order to measure a person’s quantity of intelligence, rather than it was focused on the intellectual performance of the subject. The factor that determines that Weschler Intelligent Scales are a performance variable, is, that it is not important how intelligent a person is, rather, how well and how able he is to adapt to the environment. What is of signifficant importance though, is how well an individual uses his intelligence. Furthermore, because intelectual capacity cannot be seen nor its existence concretely verified, it cannot be reliably measured. In the other hand, performance is measurable and it should be of critical importance to the test. Wechler has tried to support this position but other intelligence researchers have taken essentially the same position in regards of the nature of intelligence. Most of the intelligence tests, such as the Stanford – Binet and the Guilford Intelligence Scales are focusing on measuring performance. In the other hand, intelligence tests such as Wischler and Binet, are focusing mainly on intellectual performance of the subject as a multidimensional construct. This means that, rather than conceptualizing intelligence as a single characteristic, the tests contain numerous scales assessing qualitatively different types of intellectual functioning. Concerning the reliability of the WISC-IV, strict guidelines ensure that the test will be valid and reliable. Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure over time and across the content of the test, such as the item responses. In order to say that the test is accurate and reliable, it will have to retrieve the same or similar results everytime the subject is tested. An example is that, when the test is taken by an individual to measure his intelligence, two of the same form of test should be giving similar results when administered to the person. Thus, it is very difficult to reckon reliability accurately but there are several ways in order to get the closest results possible. The test will be considered accurate and consistent enough if it describes the child’s intellectual performance and adaptation in day to day life. The subtest reliability coefficients for internal consistency ranged from 0.79 to 0.90 with a median of 0.86. These coefficients showed substantial improvement from those of WISC-III subtests. The index scores reliability coefficient ranged from 0.88 PSI to 0.97 FS with a median of 0.92. These are identical to or slightly higher than WISC-III corresponding scales. A very imported reason where these tests are administered to children is in order to test his learning needs or to test the child’s learning potentials so that they can be placed in certain programs which usually are positive ones (for gifted children). Not only WISC-IV provides as accurate IQ scores as possible, but, also gives sufficient and crucial information on clinical insights into the cognitive functioning of the child. Also, it integrates current conceptualizations and recent research to provide the most essential information about a child’s strengths and weaknesses. WISC-IV is representing significant advances in the understanding of the child’s cognitive abilities. WISC-IV test is taking between 65 to 80 minutes to complete and it contains 10 core subtests and 5 additional subtests. They are later summed in four indexes and one full scale IQ which has a ranger between 40 which is the lowest to 160 points which is concidered to be the highest. The subtests are used in order to gather information on the subject’s abilities. Concerning the age range which this test involves, it is between 6 years until 16 years and 11 months. There may be a difference in the individual’s scores when he has taken the WISC-III and the WISC-IV by a mean of 5 point drop in FSIQ. The main four indexes of the WISC-IV and their measurments are the following: The verbal comprehension index which tests involve similarities, vocabulary and comprehension of the child. It assesses the child’s ability to listen to a question and pay attention to all the information given from both formal and informal education, reason from an answer, and then be able to speak their minds out loud. This will test how the child copes with new and unexpected situations as well as the time it will need to process certain information rather than taking a decision right away. Following the verbal comprehension index is the perceptual reasoning index which measures the non – verbal and fluid reasoning. The tests involve picture concepts, matrix reasoning and block designs. In this test, the visual – motor and the visual – spatial skills are assessed, how able are the children to examine a problem and later on being able to organize their thoughts and find any solutions to the problem which will later test it. The working memory index measures the working memory and it consists of digit spans and letter-number sequencing. The ability to memorize new information, concentration, time held in their short term memory and the ability of being able to manipulate that information to produce a result are being assessed. This is very important in learning and achievement as well as higher order thinking which makes it crucial in their ability to work effectively with new ideas as they are presented in their classrooms. Finally, the processing speed index measures the speed of the information processed and the tests include coding and symbol search. Attention focus, quickly scan, discrimination between and sequentially order visual information are being assessed. Persistence and planning ability are required, but is sensitive to motivation, difficulty working under a time pressure and motor coordination too. Cultural factors do not play a signifficant role and do not affect it. There is a relation to working memory in that increased processing speed and it may decrease the amount of information a child must have kept in his working memory. On the other hand though, lower processing speed may damage the effectiveness of working memory by requesting from the child to be able to keep more information to the working memory that is able to at a specific time. One of the manual reports strong correlations between WISC-IV metrics and comparable metrics from the WISC-III WPPSI-III, WAIS-III, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999), WIAT-II, Children’s Memory Scale (CMS; Cohen, 1997) Gifted Youth Version (Bar-OnResearch on the wechsler intelligence scale for children
Table of Contents Abstract Viacom Company Overview Circumstances that triggered the need for CSR initiatives Targeted outcome from these initiatives Managing people and financial resources to accomplish CSR goals Conclusion References Abstract Companies across the globe have devised different corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to address the common social challenges affecting their customers. Among the companies with comprehensive and well structured CSR initiatives include the Viacom Inc. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the CSR initiatives of the Viacom Company. Reflectively, the company strives to factor in the three Ps of management strategies comprising of the Planet, Profit, and People in its CSR activities. These seer values are designed to facilitate sustainability due to acceptance by the community and coexistence, thus, earning the company a competitive advantage over other service providers in the same field of operation. Specifically, the paper adopts a holistic approach in extrapolating corporate social responsibility, environmental stewardship, and quality in service delivery with an added value tag at the Viacom Company. Viacom Company Overview The Viacom Inc. Company is a mass media company based in the United States of America and has several subsidiary brands within its business activities. Founded in 2006, the company is the fourth largest in the global mass media industry and provides services such as radio, cable television, movies, and publishing. The company generated revenue of US$ 13.887 billion in 2013 and currently has an asset value of US$ 22.250 billion. The company operates in the competitive and dynamic global mass media industry. The company functions as a private entity with diverse interest in the entertainment industry. Since its inception, the company has remained profitable due to its competitive business models and series of CSR initiatives. The organizational overview of this company consists of several divisions such as the BET Network, Paramount Pictures, Viacom Media Networks, and the Viacom International Media. The company operates under a board of directors (Viacom, 2014). The company’s management philosophy is systematic governance with flexibility for innovation and creativity. This philosophy operates on the assumptions of confident, competent, and responsible business activities. The philosophy encourages a practical approach to addressing daily challenges in running the business and monitoring progress of the implemented strategies. In addition, the philosophy provides channels for constant motivation and rewarding the customers through a series of CSR initiatives (Viacom, 2014). Viacom Company has managed to maintain innovation and commitment to quality in products through the ‘create share value’ policy which promotes customer loyalty. Besides, the company has participated in a series of corporate social responsibility activities through ethical managerial commitments designed to support socially responsible activities in the business such as the annual ‘Viacommunity Day’, which enhances its resource based approach to CSR (Viacom, 2014). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The competencies exhibited by the company are part of its overall strategic management and ethical corporate responsibility model. As one of the most efficient company in the global mass media industry, it defines its success from the opportunities it offers to the loyal customers who form part of the corporate social responsibility pillar. This competitive strategy has enhanced the corporation’s competitive advantage in the market. The CSR initiatives are more than a public relations exercise since the green campaign, the annual ‘Viacommunity Day’, education trust, and health initiatives are part of the company’s management philosophy meant to promote the ‘create share value’ policy (Viacom, 2014). Circumstances that triggered the need for CSR initiatives Addressing social based concerns through the creation of shared responsibilities was the main reason for the establishment of the different CSR initiatives. The company was interested in eliminating their customers’ dependence on incentives by governments and other private organizations. For instance, the ‘Get Schooled’ initiative by the Viacom Company was informed by the need to provide a long term solution to education crisis in the US and other parts of the globe. It is a private sponsorship program which supports schools by developing infrastructure, training teachers, offering financial support to students, and leadership training. The aim of this initiative is to guide and support youth in their career life. This initiative is run by employees of the organization. Through partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the company has been in a position to provide education to disadvantaged students across the globe. The initiative is supported by the ‘roadblock’ commercial that shows the power of educating the community (Viacom, 2014). Besides, the need to raise the level of HIV/AIDs awareness inspired the creation of the ‘Rap-It-Up’ Emmy Award. Through this initiative, the company was able to address the social concerns in different societies as a result of the effects of HIV/AIDs. The ‘Thin Line’ program aired on MTV by the company is an initiative that was meant to protect the youths from digital abuse. Moreover, the ‘Comedy Central’ program by the company has been active in raising environmental awareness across the globe (D’Amato et al. 2009). Another CSR initiative aimed at addressing educational concerns across the globe is the ‘Kindergarten to Cap
Assessment As a nurse, I have such strengths associated with psychotherapy course student learning objectives as the implementation of evidence-based practice and guidelines as well as experience in planning educational interventions to increase patients’ awareness of their health problems. The first strength relates to the consideration of evidence-based research and its application in the context of a patient’s cultural background, family history, along with specific needs and expectations. Consistent with Corey and Corey (2013), I consider that relationship creation between a psychotherapist and a patient is a paramount goal in receiving positive clinical outcomes. Since the identified course also implies the construction of evidence-based care plans, I believe that my experience will be helpful. The second strong point of providing educational interventions was mastered by me while working with patients and explaining to them the essence of diseases. In psychotherapy, patients expect understanding of their mental conditions and the subsequent aid in addressing challenges. Accordingly, educational sessions are of great importance to meet patients’ needs in diagnosis and treatment comprehension. Along with my strengths, it is critical to outline some knowledge deficits. I have insufficient knowledge in risk assessment for homicide, suicide, and other similar mental states. Suicide ideation prediction and early identification of perceived burdensomeness are likely to prevent adverse consequences as noted by Ma, Batterham, Calear, and Han (2016). In this regard, I need to improve my awareness of the above issues. My second knowledge deficit refers to complete mental status examination that should integrate cognitive functioning, stress and anxiety levels, concentration, perceptual processes, and plenty of other significant aspects pertinent to a particular patient. In my opinion, I need more relevant information and guidance on how to collect and interpret the mentioned data, thus creating a comprehensive patient evaluation and promoting the subsequent treatment planning. Proper patient assessment skills are likely to help me in providing individual and group therapy to assist patients in addressing one or another mental difficulty (Wheeler, 2013). The development of therapeutic relationships also seems to be dependent on adequate and comprehensive patient evaluation. Plan My first learning goal in terms of the given psychotherapy course is receiving new knowledge and skills along with their further application in practice. I would like to learn about theories, strategies, and instruments in the field of psychotherapy, focusing on assessment, planning, and implementing processes. The above goal also implies the consideration of various mental disorders in adults and children, both in individual and group therapeutic sessions (Prochaska
Development of Scaffolded Online Learning Activites for Different Stages of Learning. Development of Scaffolded Online Learning Activites for Different Stages of Learning Abstract This outline develops a unit of scaffolded online learning activities to support students at different stages of learning. The outline includes scaffolded activities to support the learning objectives of the unit, an analysis of how the strategies would be used for different student populations, and a description of how the students will engage in the material using the strategies and scaffolds. Unit Overview Unit: Civil War and Reconstruction, 11th Grade Expected Competencies at Completion of Unit: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to analyze issues that caused the civil war. Students will be able to summarize the course and outcome of the Civil War. Students will be able to explain the successes and failures of reconstruction. Common Core Strategy: Grade 11-12: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary andsecondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. Targeted South Carolina Standards and Indicators: 3.1- Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation and led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states’ rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation of the Confederate States of America. 3.2- Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession. 3.3- Analyze the effects of Reconstruction on the southern states and on the role of the federal government, including the impact of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments on opportunities for African Americans. 3.4.- Summarize the end of Reconstruction, including the role of anti–African American factions and competing national interests in undermining support for Reconstruction; the impact of the removal of federal protection for freedmen; and the impact of Jim Crow laws and voter restrictions on African American rights in the post-Reconstruction era. Pre-requisite Skills: Students should have knowledge of abolitionism, events and issues that led to the Civil War -including slavery in the territories, states’ rights, the election of Abraham Lincoln and the nullification crisis compromises over westward expansion, the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Dred Scott decision. Students should have prior knowledge of the Civil War and the strategies used by the North and the South in South Carolina. They should know about significant turning points and the role of African Americans in the war. Students should know of the devastation of the Civil War and its impact on the lives of South Carolinians and the social, political, and economic effect of the war on the United States. They should know that Reconstruction had both successes and failures. Students should know about the development of federal Reconstruction policy, the effects of Reconstruction on African Americans, the role of subversive groups and the end to federal protections. They should know about the development of Jim Crow laws in the post- Reconstruction era. Students should have a basic understanding of how to identify, analyze, and evaluate primary source documents and historical curriculum. Students have a basic understanding of how to cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole (South Carolina Social Studies Standards). Students will need access to a computer, working internet, a video camera, and microphone to engage in online activities with teacher and peers during a synchronous teaching session. Students must understand the protocol and expectations for interacting and communicating with teachers and peers through chat, microphone, and whiteboard activities. Students must have a working knowledge of how to use all tools in the synchronous session platform. Student Activities Learning Objective #1: Students will be able to summarize the course and outcome of the Civil War. This is an asynchronous, flipped learning opportunity, and anticipatory activity. Prior to the live sessions, students will watch “Crash Course History: The Civil War, Part 1” (Crash Course). Students will be given a graphic organizer to help organize terms/phrases/events that will be key in their ability to understand the outcomes of the Civil War and introduce them to key details from standards, improve comprehension, and synthesize information. This activity will introduce students to important vocabulary and identify main ideas aligned to the learning objective that will be discussed in the upcoming synchronous session. We will begin our synchronous lesson with a class discussion of the flipped instruction video and Share Out of graphic organizer notes. Supporting Research for this activity aligns with Psychological Individual Constructivism. This learning experience focuses on the how individuals learn by mentally organizing and reorganizing information. By connecting new experiences to prior knowledge that is already understood, people build a new base of knowledge about the topic being learned. John Dewey reasoned that if students learned by first building their own knowledge, then teachers could adjust the curriculum to fit students’ prior knowledge (Seifert, K. 2011). This activity will provide a visual, auditory, and written component to the learning process to provide an opportunity for each of these learning styles to be utilized and students may watch or review the video at their pace; such as slowing down the video or reviewing to gather the information at their own pace. An article from Teacher.org titled “6 Questions to Tackle When Engaging Student Learning”, the author and school principal Jon Konen discusses the importance of student engagement in today’s classroom and the impact it has on learning. He goes on to discuss 6 areas educators can focus on to improve engagement. One of his first points is to find something that sparks student interest and hooks them to the topic (Konen, 2017). By assigning students this video prior to our synchronous time, they are able to engage with the content early, hear and see the information from multiple resources, and their first experience with the content is a resource that will peak their interest. The effectiveness of this strategy will be measured by reviewing data in a few different areas. First, the number of students who actually engage in the video and graphic organizer prior to the synchronous session. As stated above, the power of this assignment is allowing students interaction with a different resource of information prior to time in class. If students are not completing the assignment correctly, it is not an effective strategy. Second, it will be important to see what knowledge the students are able to attain through this assignment. It is meant to be a basic introduction to a learning objective, however, if students are unable to gain the necessary understanding of the content, it is not an effective strategy. This strategy has the ability to serve all students. Each student is watching individually and taking notes on what they are learning. Students who need the most support are able to use the graphic organizer to guide their notes. More advanced students have the same structure for taking notes, however, they have the opportunity to make connections, build on prior knowledge, and engage with the content on a level that best suits them. In addition, students are able to see, hear, and write about this information to support the learning process with this information. Seeing what prior knowledge or basic understanding students have after this activity will allow the teacher to determine how to structure grouping and scaffolding for the remainder of the unit. Learning Objective #2: Students will be able to analyze issues that caused the Civil War. This activity is synchronous with a focus on the students’ ability to understand important vocabulary, make connections between key ideas, and analyze information. The title of the activity is Vocabulary, $2 Summaries. This activity is completed once a scaffolded review and follow up of the anticipatory activity has occurred and direct teaching instruction has been completed. It will build on the knowledge gained from those activities. $2 Summaries is an activity that helps students to learn the relationships between words they are learning. Each vocabulary or context word worth 10 cents. Students will write a $2 summary about issues that caused the Civil War. Students are thinking about the words, their meanings, and their connections to the historical event being studied; therefore, building new schema on the learning objective. Students at all levels can benefit from this activity as it can be scaffolded by giving students specific words related to the learning that they must include in their summaries or adjusted to any amount of money. Depending on student need, this activity may also be scaffolded as an individual or class activity. It could easily be structured with the steps of the Me, We, You strategy. This activity can be finalized with a Pair Share in break-out rooms and read-out in whole group to discuss and review the differences in how students used the vocabulary words. According to Seifert’s review of social constructivism in Educational Psychology, Piaget called each mental representation of a concept a schema. Schema was not only a concept, but a mixture of vocabulary, actions, and experience related to the concept. Piaget also recognized the roll of others in this learning process and he referred to this as social transmission. However, he was more interested in what children and youth could figure out on their own and not how other could help them figure out (Seifert, K. 2011). In a recent study conducted to analyze theories, research and practice about vocabulary instruction, a group of instructors in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture at Texas ADevelopment of Scaffolded Online Learning Activites for Different Stages of Learning

Communication class, interviewing one question about opening and closing

Communication class, interviewing one question about opening and closing. I’m studying and need help with a Communications question to help me learn.

Time is an hour but you can extend to 30 min
Communication class, interviewing one question
You’ll be writing an opening and closing for a specific scenario. For an example of both an opening and closing, see the sample interview schedule that you read last week. You should only write YOUR side of the opening and closing, but you may leave space for the interviewee to answer questions or otherwise respond.
Scenario:
Scenario: Your neighborhood has always been very safe even though it is not far from the center of a city of 500,000. Recently, however, there have been a number of break-ins during the daytime and three cars have been stolen from driveways. You and five neighbors met a week ago to discuss possible ways to make the neighborhood safe again, and a neighborhood watch idea seemed best. Opening prompt: You have agreed to survey residents of the area to determine their interest in forming and being part of a neighborhood watch.Closing prompt: You have been conducting the interview with an 81-year-old resident of your neighborhood. She supports the idea of a neighborhood watch in general, but has reservations about who would do the watching and the authority they might take on themselves.
Communication class, interviewing one question about opening and closing

M2 blog

custom writing service M2 blog. Paper details Which study, Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment https://www.simplypsychology.org/zimbardo.html(SPE) or Milgram’s obediencehttps://www.simplypsychology.org/milgram.html#:~:text=The Milgram experiment was carried,% in the original study). to authority did you like better? Do you think studies like that should be allowed? If yes, what are the benefits? If no, what are the main harms? Can you think of other ethical scandals in research that you have heard about?M2 blog

ACC281 Week 4 Discussion 1 and 2

ACC281 Week 4 Discussion 1 and 2.

Cost Flows Among Service, Merchandising, and Manufacturing EnterprisesUsing your textbook and at least one scholarly source, compare cost flows among service, merchandising, and manufacturing enterprises, explaining how healthcare differs from the other enterprises. You must respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts to receive full credit.Discussion 2 Product CostingFrom your text and at least one scholarly source, describe how service center costs are allocated using the various allocation methods. Illustrate its use by using a health care example. You must respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts to receive full credit.Each Discussion MUST BE a MINIMUM of 200 words and include 2 references including the text. Plagarism report must be attached as well.Text:Epstein, L. & Schneider, A. (2014). Accounting for Health Care Professionals [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/This text is a Constellation™ course digital materials (CDM) title.
ACC281 Week 4 Discussion 1 and 2

ABC Inventory Reduction in The Supply Chain of Finished Products Discussion

ABC Inventory Reduction in The Supply Chain of Finished Products Discussion.

Discussion 1ResourcesRead/review the following resources for this activity:LectureFile (PDF): Presentation – Chapter 7Minimum of 1 reliable resource for initial postInitial Post Instructions (250 words )Suppose you have been given the task of reducing inventory in your company, without negatively impacting customer service. What actions might you be able to take to accomplish this task?Discussion 2ResourcesRead/review the following resources for this activity:LectureFile (PDF): Presentation – Chapter 8Minimum of 1 reliable resource for initial postInitial Post Instructions (250 words )You work in the marketing department of a firm that sells mountain bicycles and related gear. Its manufacturing division has decided to wholeheartedly adopt the lean systems philosophy. Will this affect your ability to satisfy your customers? Make a list of the potential pluses and minuses of this lean systems decision.
ABC Inventory Reduction in The Supply Chain of Finished Products Discussion