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Research on Mental States of Non-Human Animals

Research on Mental States of Non-Human Animals. To what extent does research support the claim that non-human animals, particular chimpanzees, have human-like understanding of mental states? In the last three decades, cognitive approaches to the study of animal behaviour have attracted increasing research attention. Much of this interest has concentrated on social cognition and whether animals understand the mental states of others in the same way humans do. In an attempt to address this question research has predominately focused on non-human primates (hereafter primates), especially chimpanzees. This popularity is probably owing to chimpanzees’ evolutionary relatedness to humans, which is the closest of all the primate species and therefore increases the likelihood that they might share human cognitive abilities. Human mental states are a suite of cognitive abilities which allow us to understand others’ psychological states. One example is theory of mind (ToM) which is the ability to understand that other individuals have beliefs and that such beliefs can be different from your own. This is illustrated by the ‘Smarties Test’ in which an individual is shown a tube of smarties and asked what they think is inside the tube, they correctly infer ‘smarties’ however when the tube is opened it is revealed that the tube contains only pencils. The individual is then asked what another naïve person would answer if given the same test. If the individual has a ToM they should understand that the naïve individual will have a false belief about the tube’s contents and therefore answer in the same way, i.e., smarties. Research shows that children under the age of 4 years have not fully developed a ToM and invariably fail the smarties test whereas children above this age pass the test. Experiments conducted on primates have shown little evidence that they have a ToM. For example, Call and Tomasello (1999) tested chimpanzees, orangutans and children with a non-verbal false belief task. The task involved a series of finding games in which a reward was hidden in one of two identical containers by an adult (the hider), and another adult, who had witnessed the hiding process (the communicator), placed a token on the baited container which acted as a marker to indicate to the subject where the food was hidden. The subjects learnt to use the marker to locate the reward and ignore the marker when they knew it to be incorrect (during visible displacement trials). In the crucial false belief trials, the communicator watched the baiting of the container and then left the area and during the communicator’s absence the hider swapped the location of the containers. When the communicator returned she placed the marker on the container in the location she had seen the reward being hidden, which was incorrect, and therefore the communicator had a false belief about where the reward was hidden. To show an understanding of this belief the subjects would have to choose the container which the communicator did not place the marker on. The results showed that children chose the correct location of the reward demonstrating their understanding of the communicator’s false belief whereas none of the apes succeeded in choosing the correct location demonstrating their lack of false belief understanding. Other studies have also failed to find evidence of ToM in primates (for review see Povinelli 2004) and many now think that language is needed for the development of ToM which seems to have led researchers away from studying ToM in primates and other species of animals. Another mental state that has received much research attention is intentionally. Intentionally can be defined as understanding the behaviours of other as intentional, goal directed activities. The first study to address this issue was conducted by Premack and Woodruff (1978). They presented Sarah with videotaped sequences of a human actor in several problem-solving situations that were familiar to Sarah. For example, the actor was depicted looking up toward an out-of-reach banana hanging from the ceiling, or attempting to operate a hose that was unattached to a tap. After Sarah had viewed each problem, she was shown a pair of photographs, one of which depicted the solution to the problem. For instance, in the out-of-reach banana situation, the solution consisted of the actor moving a box under the banana. Overall, Sarah performed well on these tasks from the beginning but Savage-Rumbaugh et al (1978) pointed out that Sarah might have been choosing alternatives based on the simple associations among objects formed from her experiences with caretakers and their behaviour with test items, such hoses and taps. Savage-Rumbaugh et al (1978) analysed each item Sarah was presented with and found that, overall, items for which such associative procedures were most straightforward were the ones on which Sarah performed best. In addition, Savage-Rumbaugh et al (1978) presented two language-trained chimpanzees with a matching-to-sample task in which the chimpanzees were shown, for example, a picture of a key and asked to select between pictures of a box and a padlock. Both chimpanzees performed well above chance in this task and selected the correct alternative in the majority of trials. These results therefore provided an alternative explanation to that of understanding of intention in others. Other research on chimpanzees’ understanding of intentions has produced mixed results. Povinelli et al (1998), for example, tested six chimpanzees who could choose to point to one of two caretakers to provide them with a cup of juice. However, prior to the choice the apes had experience of the caretakers’ behaviour in which one caretaker would accidentally drop the drink on the floor and the other would purposely empty the cup of juice on the floor. The authors reasoned that an understanding of the intentionally of the caretakers would result in the apes choosing the caretaker to provide them with juice who had previously acted with good intention but accidentally spilled the drink. The results showed that the apes made no preference for the ‘clumsy’ caretaker indicating that the apes were unable to understand the experimenters’ intentions. However, Call and Tomasello (2004) argue that there was no motivation to choose between the two caretakers because whomever they chose they would receive no juice. This possibility can be tested by repeating the experiment and allowing the caretakers to sometimes drop or purposely spill the drink on some trials but not on others. This would allow the apes to receive juice in some of the trials e.g., 50%, and therefore raise the apes’ motivation whilst maintaining the essence of the experiment. In contrast to the Povinelli et al’s (1998) study, Call et al (2004) found evidence that chimpanzees do show understanding of intentional behaviour in humans. The authors conducted an ‘unwilling’ and ‘unable’ test in which an experimenter would feed an ape a grape through a hole in the Plexiglas window. On some trials the ape would not receive the grape from the experimenter who in one condition would accidentally drop the grape and in a second condition would tease the ape by repeatedly pulling the grape back from the hole. When the apes’ behaviour was analysed it was found that they behaved differently in the two conditions. When the grapes were accidentally dropped the ape remained in the room longer than when the experimenter teased the ape. Moreover, during the teasing condition the apes often showed frustrated behaviour, such as spitting and punching the plexi-glass panel. The authors suggest this demonstrates the apes’ understanding of the experimenter’s intentions of being unable to give the grape in one condition and unwilling to give the grape in the other condition. However, it would be interesting to know exactly how the teasing behaviour was executed by the experimenter. For example, if the experimenter used loud vocalisations in the teasing condition but not in the clumsy condition it is possible the apes were just reacting to this rather than the experimenter’s intention. Knowing what others can see is another mental state humans possess and one that chimpanzees have shown evidence in possessing. For example, Hare et al (2001) used a competitive paradigm to test whether a subordinate chimpanzee would take into account how a dominant rival would behave depending if the rival had seen food being baited behind a barrier. The two chimpanzees faced each other across an ape enclosure which had one barrier in the middle of the enclosure. An experimenter hid one piece behind the barrier (on the subordinate’s side) and one piece in the open. In some conditions the dominant saw the reward being placed behind the barrier and in other conditions did not see the food being placed there. After the baiting procedure the subordinate and dominant were then allowed access to rewards. When the subordinate had observed that the dominant had not seen the food being hidden behind the barrier the subordinate would approach the food behind the barrier leaving the dominant to retrieve the reward that was out in the open. However, when the dominant had seen the food placed behind the barrier the subordinate showed no preference for the food behind the barrier. In a follow-up study Hare et al (2001) extended these findings by repeating the experiment but in some conditions the dominant was switched (after seeing the food being hidden) with another dominant who had not seen the food being hidden. The results showed that the subordinate approached the reward placed behind the barrier more often when the dominant had been switched with the naïve dominant and the authors suggest that this demonstrates chimpanzees can predict who had seen what. In addition, a control condition ruled out the possibility that the subordinate was acting on simple rules such as preferring food lying close to the barriers. For example, when the opaque barrier was replaced by a transparent barrier, so that the dominant would see the reward even when he had not seen the food being placed there, the subordinate’s preference for the food behind the barrier disappeared. Although the above two studies seem to show that chimpanzees understand what others see, several researchers suggest that chimpanzees are using simpler mechanisms to solve the task. Karin-D’Arcy and Povinelli (2002), for example, argue that subordinate chimpanzees might simple prefer food that is next to barriers as this provides some safety from attack by the dominant. The authors repeated Hare et al’s 2002 study and found that subordinate chimpanzees preferred food next to the barrier even when both chimpanzees could see both pieces of food (the barrier was positioned vertically in relation to both chimpanzees). In addition, Povinelli and Vonk (2003) argue that even if the chimpanzees did not have a preference per se for the barriers in Hare et al’s 2002 studies the chimpanzees can understand which food the dominant will be likely to go for without evoking any mental states. For example, behavioural abstraction taken from previous experiences of similar interactions can be used to predict the dominant’s behaviour. This can occur if the subordinate understands that when the dominant is facing the food the dominant will go towards that food, so use the rule ‘don not go for the food if the dominant is orientated toward the food’. Povinelli and Vonk (2003) further argue that experiments testing mental states in animals will only be of value if the possibility of behavioural abstraction is removed from the experimental equation. The authors therefore advocate that mental attribution can only be tested in chimpanzees and other animals by showing evidence of an individual extrapolating its own experiences to the mental states of others, a theory first put forward by Heyes (1998). Povinelli and Vonk (2003) suggest the following as a suitable experiment to address Heyes’ (1998) idea. First, allow an ape to interact with two buckets, one red and one black. The red bucket is placed over the ape’s head and the ape can clearly see its surroundings through the bucket, however when the black bucket is placed over the ape’s head he can see nothing. Now if the ape is confronted with two experimenters, one wearing the black bucket over her head and the other the red bucket over her head, and the ape begs for food only from the experimenter wearing the red bucket then it is likely that the ape is using mental attribution as the only experience the ape has had of the buckets is through its own experience. Povinelli and Vonk (2003) argue that experiments of this nature can provide evidence of mental states and rule out alternative interpretations such as behavioural abstractions. Conclusion The mental states of humans include a suite of cognitive functions which allow us to understand others’ knowledge and beliefs such as theory of mind and intentionally. Many argue that only humans have these types of mental states and other animals use lower cognitive functions based on learning and experience, such as behavioural abstractions. However, there is increasing evidence that other animals, especially chimpanzees, might also have human-like mental states, such as understanding intentions and understanding the relationship between seeing and knowing. One major caveat, however, is, to date, the most convincing research on chimpanzees’ mental states can not distinguish if the chimpanzees’ actions are based on human-like mental states or based on mechanisms not involving mental attribution such as behavioural abstractions. What is therefore needed is further research which can distinguish between these two possibilities and therefore increase our understanding of the psychological abilities of chimpanzees and other animals. References Call, J.,Research on Mental States of Non-Human Animals
Journeys Enf of legal Studies.

Madison v. Marbury: Devil’s Brown v. Board of Education Miranda v. Arizona Legality vs. Morality: Abortion and the Supreme Court United States v. Nixon: Executive Privilege Texas v. Johnson: Symbolic Speech Kennedy v. Louisiana Attached is the bumper sticker to use.It’s hard to believe that we’ve travelled so far in such a short time. We have only scratched the surface of our nation’s legal landscape, while visiting a few incredible landmark cases in legal history. You have collected souvenirs that you can keep by which to remember your journey: your virtual license plate and our class book. Let’s take one last opportunity to make keepsakes together. Design this blank slate bumper sticker, filling it with your trip highlights (utilizing each different case above) and summarizing what you have learned along the way. It can be found both through this link Then, in at least 500 words, explain your bumper sticker to your classmates, including why you designed it the way that you did. Bluebook in-text citation and reference page.
Journeys Enf of legal Studies

Improved sanitation in terms of availability of hygienic toilet facilities is essential and a basic necessity of every human society. Various studies conducted in Ghana show that the general sanitation situation is not the best. Further, it is not uncommon in Ghana seeing people defecating in public places, all because of inadequate hygienic toilet facilities. Each year government of Ghana spends large sums of resources in managing waste (both solid and liquid) in Ghana. In recent years there has been out-break of cholera and other communicable diseases as a result of improper waste management techniques, including indiscriminate defecation and dumping of liquid waste. Government also spends large sums of resources or budgets on treatment of malaria by procuring malaria drugs and also investing in malaria treatment procedures and education of people on environmental cleanliness. Some of these toilet facilities have been in dilapidated state making them inaccessible. It is essential to carry out this study to ascertain the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities by determining households’ willingness-to-pay for these improved toilet facilities. This study would provide the needed impetus for public-private investment in providing quality institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. Finally, conclusions and recommendations will be drawn from the results of the study, in order to help in the current efforts in the provision of hygienic toilet facilities in Ghana and elsewhere. This study applies Contingent Valuation approach in determining households` willingness-to-pay for hygienic toilet facilities. 1.1 Background Based on the November 2010 rebasing of the gross domestic product (GDP) figures of Ghana, the country is officially a lower middle-income country with GDP per capita figure of over 1,000 United States (US) dollars per year as at 2010. Therefore in terms of average wealth based on GDP per capita, Ghana is wealthier than the majority of African countries. The economy of Ghana has also outperformed most African economies over the past two decades in terms of average growth rates and reduction in overall poverty levels. Yet in terms of the quality and access to environmental sanitation, the country is ranked in the bottom four of African countries giving it a distinction of being among the dirtiest countries in Africa. The international country environmental performance index (EPI) rankings released in 2010 by Yale University in the United States indicate that of the 47 African countries evaluated, Ghana’s environmental sanitation quality was ranked 44th in Africa. Ghana’s sanitation quality was better than only Chad, Eritrea and Niger. For the earlier 2008 EPI rankings, Ghana’s environmental sanitation quality was only better than that of Burkina Faso, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Niger. The very low poor quality of environmental sanitation in Ghana is exemplified by the grossly inadequate levels of private and public toilet facilities and the widespread disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the country especially in Accra, the most developed human settlement in the country. For example, according to a recent article in the Daily Graphic, an official of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) indicated that about 91 per cent of all human dwellings in the national capital are without private places of convenience and this placed an excessive dependence on public toilet and the general public places for the disposal of human wastes in the city. The Public Health Unit of AMA revealed that 114, 521 residences are without places of convenience, with 9,149 and 1,842 houses using water closet (WC) and the Kumasi Ventilated Improved Pit (KVIP) toilet facilities respectively. Further, a total of 315 houses use the outlawed pan latrines, with some 79 homes also using pit latrines (Daily Graphic, 15 January 2011). In the nearby future, cities` authorities in Ghana would have to deal with large sizes of both solid and liquid waste. This is a result of less hygienic sanitation facilities which have been worsened with increasing population and migration into cities. Again with the quantum of both solid and liquid waste generated in most of our cities each day, effective waste management poses a serious challenge to the developmental agenda of most of these cities and other peri-urban areas. Therefore the current state of sanitation in the country presents a major threat to the health of many Ghanaians in case of outbreak of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, among others. The current sanitation situation also has serious ramifications on public budget on sanitation in Ghana. This is because provision of hygienic sanitation facilities drains the coffers and the budget of many Metropolitan/Municipal/District Assemblies and the Common Fund. The low environmental sanitation quality problem in Ghana presents a major national challenge in a number of ways. First, it is clear that the quality of environmental sanitation is directly linked to the human disease burden of a country. About 70 per cent of human diseases are known to be directly caused by poor water and sanitation factors. Such diseases include malaria, typhoid and guinea worm. Malaria accounts for about 40 per cent of hospital admissions and typhoid accounts for another three to five per cent of admissions. The universal health coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme, introduced in 2003 is known to have a moderately severe funding and sustainability challenge. It is obvious a substantial improvement in the quality of environmental sanitation even to the average quality levels found in Africa would substantially reduce health care costs and improve the financial sustainability of the scheme. Second, it is well established that rapid and sustained economic growth is directly dependent on health outcomes including those dealing with demographic changes. Human beings work better with improved quality of health and it can be safely assumed that a better quality of environmental sanitation leads to improved health incomes and hence higher economic growth. There is a strong link between health on one side and economic growth, sustainable and development on the other hand. There is a growing evidence on this issue and also indicate that investment in health care systems usually comes along with substantial benefits for the economy. A study by the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that an increase in life expectancy at birth by 10 per cent increases the rate at which the economy grows by 0.35 per cent a year. On the contrary, poor health has a huge negative impact on the society. This study also asserts that about 50 per cent of growth differentials between rich and poor countries can be explained by poor health and life expectancy differentials (WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, 2001). According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2011), a global study by WHO shows that unclean water, insufficient sanitation facilities and inadequate hygiene are ranked among the 10 sources of diseases globally. This therefore underscores the importance of environmental factors on the causes of the global burden of diseases. 1.2 Problem Statement Ghana, with a population of about 25 million, currently generates about three million tonnes of solid wastes annually. Unfortunately only about 10 percent of these wastes generated are collected and disposed of properly. The rest are scattered over the country leading to a perennial waste problem. The situation is getting worse with increases in population and urbanisation which has led to high amounts of solid wastes being generated. To make matters worse, the municipal authorities in Ghana do not seem to have the required equipment and expertise for effective collection and disposal of solid and liquid wastes. Improper management of solid and liquid wastes has created problems such as the extensive visual pollution of the environment which reduces the value of the country to tourists, blockage of drains and gutters leading to severe flooding especially during the rainy seasons and the recurring outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, malaria and typhoid. This problem needs prompt action if Ghana is to achieve its targets scheduled for 2015 under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In Ghana, the percentage of the population with access to improved sanitation was 29.9 percent (UNDP, 2011). Effective solutions to Ghana’s current solid and liquid waste management problems will save lives and resources and reverse the deteriorating aesthetic value of Ghana as a tourist destination. Ghana’s tourism sector continues to show impressive growth in both the number of visitors and the revenues earned from it. Ghana’s national parks, beaches and other tourist sites have been littered with solid and liquid wastes making such places increasingly unattractive. If Ghana’s investment drive to expand the tourism sector is to be achieved, then liquid and solid wastes at these public places should be properly collected and disposed off. One of the ways of achieving the above is through provision of hygienic public toilets. This further requires comprehensive study on the household`s willingness-to-pay for hygienic toilet facilities. This would provide the needed basis for investment in hygienic toilet facilities by the public and private sectors. The policy options to improve upon environmental sanitation quality in Ghana include direct provision by government through District Assemblies of public toilets, the use of tax incentives to encourage private companies and firms to provide public places of convenience as part of their social responsibility obligations and the use of more economic incentives to encourage responsible behavior by individuals towards the proper disposal of solid and liquid wastes. Recently, various studies and surveys have been conducted in Ghana to establish the extent of sanitation including toilet facilities (see for example, Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), 2008; Agyei et al., 2011; Kwashie, 2009; Arku, 2010; Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), 2012; and Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), 2009). While some of these studies discussed mainly the qualitative features of sanitation (including toilet facilities) in Ghana, the recent literature has focused attention on the quantitative aspects, making use of the increasing availability of good quality data on sanitation (including toilet facilities). Within the empirical literature on sanitation, there has been a shift in emphasis from mere quantification to an econometric analysis of its determinants. There is, therefore, the need to quantitatively understand what factors influence the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. This can be achieved by estimating the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. From the foregoing, the following research issues are pertinent: What are the social, demographic and economic characteristics of households in Ghana? What are the key factors influencing households` choice of use of improved public toilet facilities? What are household`s perceptions of toilet facility problems in Ghana? What are the maximum amounts of monies that households are willing to pay for improved institutional public toilet facilities? What is the cost that households who have toilet facilities incur to build and maintain them? What are the factors influencing the levels of maximum amounts of monies that households are willing to pay for improved institutional toilet facilities? These are the issues addressed by this study. 1.3 Objectives of the study This study aims to estimate the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. In the light of the above discussion, the specific objectives of the study are: to determine household`s perceptions of toilet facility problems in the study area; to determine maximum amounts of monies that households are willing to pay for improved institutional public toilet facilities; to determine the cost that households who have toilet facilities incur to build and maintain them; to determine the factors influencing the levels of maximum amounts of monies that households are willing to pay for improved institutional toilet facilities; to determine the factors that influence households’ choice of use of improved public toilet facilities; and to analyze the social, demographic, and economic characteristics of households in Ghana. 1.4 Justification of the study The increasing awareness of sanitation-related diseases globally has led to a greater need for understanding the sanitation practices in developing countries in Africa like Ghana. A better understanding of the sanitation practices (especially availability of hygienic toilet facilities) can improve policy and sanitation decisions in Ghana (and other countries). The study of the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana would be useful for Ghana policymakers to design sanitation policies to sustain and develop the health and tourism sectors. Empirical literature on sanitation has shifted from mere quantification (see for example, Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), 2008; Agyei et al., 2011; Arku, 2010; Kwashie, 2009; Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), 2012; and Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), 2009) to an econometric analysis of its determinants ( for example Anaman and Jair, 2000). This study would be an outcome of field survey to be conducted in Ghana in 2013. The significant addition of the study would be the application of econometric models in this study, since most the surveys on sanitation practices in Ghana have been mostly descriptive. There is a rapidly growing literature on sanitation practices in Ghana but empirical work in this field is deficient. With empirical studies on sanitation practices related to Ghana, they are normally descriptive in nature with less or no emphasis on building econometric models. This study seeks to bring new information, by estimating the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. This study also attempts to identify certain key factors influencing the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. Estimating the demand for improved toilet facilities at the household level could help design policies to improve the sanitation situation in Ghana. This means that, formulation of policies that are effective in curbing poor sanitation practices in Ghana, require an analysis of its key determinants, namely, identification of variables that have a significant effect on demand for improved toilet facilities. Results obtained would help bridge the gap in knowledge on sanitation practices in Ghana. Results obtained would help improve the empirical understanding of sanitation practices in Ghana, including their social, family and community context. This will help to explore how an understanding of sanitation practices may help develop preventive measures aimed at improving living conditions for householders thereby reducing the prevalence of sanitation-related diseases. This study seeks to bring to the fore the challenges in the provision of public toilet facilities and the willingness of households to pay for hygienic toilet facilities by the application of Contingent Valuation approach. 1.5 Organization of Research Proposal The remainder of this report is organized as follows: the next section deals with the literature review. Following that, the methodology of the study is discussed. The work schedule, plan costing and budgeting of the study are then reported followed by a list of cited references. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Overview of the Ghanaian Economy Ghana`s aim of achieving industrial and economic transformation in the long term received a major boost in 2010, when the country was formally declared a lower middle income country partly due to the rebasing exercise carried by the Ghana Statistical Service. Indeed, the country achieved lower middle income status in 2007 per the official figures released in November 2010 which put Ghana`s per capita GDP as US 1,100 dollars in 2007. The rebasing of the GDP resulted primarily to two major changes in the GDP estimation in Ghana; 1) the change of the base year for the GDP estimate from 1993 to 2006 and 2) the expansion of the number of sectors of the economy from 14 sub-sectors (industries) to 20 industries. Between 2007 and 2011, the size of the Ghanaian economy in terms of the nominal GDP more than doubled. In 2011, the total size of the Ghanaian economy was GHS 55,300 million in nominal terms. This was a marked improvement of the 2007 figure of GHS 21,755 million. The industry sector, under which the water and sanitation sub-sector, is located continues to show impressive performance in terms of its growth rate and contribution to the GDP. In 2011, the industry sector overtook the agriculture sector as the second largest contributor to the Ghanaian GDP; after the services sector. In 2011, the industry sector contributed an amount of GHS 14,308 million which represented about 25.9 percent of the total GDP. In the same year, the growth rate for the sector was 41.1 percent; the highest among all the three sectors of the economy. The percentage share of the industry sector to the nominal GDP declined consistently from the 2007 level of 20.7 percent throughout 2008 to 2010. The gains made in the industry sector in 2011 could be partly attributed to the discovery of crude oil in commercial quantities in 2007 and export of crude oil, since 2010. For instance in 2011, the crude oil sub-sector, contributed an amount of GHS 3,746 million to the nominal GDP, representing 6.8 percent of the total GDP (refer to Ghana Statistical Service, 2012, for GDP figures). Ghana became a major exporter of crude oil in 2011 after the discovery of oil in commercial quantities in 2007 in the Cape Three points of Western region. According to Government of Ghana (2011), an amount of US$337.3 million (GHS 506.0 million) were realized from the first three liftings of crude oil in 2011 with its total volume as 2,980,720 barrels. The total oil revenue realized from the export of crude oil was distributed to the various allowable sources in accordance with the Petroleum Revenue Management Act (PRMA), Act 805, 2011. The discovery of oil in commercial has provided alternative sources of funds for government projects and programmes. Further, the oil discovery has boosted the Ghanaian economy in terms of the size of the GDP and also growth of the GDP. In recent years the Ghanaian economy has observed several progresses in terms of macroeconomic and political stability and economic growth. The current economic growth and political stability in Ghana could be traced as far as 1984 where the country has achieved positive economic growth rate each year and also stable political environment. With these achievements some researchers have referred to the 1984-2011 period as the era of political and economic stability. Since 1992, the country has held five successful elections with the current 2012 elections being the sixth consecutive elections to be held, making Ghana the darling/favorite of many developed economies. The political landscape of Ghana, which is a model for democracy in Africa, experience two major events in every four years: 1) multi-party democratic elections and 2) political transition. After 1992, Ghana has experienced both interparty political transition and intra-party political transitions. These current developments in the economic and political environment are expected to translate to improvement in the standard of living of the populace through the reduction of poverty and access to basic social amenities. The Ghanaian economy has seen a sharp decrease in poverty status among the population as result of various interventions by both public and private institutions. For instance, poverty reduced from about 51.7 per cent in the 1991/1992 period to about 28.5 per cent in 2005/2006 period. The performance of Ghana in terms of 2011 Human Development Index (HDI) as reported by the United Nations Development Programmme (UNDP) (2011) has been mixed. According to UNDP (2011), in 2011, Ghana`s overall HDI ranking was 135th out of 187 countries with HDI value of 0.541. Ghana`s score puts it in the medium human development category. The income gini coefficient which measures income disparity among the poor and the rich during the period of 2000 to 2011 averaged about 42.8. Ghana had multidimensional poverty index value of 0.144 with population in the multidimensional poverty using headcount been 31.2 per cent of the population (representing about 7.3 million people). Other indices for measuring poverty showed a similar trend with population vulnerable to poverty been 21.6 per cent and population in severe poverty been 11.4 per cent. The population below the income poverty line using the PPP (in Purchasing Power Parity terms) of US 1.25 dollars a day been 30.0 per cent with population on the national poverty line as 28.5 per cent (refer to UNDP, 2011). 2.2 The Role of Sanitation in the Ghanaian Economy The role of the sanitation sector in the Ghanaian economy cannot be underestimated due to its importance in terms of provision of employment and also its contribution to the GDP. The sanitation sector is inter-related with several sub-sectors of the Ghanaian economy. Its impact could be felt in the health, education, tourism, among other several sectors of the Ghanaian economy. For the purposes of GDP estimations, the economic activities under sanitation are classified under water and sewerage sub-sector. The water and sewerage sub-sector is further classified under the industry sector. Although the water and sewerage sub-sector could not be counted among the leading sub-sectors of the Ghanaian economy, its contribution to the GDP is enormous. The water and sewerage sub-sector makes both direct and indirect contributions to the Ghanaian economy. The contribution of the water and sewerage sub-sector to the nominal GDP increased from GHS 227 million in 2007 to GHS 467 million in 2011. The percentage share of the water and sewerage sub-sector from 2007-2011 had stagnated around 0.8 percent; with the maximum for the period been 1 percent achieved in 2007. The percentage contribution of the water and sewerage sub-sector decreased continuously from its highest level of 1 percent in 2007 for the period, 2007-2011. The real growth rate for the water and sewerage sub-sector increased from 1.2 percent in 2007 to about 2.9 percent in 2011. For the period 2007-2011, the year 2009 had the highest real growth rate of 7.7 percent with the year with the least real growth rate been 2008; where the real growth rate was recorded as 0.8 percent (for GDP figures refer to Ghana Statistical Service, 2012). The sanitation sub-sector provides employment for the youth in Ghana. In Ghana, reliable figures on employment are woefully inadequate. But available evidence suggests that the sanitation sector provides a sizeable amount of employment for the people of Ghana. For instance in 2011, Zoomlion Ghana Limited, a waste management service provider had about 3000 core staff and field staff capacity of about 65,100 under the National Youth Employment Programme (NYEP), (Agyepong, 2011). In 2012, the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) had about eleven waste management service contractors who are tasked with the collection of solid waste. The various waste management service contractors had been allocated designated areas (sub-metros). Some of these waste management services contractors had been allocated more than one designated area. For instance, Zoomlion Ghana Limited had been allocated three designated areas such as Ayawaso West, Ayawaso Central and Ablekuma Central sub-metros (for more information on waste management by AMA, visit AMA website on In 2012, the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) had about seven different waste management service contractors designated for the 10 sub-metro areas of the Kumasi Metropolis. Similarly as AMA, some of the waste management service contractors in KMA work in more than one sub-metro area. Meskworld Company Limited and Zoomlion Ghana Limited work in two and three sub-metros respectively. Further there are several other septic tank dislodging service providers in the two metropolises. For instance, in 2012 the KMA alone had about 13 septic tank dislodging service providers (for more information on waste management by KMA, visit KMA website on 2.3 Legislations on Sanitation in Ghana The sanitation sector of Ghana is regulated by the Environmental Sanitation Policy 1999 and other several legislative instruments and laws. For instance, the outputs and targets setted in the revised Environmental Sanitation Policy of 1999 include the abolishing of pan latrines by 2010; at least 90% of the population has access to an acceptable domestic toilet and the remaining 10% has access to hygienic public toilets and further, hygienic public toilets are provided for the transient population in all areas of intense public activity. Although the policy document has been revised, much still remains to be done in terms of meeting the output and targets for the provision of hygienic toilet facilities. 2.4 Trends of Ghana`s Performance on Sanitation Based on Yale University`s Environmental Performance Index (EPI), 2008-2012 The international country environmental performance index (EPI) rankings released in 2010 by Yale University in the United States indicate that of the 47 African countries evaluated, Ghana’s environmental sanitation quality was ranked 44th in Africa. Ghana’s sanitation quality was better than only Chad, Eritrea and Niger. For the earlier 2008 EPI rankings, Ghana’s environmental sanitation quality was only better than that of Burkina Faso, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Niger. The performance of Ghana in terms of the 2012 EPI ranking has been mixed based on the 22 performance indicators and 10 policy categories. Based on the 2012 Environmental Performance Index (EPI), Ghana was ranked as 91 among 132 countries. This means there is the need to address these concerns raised by the 2012 EPI. In terms of drinking water, Ghana was ranked 101 with a score of 32.8, both environmental burden of disease and child mortality, had Ghana ranked 113 with a score of 34. The 2012 EPI showed that in terms of sanitation, Ghana was ranked 126th out of 132 countries with a score of 3.0. 2.5 Public Expenditure on Waste and Sanitation Management in Ghana Each year the Government of Ghana (GoG) allocates resources to the various sectors of the Ghanaian economy through the budget statement. As part of the government`s efforts in improving the quality of sanitation in the country, various projects and programmes were earmarked and funded in the 2012 Government of Ghana Budget Statement. Investment in sanitation sector continued for the 2012 fiscal year with Government of Ghana making several allocations of funds for the activities of the sanitation sector. According to GoG (2011), the 2012 Budget Statement allocated funds for several projects in the sanitation sector of Ghana. For instance, an amount of GHS 33.3 million was spent in 2011 on sanitation and waste management projects undertaken by the MMDAs. This figure was expected to rise to GHS 60 million for the 2012 fiscal year. The government further planned supporting Public Private Partnership (PPP) in terms of the construction of compost plants to treat waste and produce fertilizer for farming (GoG, 2011). This is expected to improve sanitation situation in the country in order to achieve targets of the MDGs in 2015. 3. Methodology 3.1. Data and Data Sources A scientific survey based on the stratified random sampling method of urban householders specifically in selected communities in Ghana on provision of improved public toilet facilities will be undertaken using questionnaire. Administration of the questionnaires will be undertaken by hired assistants. A small pilot survey will be initiated in the tenth to eleventh month of the study period. During this pilot survey, we would seek to know if the willingness to pay bidding game is well understood clearly by respondents through our explanation on the purpose of seeking monetary value information on access to and use of improved institutional public toilet facility. The final questionnaire will be developed and administered once the pilot survey had been done. The economic value of provision of improved institutional public toilet facilities will be determined using the contingent valuation method. This will be based on a mixture of the open-ended approach as used by Anaman and Lellyett (1996b) and the payments scale approach as used by Donaldson (1997) adapted to Ghana conditions. Initially, householders will be asked to offer their price for the particular type of improved institutional public toilet facility based on the open-ended approach. This is similar to the Ghanaian market conditions where a patroniser of certain goods/services can initially offer a price. This is considered a starting bid. The starting bid is increased by one cedi per month at a time until the interviewer and the respondent mutually agree on the final price. The final price is taken to be the maximum wiliness to pay (WTP) or the economic value attached to the particular improved institutional public toilet facilities by the householder. The survey data will be analysed using simple statistical analysis to determine the means and standard deviations of important variables. Multiple regression analysis will also be employed to determine the factors that influenced amounts of monies that householders were willing to pay (WTP) for improved institutional public toilet services. The dependent variable of the multiple regression models is the maximum WTP by householder for improved institutional public toilet services. The independent variables gleaned from literature so far will be total householder income, age of householder, distance of home to roadside community waste collection service and the number of children in the home. Finally logistic regression analysis will be used to determine the factors that influenced householders’ choice of improved institutional public toilet facility. 3.2 Proposed Sampling Procedure This research would be conducted between August and November 2013. The sample study would be selected by a multi-stage sampling technique. At the first stage, some of the districts would be randomly selected from three zones that would be defined by geographical, socio-cultural and economic differences. The whole country would be divided into three zones: northern, central and southern zones. The northern zone would comprise of the three northern regions (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions). The central zone would be made up of Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Western and Eastern regions while the southern zone would cover Greater Accra, Volta and Central regions. By a simple random method, at least two districts would be was chosen from each of the zones for the study. At the second stage, approximately ten per cent of the total number of communities/EAs in each of the selected districts would be randomly selected. There would be proportional representation to each of the districts. The study would adopt survey research method of both descriptive and quantitative types. Both qualitative and quantitative methods would be used for this research. These include focus group discussions, formal and informal interviews and observations. 3.3 Expected Result The study will show the factors th
Describe a user who will be using mobile flight tracker app as personas.. I don’t know how to handle this Computer Science question and need guidance.

Describe a user who will be using your system(mobile flight tracker app) as personas. (.5 to 1 page per persona) (i.e., instructor, TA, motivated student, unmotivated student or another set as fits your particular system)
For your user (from the personas) write two narrative scenarios (max 1 page each):
i. What they do now for their tasks in your application are
ii. How they would use your proposed application in the future for the same tasks.…………
Describe a user who will be using mobile flight tracker app as personas.

Software Engineering Ambiguities And Omission Computer Science Essay

Ambiguities and omission are statement that can be explained in number of ways. For example, the following statement is ambiguous. The operator identity consists of the operator name and password; the password consists of six digits. It should be displayed on the security vdu and deposited in the login file when an operator logs into the system. According to the question there are so many ambiguities and omission can be found in the given scenario. The main ambiguities and omission includes in given scenario as follows: The structured approach described in study text can be dividing as follows: Preface, introduction, glossary, user requirement definition, system architecture, system requirements specification, system models, system evolution, appendices, and index. The first category of structured approach is preface. In this stage should define the expected readership of the document and describe its version history, including a rationale for the creation of a new version and a summery of the changes made in each version. [2] In the second stage of structured approach is the introduction. In this stage this should describe the need for the system. There should be a brief explanation about its functions and will it works with other systems.Acooding to the given scenario the ticket machine is made for perches rail ticket quickly rather than waiting in the que to perches rail ticket. When the user enters the start button he can chooses the destination. After selecting the destination user can see the availability of trains ,train time, what kind of trains available(slow or fast,overground or underground train).When the customer chooses the destination,train,and the time user can purchases the rail ticket by paying card or cash. In the next stage of the structured approach which is user requirement definition, needs to define the services provide for the user. User requirements can be explained as follows: When user enters the start button he should abele to see the destinations. When the destination chooses he should be abele to see the train time and the ticket price. If the customer confirms the selected destination he should be abele to pay by card or cash. If the customer wants purchases more than one ticket their should be a option to select the numbers of ticket .After that customer should abele to chooses the payment method (cash or card).If the customer user wants to pay by card he should abele to input the card. After input the card if the user change his mind and wants to pay by cash there must be option to cancel the payment method as a card and choose the payment method as cash. If the customer paid by cash change and receipt must be given. The next stage of structured approach involves to given scenario is system requirement specification. This should explain about the functional and non functional requirement s in detail. According to the system requirement the system should be able to display the destination when the user selects the start button. When the customer chooses the destination system should be abele to display the availability of trains, time.and price. If there are no trains for chosen time system should be abele to display the alternatives (eg; replacement bus services). When the customer selects the train the system should be abele display the payment method (cash or card).According to the scenario user can only pay by credit card or cash, but the system should be able to take debit cards as well. Because most people user debit cards more than credit cards).If the user input a card before choosing the payment method or input a invalid card system should abele to displays the error massage. If user has been paid by cash system should able to gives the change back. After purchasing rail ticket by card or cash, the system should able to print the valid ticket to chosen destination and abele to provide the receipt for the payment which has been done? The next stage of the structured approach is ‘System models’, which has been don in question (e.) .The last stage which involves to given scenario is ‘system evolution’. This refers to the fundamental assumptions on which the system is based and anticipated changes due to hardware evolution, changing user needs.etc..(Eg: if the user wants to purchases the ticket online at home he should be able to log in to the system and purchases the train ticket. (c.)Write the user requirements definitions. The user requirements for a system could be divided to functional and non functional requirements, because it helps to the user to understand the system without technical knowledge. User requirements are defined using natural language, tables and diagrams as these can be understood by all users. There are so many problems can be generated when requirements are written in natural language. Lack of clarity It is something difficult to use language in a precise and unambiguous way without making the document wordy and difficult to read. Requirements confusion- Functional requirements, non-functional requirements, system goals and design information may be clearly distinguished. Requirements amalgamation- Several different requirements may be expressed together as a single requirement User requirements can be defined as: the software must provide a means of representing and accessing external files created by other tools. [3] According to the above scenario user requirements can be explained as follows. When the user presses the start button he should be able to choose the options (For example customer selecting a specific destination, the destination is in which zone, etc…) When the customer chooses the destination user should be able to find out the train times and what kinds of trains (fast train or slow train, underground train or over ground train) are available for that time. If trains are not available or delays at that time user should be able to find out the alternatives such as when is the next train available?, Is there any replacement bus service available?, etc.. After choosing the destination, train and the train time, user should able to see the ticket price. User should able to choose the payment method (card payment or cash payment) to purchases the rail-ticket. If the user wants to pay by cash he should able to enter the cash and confirms the cash payment. After confirming the cash payment, rail ticket should be printed and receipt for the payment and change needs to be given. If the user wants to pay by card he should able to input the credit card or debit card and enter the validation pin. User should be able to get the rail ticket and the receipt after payment has been made. (d.)Write the system requirements specifications. System requirements are expanded versions of the user requirements that used by software engineers as the starting point of the system design. [4] Normally they add details and explain how the user requirements should be provided by the system. According to the given scenario software requirements can be highlight as follows: When the user enters the start button the system should be able display the destinations. When customer chooses the destination the system should be displayed the train availability, what kind of trains available (fast, slow train or over ground, underground) of chosen destination and the departures time. If there are no trains available at that time the system should able display saying that ‘there are no trains available at chosen time enter the more option button to check the alternatives. When the alternatives selects system should be abele to display the alternatives(eg.take the replacement bus 472 towards London bride and take the northern line towards Morden -estimated time 1 hour and 32 minutes) If the trains available, after the choosing the destination and the departure time, the system should be able to display the ticket price for the all kinds of trains. For example if the user wants to take underground train within zone 1-6 the travel card will be £6.30. When the customer selects the ticket type for the chosen destination the system should be able to display the payment method (pay by card or cash). If the customer chooses the payment method as cash system should display how much user needs to pay totally and also should display a massage saying ‘input the cash for perches the ticket) When the customer input the cash the system should be able to charged exactly for the ticket price and change need to be given. Because most of the time users do not keep exact amount for the ticket.mostely they keep £10 or £20 notes. If the customer chooses the payment method as card he should confirmed the payment method as card and needs to input the card. When the customer enters the pin the system should abele to verify the card and take the money from users account, but the card is invalid there should be a error massage should be displayed saying ‘you have entered a invalid card please enter the valid card’. I f the validation is successful system should de abele to charge from uses account and provide the receipt. (e.)Draw a sequence diagram showing the actions performed in the ticket-issuing system. You may make any reasonable assumptions about the system. Pay particular attention to specifying user errors. Sequance diagram (f.)Write a set of non-functional requirements setting out its expected reliability and its response time. Requirements that are not directly concerned with the specific functions delivered by the system known as none functional system requirements. None functional requirements are not only concern with the software system to be developed, some may concern with the process that should be used to develop the system. There are three non-functional requirements. They are Product Requirements: Which specify the behaviour of the product? Ex: how fast are the system executed and how much memory dose it requires? Speed can be measured by processed transaction, event response time and screen refresh time. Organisational Requirements: requirements driven by polices and procedures in the customers and developers organisation. Ex implementation requirements such as the programming language or design method used. External requirements: Requirements that are driven from factors external to the system and its development process. Also the time that the user take to get familiar with the system and number of help forums that are available, robustness of the system , how much time it take to restart the system in case of a failure occurred. Reliability that measures mean time to failure. Rate of failure accuracy availability and portability of unavailability. Portability of percentage is non-functional requirements that are important when designing a ticket issuing system. (g.)Develop a set of use-cases that could serve as a basis for understanding the requirements for ticket-issuing system. Use Case (h.)Briefly describe the requirements validation process. Discuss all the checks that you have to perform to validate the above requirements in ticket-issue system. Requirement validation concern with the specification of the system that customer wants is functioning according to the requirements. Requirement validation also examines the specification to ensure that all software requirements have been stated unambiguously; that inconsistence, omission and errors have been identified and correct them. Following checks have been carried out on requirements Availability checks Since this is a ticketing system that is used by public. There are multiple users with multiple requirements. Therefore the requirement validation should be favourable for all users. However some users may find there requirements are fulfilled and some may not. Consistency Checks There should be no contradictory constrains or descriptions of the system function. Completeness Checks To check all the requirements have been achieved Realism Checks Once the requirements being gathered it is important to check that the system can be implemented with the current technologies and also it is possible to finish the project with the given time period with the allocated budget. Verifiability To reduce the potential of dispute between customer and contractor, system requirements should always be written so that they are referable (i.)Create a semantic data model for the above scenario. Data model (j.)What is the impact if when the customer pays cash, he is allowed not to have the exact amount? According to the given scenario if the user pays by cash he needs to pay the exact amount. For example if the rail ticket is £6.30 user must pay exactly £6.30.Specialy the cities like London most people don’t carry change with them they keep £5, £10 or £20 notes. It is a user requirement to get the change back if the user inserts cash more than exact amount. System should abele to give the change back. However in the real life most of the ticket machines, if you put cash you get the change back.

The Definition Of Anxiety And Depression Psychology Essay

essay help online The Definition Of Anxiety And Depression Psychology Essay. Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder is a common anxiety problem, affecting close to 3 – 4 % of the population, getting the daily life into a scenario of fear, worry, and anxiety. The victim continues to excessively think of a solution out of the situation, the person thinks there is no way out of the problem, and becomes depressed about life. Generalized anxiety disorder is found not to involve or cause people to avoid conditions and has no elements of panic attack. It largely revolves around thinking and thinking, which gives no room for constructive ideas. At times, thoughts are over-ridden by anxiety, worry, dread, loss of interest and energy. This makes an individual have irrational feelings, though in the normal world these feelings are real. One has no desire to need more or do much in life – no “zest” in life. In individuals who suffer from this condition, fear and worry can be very strong, so much that in case a loved one is a few minutes late, he starts fearing for the worst, thinking of dreadful things like accident, feelings of fear and anxiety sets in, generating the vicious cycle of anxiety . Some of the patients of generalized anxiety disorder tend to have fluctuations in mood from time to time, while others may have “good days” interchanging with “bad days” Generalized anxiety disorder is usually featured with frustrations, irritability, headaches, trembling, twitching, and the lack of concentration. Some of the physical conditions are disturbed sleep, panic, social phobia – high sensitivity on self-consciousness, and fear of not being a success in life 1 .0 Introduction This is a condition featured by excessive, over anxiety and worry about the daily occurrences with no definite reasons for the worry. The individual diagnosed with this particular condition are always pessimistic about life, thinking of disaster all the times and cannot help stop worrying about such things as health, money,health,work,family,or school. The victim’s worry is usually over-board and blown out of proportion for the exact situation, making their daily lives full of fear, worry, and dread. These ultimately become the individual’s thinking, disrupting his or her seldom duties at work, school, and relationships amongst other things. 2.0 The disorder in its historical context Anxiety disorders is a term used to generalize many forms of abnormal and pathological anxiety and fear, this was realized by psychiatrists at the end of the 19 century. These are classified into two forms: Continuous and episodic symptoms, in the recent survey 18 percent of Americans may be affected by these forms of disorders. 3.0 Current research as to the cause of the illness It is not known exactly what causes GAD, though a number of factors have been mentioned as the possible causes, these include genetical factors, brain chemistry, and the general environmental stresses suggested contributing to its development: These factors have discussed below: Genetics: According to some research, family lean- age plays a role in the possibility or likelihood of an individual to develop GAD hence it is hereditary. Brain chemistry: This condition has also been highly associated with unusual levels of some specific neurotransmitters in the brain, these vital and special chemical messengers meant to transmit information from the one nerve cell to another. In the event that neurotransmitters are not properly and chemically balanced, messages cannot be gotten through to the brain orderly, hence changes how the brain may react in specific moments, culminating in excess anxiety. Environmental factors: Due to the daily chores undertaken by people, one is posed to suffer from trauma and stress; these may be because of an abuse, loss of a loved one, change of place of work, schools, divorce including other factors leading to GAD. This is in most cases made worse during the use of addictive substances for instance alcohol, caffeine, bhang and the subsequent withdrawal from such. About, 4 million grown citizens of the United States suffer from GAD yearly, this is said to begin in the adolescence, though can as well start in adulthood, and is more common in women than men are. 4.0 Treatments If any diagnosis does not reveal any physical ailment, one may be referred to a psychiatrist who has the expertise to diagnose and treat mental illness like this one(GAD).Usually its treatment involves a combination of the use of medicine and cognitive- behavioral therapy. Medication: There are drugs available over the counter for the treatment of GAD, especially those suffering from anxiety, the benzodiazepines are the drugs used to treat this condition in a short-term basis, are also called “tranquilizers”, in that they leave the patient more relaxed and calm, these drugs mainly work by reducing the physical signs of GAD including restlessness and muscle ache. Some of the most available benzodiazepines are Xanax, Valium, and Librium amongst others. Also available are antidepressants, for instance Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft and Effexor, these may take sometimes before working but they are recommended for a long-term treatment of GAD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: This treatment is geared towards helping reduce distorted thinking by positively looking at worries, the patients are taught to recognize and change their patterns of thought and behaviors which make them to develop anxious feelings. Gestalt therapy, is another technique in the psychotherapy that involves or based on philosophy of phenomenology and existentialism – it advocate for everyone to understand our environment and the occurrences associated with them, this helps in one to understand himself or herself fully. This is associated to the saying that, “no man is Island,” and hence no man can understand himself without understanding the actions around them at the anytime – everything is interrelated. Interpersonal therapy, this focuses on improving ones relationship for instance communication as well as improving the support relationship of the patient of depression or anxiety. If one suffering from anxiety is able to relate well with his or her immediate family, it could be another way of averting incidences of violence or conflicts that lead to depression. Others may also include techniques of relaxation – for instance biofeedback, deep breathing; these are found to reduce and control muscle tension, which leads to GAD. Though the over dependency on benzodiazepines may pose some complication of the treatment, the side effects of such drugs vary from the drug itself and the person consuming them. Some of the known side effects are weight gain, sexual complications, and sleepiness. 5.0 Prevention Though the medical complications like anxiety disorders like GAD cannot be easily be prevented, though some actions can be taken to control or reduce the symptoms associated with it: Firstly, the patient may be able to be involved in stress management practices like yoga, or medication. Secondly, the victims should stop or reduce the use of products of caffeine, for instance coffee, cola, chocolate and others. Besides, there is a need for daily exercise and eating healthy balanced diet. Patients are also advised to take properly prescribed medicine and avoid over the counter products and herbs some of which contain chemicals increasing anxiety. Lastly, one also needs to seek immediate counseling and support in the events after a trauma or very disturbing situations. 6. 0 Cross-cultural issues pertaining Anxiety Disorder In most cases, the physical injuries or risks due to an occurrence of a disaster may be similar in differing cultural settings, the psychological responses to such disasters, the loss and the associated stressors tend to varied amongst cultures. Some of possible reactions to crises and disasters are PTSD, anxiety and depression. A study carried out on the impacts of Mexican earthquake in 1985, concluded that 32 percent of the victims displayed PTSD, 19 percent had the generalized anxiety and 13 percent had suffered depression. In another study of the effects of China’s Tangshan earthquake of 1976, suggested that the after- effects of the earthquake should not be considered only on the physical damage caused but also the extent of psychological shock caused on the victims. In situations of grief, cultural beliefs play both a resourceful role destructive roles in providing the much-needed support to the victims. In cross-cultural perspective people usually believe and certainly understand life, death, what they feel inwardly, what necessitates those feelings, the ultimate cause of those feelings, what they perceive as the implications of those feelings, the expression of those feelings, reasons for those feelings, and the techniques involved in getting the solutions; which may not be directly be expressed publicly. Some of the historical studies have revealed that people in the western countries mourn differently. In a cross-cultural perspective, studies have shown that there is an infinite diversity in people’s physical reactions to death, how they mourn the loss, and how they internalize the loss. In fact, mourning is seen as process – dependent, as an adaptive response to certain situation a rising from loss that does not depend on an individual, culture, or historical period. Americans from reports are observed to think more about religious feelings, grief, and death than do some of the ASEAN countries like the Japanese. In Japan, ancestral worship is taken as a ritual, supported by complicated belief where the living communicates with the dead through a bond; this is also seen in the modern west. The basic mental health benefits of any ritual are closely link to the relational occurrences of the process of ritual; hence, it acts in encouraging the free expression of several human emotions. Studies from social network theory also conclude that religious ceremonies and ritual functions effectively help in mitigating anxiety and other disturbing emotional conditions. Most of the religious rites have an effect; because they help, the individuals affected to release and express emotions through attachment to others important people in their lives. In deed, rituals are mentioned to effective in supporting people change from a maladaptive to another condition featured with adaptive style of mourning. A study of mourning behaviors amongst the Americans and the Israeli kibbutz, it is revealed that in a small sized family in Israeli kibbutz mourning becomes an affair of the wider family members, friends, co-workers, and neighbors. In America, funerals only forcefully bring people together to show an image of social support. Everyone responds to situations and stimuli by either conforming to the immediate environment or by changing themselves, historically, the main reasons of for counseling and psychotherapy are to increase the degree of conformity to the culture of most dominant group. Hence, in most cases any cross- culture counselors or the therapist have to face some choices. He or she has the responsibility of preparing their clients for the dynamic challenges in life, the increasing an individuals in solving problems of anxiety needs to involve choices on one’s nature of his or her relationship, reference groups , lastly his identity, these should be in relation to one’s cultural or ethnic set-ups.The ability to generate perceptions of concern and ability in clients has been one of the ways therapists from differing cultures and background use in the treatment of anxiety. The therapists are said to be involved in a catalytic process making their clients to use their capabilities. Non-western cultures rely in most cases on the induction of changed state of mind or consciousness in changing such catalytic results than do the west. 7.0 A Christian worldview There are many schools of thought in the definition of anxiety and depression, professional counselors, psychiatrists, medical doctors, psychologists, pastors and religious leaders would have divergent views on the issue of generalized anxiety disorder. It is vital to determine episodes when depression is link to physical or emotional problems, in cases of death, loss of a job and dreams and other disappointments amongst others can lead to circumstantial factor reactions by the affected individuals. According to Psalm 147:3. “He healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up their wounds” However, if a depression occurs with no change in the victim’s normal personal life, it suggested by professionals that there would be a need to examine mental health of such people. Some of the episodes of depression may lead to changes in body’s hormonal functions, and other illnesses. In many situations if the patients are treated early for their physical problems there is high probability of getting back to normal state of personality and would not need any further treatments. Other patients may find it difficult in maintaining personal or general relationships issues, which could easily draw them back to the state of depression – this can may be mild or severe. Many scores of professionals, especially the pastors have come out to help people in discovering the so-called wellspring of relief that is often found by using biblical principles to our daily lives. This is said to be a very reliable and successful way of understanding the ways of treating the patients of depression mainly to those who respond well to clinical treatment. In some cases the associated depression cause very severe symptoms causing physical ill health such as pain, headache, digestive problems, and a complicate immune system. It becomes very complicate when it is difficult to diagnose if depression has caused a physical sickness or a physical illness is the cause of depression. In the recent setting, there exist several Christian clinics and other medical practitioners who specialize in co-joining and applying spiritual principles and other contemporary treatments in taking care of disorder patients. In most cases it is preferred in advanced levels of depressive disorders to hospitalize or offer outpatient services to the patients in initial stages, this stabilizes the person for subsequent monitoring over certain period of time. Conclusion There have been follow-up studies of Gad, though the current ones have revealed that GAD is very stable dignosis.Besides, there is comorbidity during the treatment. Studies also show that GAD is chronic in treatment – seeking people; there is also difficulty in differentiating between anxiety and disorders due to anxiety. The known diagnostic period of GAD has been a topic of concern since the early 1980, though there is still no information on its course and outcome, mainly in the elderly and children. GAD is a severe and disabling disorder, which is stable over along period of time and easily distinguishable from other types of anxiety disorders. There are a number of scientific questions or gaps not yet researched on regarding this disease, and hence future research is required to curb the severity of this disorder over the future time, besides its effective treatment. Anxiety disorders affects millions of people world – wide, making the victims feel uncertain, confused, disoriented and dreaded. GAD is in some cases seen alongside other physical or mental sicknesses, including alcohol or hard-drugs abuse, these make the patient to cover – up the signs of anxiety thereby making them most cases such like associated illness will be treated before the patient can successfully go through the treatment and respond well. In conclusion, counselors are meant to some knowledge of the cultures of the people they work for; this should be part of their ability and expertise. This is supposed to give the counselor with a point of departure. For an effective provision of adequate and the right cross-cultural disorder mental health services, it is very cardinal that psychologists and other such like disaster mental experts to develop a collaborative support system globally. The coming up with a common system for international disaster mental disorder with a emphasis on cross-cultural factors is vital, coupled with plans for response depending on needs, cultures and desires of divergent countries. The process of consultation and bringing in all stakeholders such as planners and providers in the participating countries and the subsequent development of within the country disaster response plans linked with strong educational component is vital in helping curb disaster mental health associated problems and responses. Sometimes a brief attacks brought about by traumatic event like stress – like reporting to take up a new position at a different place is one of the real – may be rational or irrational – state of mind or fear that stays for at least six months, these in most cases may turn severe if not treated in time. Summarily, the generalized anxiety disorder is condition that is common world-wide and may be very severe if not mild in other situations.Ironically, it seems most people ignore, this condition while is treatable; to completely eradicate this ill-health all the professionals involved in the process of treatment need to join hands both financially and socially.Inter-governmental collaborations is the best way to solve this issue globally; the developing nations need to seek support from the developed which have better structures in dealing with this condition . The Definition Of Anxiety And Depression Psychology Essay

WidgetWorld Company: Maintenance Strategy Report

The maintenance strategy that WidgetWorld will use in the next decade will largely define its ability to achieve success in the market (Hoke and Craig 28). That is why as an Assistant Maintenance Supervisor of this company, I engaged the Production Manager to come up with a strategy that will be used within the next decade. The Production Manager wanted the manufacturing plant to run without the one-week partial shut-down. However, the maintenance department is convinced that this partial shutdown for re-tooling is still very important. After lengthy deliberation, it was finally decided that the partial shutdown will be reduced from the current seven days to four days every summer. The decision was reached after putting into consideration a number of factors. First, it was obvious that partial shutdown after every year is important to review the system and upgrade the tools to ensure that operations are not disrupted in any way (Daya 37). It was also important to have a partial shutdown to review past performance and determine how to adjust the system to meet the following year’s target. During the summer, many people prefer taking a holiday so that they can spend time with their families (Stephens 48). It was, therefore, the best time to review the system because the workload was determined to be at its lowest level during this period. Finally, it was agreed that with the new technology and highly skilled workforce at the disposal of this firm, the duration for comprehensive maintenance can be reduced from seven to four days. The plan will be implemented in the same way it had been done in the past. When most of the employees have gone for the holiday, the maintenance team will be called upon to review the production plant. During this time, the production department will use information obtained from other departments, especially the marketing and finance departments, to determine how the production system should be adjusted to meet the set expectations. The main concern was that the current manpower at this department may not have the needed skills to upgrade the systems as per the expectations of other related departments. It was agreed that the manpower will be outsourced from specialized companies that will be required to come with their own equipment needed for the entire maintenance process (Yan 61). Our firm will only purchase materials needed to upgrade the system or other consumables needed once the system starts operations. The desire of the Production Manager was effectively accommodated by reducing the time taken for maintenance. Situations Where Unscheduled Maintenance May be Appropriate Unscheduled maintenance may be appropriate in a number of instances. Wireman says that sometimes a machine used in production may break down unexpectedly (45). When that happens, unscheduled maintenance may be unavoidable. The faulty machine will have to be repaired or replaced as soon as possible to ensure that operations continue uninterrupted. When the demand exceeds what was expected during the last scheduled upgrade, then an unscheduled upgrade may be necessary to ensure that the extra demand that was not planned for is adequately met. At WidgetWorld, scheduled maintenance is done once a year. However, some wear and tear of the tools and machines used in the production may not wait for the scheduled yearly maintenance (Kelly 87). Unscheduled maintenance would be appropriate in such situations. Works Cited Daya, Moses. Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009. Print. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hoke, John, and Lorri Craig. Maximize Your Plant Maintenance with Sap. Bonn: Galileo Press, 2009. Print. Kelly, Anthony. Managing Maintenance Resources. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. Print. Stephens, Matthew. Productivity and Reliability-Based Maintenance Management. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2010. Print. Wireman, Terry. Training Programs for Maintenance Organizations. New York: Industrial Press, 2010. Print. Yan, Jihong. A Guide to Understanding Machinery Prognostics and Prognosis Oriented Maintenance Management. London: McMillan, 2014. Print.

review the online content. Then answer the question(s) below, using complete sentences. Scroll down to view additional questions. The Problem with Eyewitness Testimony According to the article, why is it that once witnesses state information as a fact or identify a person as the perpetrator, the witnesses are usually unwilling or unable to change their understanding of the situation, even after they are provided proof that their account is inaccurate? Based on what you learned in the article, explain why jurors should consider eyewitness testimonies carefully during a trial. (Site 2) I am a senior in high school so please make it look like i wrote it.

Click to review the online content. Then answer the question(s) below, using complete sentences. Scroll down to view additional questions. The Problem with Eyewitness Testimony According to the article, why is it that once witnesses state information as a fact or identify a person as the perpetrator, the witnesses are usually unwilling or unable to change their understanding of the situation, even after they are provided proof that their account is inaccurate? Based on what you learned in the article, explain why jurors should consider eyewitness testimonies carefully during a trial. (Site 2) I am a senior in high school so please make it look like i wrote it.