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Required Skills For Collaborative Learning Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp First of all, Collaboration learning is Inter-professional education which focuses on training all health care professionals the needed skills necessary to effectively learn and work inter professionally. Department of health (2000) was essential means for inclusion of inter professional learning and working as an agenda for health and social care. During the class seminars, I acknowledged that the skills taught in these lessons would be fundamental for a successful collaborative working in practice. I recognise communication, knowledge, beliefs, team working, and consent as the skills required from collaborative learning. Cooper et al (2001) supported that, the benefit of collaborative learning strategy and include the effects upon student knowledge, attitudes, skills and belief and particular on the understanding of professional roles and team working. Moreover, when I reflected back the scenario during the seminars, I realised that, reflection as a tool use to find out a new methods of delivery out a duty that may have been difficult. I discover some mistakes that were not obvious while I was tried to solve the case study myself. It can be argued that we learn more through physical experience rather than reading from a text book. Jasper (2003) indicated that, knowledge that we gain using reflective method is different from the assumption that provides the knowledge underpinning our practice. During the seminars, I joined student nurses, physiotherapist, radiographers, paramedics and social workers. When I reflected back on the case scenarios, I noticed that there were great communication mistakes within all the health professionals in their care delivery to Daisy in scenario 1. While reflecting I also notice that, there was lack of team working among the professionals. Kenny (2002) recommended that even if the principle of inter professional learning and working were emerging there was little evidence to suggest it was being embraced by the health care team in the practice areas. Furthermore, Communication skills are crucial in collaborative learning, it improves the care development and it ensures that all health professionals involved in the patients care are conscious of the patient’s condition and development. In practice communication is also essential to gain consent from patients in order to give them good health care such as personal care, and giving them injections. Code of Conduct (NMC, 2010), states that all nurses must use excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Their method of communication must always be secure, helpful, kindly and polite. The code also indicates that nurses ought to have the skill to work with service users to be able to deliver care. In practice I realise that keeping record is also a form of written communication. What health professionals write in the patient’s medical notes is vital information that needed to be shared with other health professionals. For example, In case scenario 2, it was the record keeping that reveal the numbers of times Timothy visited the A
3.3 Economic Growth When per capita GDP or any other means of calculating total income rises, economic growth arises and this is usually registered as the yearly rate of change in GDP. Economic growth results from advances in productivity in terms of more production of goods and services with the same factors of production. The dependent variable economic growth is measured by real GDP per capita. At times, total GDP figures are not reflective of the actual performance in the economy. Hence, GDP per capita is a better measure as it is liable to fewer errors and some errors tend to affect population estimates and thus they have offsetting impacts. Furthermore, the natural log of real GDP will be taken into account to avoid any large outliers. 3.4 Household Saving Household saving can be defined as a percentage of household disposable income which is not consumed and household savings rate can be calculated on gross or net basis. Depreciation is considered in the net savings rate which is more commonly used compared to the gross savings rate. Household saving is assumed to have a positive relationship with economic growth. Comparisons of savings rate among countries become hard by these two different measures of gross and net savings rate due to distinct social security and pension programmes, variable tax schemes which have an impact on disposable income. The household savings rate of a country can be affected by age of the economy’s population, the accessibility of credit, general wealth issues, cultural and social factors. Nevertheless, household savings rates are still a good a measure of an economy’s income in relation to consumption over time. A country can finance its debt domestically if it has a relatively high level of household savings. High debts levels funded mostly by foreign creditors are less persistent than high debts levels financed by internal savings. Consumption allows GDP to grow and this is a significant factor in economic expansion. With the existence of financial crisis, the whole economy could be dampened with lower consumption due to higher debt and lower savings level. A larger portion of GDP growth should then come from FDI, exports and government expenditure. Household saving is the most essential domestic source of funds to back capital outlay and this is a substantial boost for economic growth on the long term basis. Household savings rate vary greatly among countries as shown in the chart. This is partially due to the level pensions schemes are financed by government rather through personal saving and also to the extent governments offer insurance against sickness and unemployment. 3.5 Household Debt When a country has a substantial degree of household debt, it increases its inclination to financial crisis and this acts as a hindrance for economic growth. Household debt is assumed to have a negative relationship with economic growth. There have been forecasts about house bubbles which were caused and thus creating the countries to be overheated. A large portion of the economic growth was centred on household consumption which was backed by loans from banks. When banks noticed the lack of credit worthiness from consumers who even lost their confidence in the financial system, there had been strict controls over the lending conditions for loans. As a result, the ongoing vicious circle preceded a major decline in economic growth following the fall in consumption and repayments of debts. Analysing the graph results with the conclusion that USA is not the only main country having experienced the worst GDP slowdown but many other countries like Iceland and Portugal are following suit with the level of household debt actually rising substantially. It would not be logical for a country burdened by a large level of household debt to expect its economic performance to flourish in the coming years. When analysing the GDP percent basis, it can be seen that household debt for USA is not among the worst countries with too much of debt burden but it does not have a safe margin either. It is Denmark which has the heaviest household debt burden both with the GDP and disposable income basis. It has been forecasted that the household debt ratio would get even worse in the future for example Iceland and Portugal which are following suit with the heavy household debt burden they are carrying. Italy has fared relatively well compared to the other countries mentioned above, closely followed by Austria, France and Finland with an approximate difference of 25%. Germany, Sweden, USA and Canada have a relatively heavier household debt burden of around 100-125%. Japan, UK and Netherlands do not have a safe margin since they tend to have high household debt which can get even worse in the future if this is not closely monitored and this may take a toll on their economic growth which would be negatively affected. 3.6 Rates of interest The rate of interest has a great influence on the given level of aggregate disposable income which is divided between consumption and saving. However, it cannot be predicted with conviction that a lower interest rate would imply more disposable income will be dedicated to consumption and less to saving or vice versa. The rate of interest is assumed to have a positive relationship with economic growth. As a matter of fact, there can be a rise or fall in the total amount saved following a change in interest rate and this depends on the income and substitution effects and their strengths of their net effects. A higher level of future consumption arises at the detriment of present consumption with substitution effects due to higher interest rates and thus resulting in more savings in the present period. On the other hand, a consumer’s future income compared to his present income can be increased following higher interest rate and this leads to higher consumption by borrowing from future income and hence, less is saved. However, this may not be necessarily the case for lower income earners who would save only a small part of their incomes even when interest rates are high. The substitution effect will then outweigh the income effect and there will be a direct link between income and rate of interest. For some people who prefer to save a greater portion of their incomes, the income effect may offset the substitution effect and thus higher interest rates would result in lower present savings level 3.7 Price level/Inflation One of the theoretical concepts of economics says that when there is a change in the price level, this may affect consumption and savings positively or negatively. It is usually believed that household’s confidence in money erodes when there is inflation and hence, they have the tendency to save more since inflation actually raises the variance of expected real income. The fact that consumers have greater preference for unplanned increases in savings compared to withdrawals, it usually incites consumers to save more when inflation is high. Inflation is assumed to have a negative relationship with economic growth. There is also an indirect effect of inflation whereby the real value of nominal asset is diminished and thus the real value of liquid assets decreases the net household wealth. Real consumption is often reduced and savings rate increases. 3.8 Consumption The total value of goods and services purchased by people aggregated over time is called consumption and it is usually the greatest GDP component. A country’s economic performance is often assessed on its consumption levels. Different income earners would be consuming differently depending on their standard of living and purchasing power. Consumption is usually determined by current income, accumulated savings and expectations on future income. Consumption is assumed to have a positive relationship with economic growth. As it can be shown in the above chart, consumer debt relative to personal disposable income and consumption relative to personal disposable income are rather fluctuating but there is a higher fluctuation on the part of the consumer debt which means that people were consuming more than they could afford and this resulted in higher debt burden among countries across the world. 3.9 Investment When an owner usually acquired property for the purpose of generating income like plants and equipments, this is called investment as it is spending on income-generating assets. If a country wants to achieve long term sustainable economic growth, it should be able to the rates of accumulation of capital – be it human or physical so that it can result in more efficient assets and so that the whole population can have access to those assets. With the help of financial instruments, markets, and institutions, the extent to which information, enforcement and transactions costs can have their impact on savings rates, investment decisions, technological innovations and steady-state growth rates can be improved. Investment is assumed to have a positive relationship with economic growth. If economic growth continues going at such a slow and unsteady speed, there is not much room for improvement for investment to be forecasted in the future and this is not a good sign as economic performance is going to decline drastically.
Western Governors Univ Promote Self Care for Nurses to Address Burnout Discussion.

COMPETENCIES740.1.4 : Professional AccountabilityThe graduate analyzes the responsibilities and accountability of the professional nurse.740.1.5 : Self Advocacy of the NurseThe graduate integrates strategies of self-awareness and self-care into professional practice to ensure personal health and well-being.740.1.7 : Roles of the NurseThe graduate analyzes the roles of the nurse as a scientist, a detective, and a manager of the healing environment.740.1.10 : The Nursing ProfessionThe graduate applies historical and contemporary nursing theories and models to define their professional nursing practice.740.1.13 : The Professional Nurse The graduate integrates knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the nursing profession into personal and professional interactions and ethical decision making.740.1.15 : Healthcare Work EnvironmentThe graduate evaluates how the vision, values, mission, and philosophy of an organization align with an individual’s professional values, beliefs, and approaches to inter-professional collegiality.INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this task is to explore how nursing ethics, self-advocacy, and professional accountability can be applied in clinical practice. Using the provided case scenario, you will be required to think about how ethical concepts can be used to make clinical decisions and explore the differences in personal and professional beliefs. You will develop personalized stress management plans that rely on the use of adaptive coping strategies to ensure personal health and well-being.SCENARIOYou have been working as a nurse in the adult oncology unit for the past year. You have developed a close relationship with many of your patients, but Mr. Newcomb has a special place in your heart. He has been diagnosed with stage 4 pancreatic cancer and has undergone aggressive chemotherapy. Each day his wife has come to the unit to be with her husband. They have been married for over 40 years and share a deep love.Mr. and Mrs. Newcomb have made the decision to no longer continue with treatment and have decided that hospice care is needed. Over the past few days, you have watched Mr. Newcomb’s health decline, and you can tell from your experience that he does not have much time left to live. Mr. Newcomb has been very open about discussing his death, and you have had the opportunity to learn about his life and the legacy he will leave behind.While you are completing your rounds, you stop in Mr. Newcomb’s room to see how he is doing. You ask, “Is there anything else I can do for you?” Mr. Newcomb has rarely asked for anything, but today he has one request. Mr. Newcomb states, “Before I die, I would like to see my mistress one more time. Mrs. Newcomb is always here. Do you think you could tell her that I will be busy for a few hours tomorrow so I can make arrangements to see my mistress one more time?”Reflect on the following questions before you begin working on this task:• What would you do in this scenario?• How can your knowledge of ethical principles be utilized to determine your response to Mr. Newcomb?• How would this affect you as a nurse and direct provider of care for Mr. Newcomb? REQUIREMENTSYour submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide. You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.A. Summarize how the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice apply to the scenario by doing the following:1. Describe how you would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request.2. Evaluate how you applied the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice to the scenario.3. Examine how personal beliefs and values influenced your response to the scenario.4. Describe three strategies to promote self-care. B. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.C. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.File RestrictionsFile name may contain only letters, numbers, spaces, and these symbols: ! – _ . * ‘ ( )File size limit: 200 MBFile types allowed: doc, docx, rtf, xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx, odt, pdf, txt, qt, mov, mpg, avi, mp3, wav, mp4, wma, flv, asf, mpeg, wmv, m4v, svg, tif, tiff, jpeg, jpg, gif, png, zip, rar, tar, 7zRUBRICA1: RESPONSE TO SCENARIONOT EVIDENTA description is not provided, or the description makes no reference to how the candidate would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe description of how the candidate would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request is irrelevant.COMPETENTThe description of how the candidate would respond to Mr. Newcomb’s request is relevant.A2: APPLICATION OF PATIENT PRINCIPLESNOT EVIDENTAn evaluation is not provided, or the evaluation makes no reference to how the candidate applied the given principles to the scenario.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe evaluation inaccurately addresses how the candidate applied the given principles to the scenario or is not supported.COMPETENTThe evaluation accurately addresses how the candidate applied the given principles to the scenario and is supported.A3: PERSONAL BELIEFS AND VALUESNOT EVIDENTAn examination is not provided, or the examination makes no reference to how personal beliefs and values influenced the candidate’s response to the clinical scenario.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe examination of how personal beliefs and values influenced the candidate’s response to the clinical scenario is irrelevant or not supported.COMPETENTThe examination of how personal beliefs and values influenced the candidate’s response to the clinical scenario is relevant and supported.A4: PROMOTING SELF-CARE STRATEGIESNOT EVIDENTA description is not provided, or the description makes no reference to three strategies to promote self-care.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe description of three strategies to promote self-care is irrelevant.COMPETENTThe description of three strategies to promote self-care is relevant.B: SOURCESNOT EVIDENTThe submission does not include both in-text citations and a reference list for sources that are quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe submission includes in-text citations for sources that are quoted, paraphrased, or summarized, and a reference list; however, the citations and/or reference list is incomplete or inaccurate.COMPETENTThe submission includes in-text citations for sources that are properly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized and a reference list that accurately identifies the author, date, title, and source location as available.C: PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATIONNOT EVIDENTContent is unstructured, is disjointed, or contains pervasive errors in mechanics, usage, or grammar. Vocabulary or tone is unprofessional or distracts from the topic.APPROACHING COMPETENCEContent is poorly organized, is difficult to follow, or contains errors in mechanics, usage, or grammar that cause confusion. Terminology is misused or ineffective.COMPETENTContent reflects attention to detail, is organized, and focuses on the main ideas as prescribed in the task or chosen by the candidate. Terminology is pertinent, is used correctly, and effectively conveys the intended meaning. Mechanics, usage, and grammar promote accurate interpretation and understanding.
Western Governors Univ Promote Self Care for Nurses to Address Burnout Discussion

You are required to complete the following two programming questions: Note: Please note – you are not asked to use Essay

You are required to complete the following two programming questions: Note: Please note – you are not asked to use File I/O this week. Please stick to the assignment brief. Question 1 1. Select two of the sort algorithms discussed in class and code the selected algorithms. 2. Add code to your sort algorithms to calculate efficiency by gathering data on: a. Time for algorithm to run b. Number of swaps c. Number of comparisons 3. Download the Peak Wind speed at 80meter data for your birthday 08/January 2013 from the following website:

University of Phoenix False and Misleading Food Labeling and Advertising PPT

essay help online free University of Phoenix False and Misleading Food Labeling and Advertising PPT.

This assignment is a fact finding research on false and misleading food labeling and advertising. Many major companies, including food manufacturers and restaurants continue to confuse consumers about the health effects, ingredients, or “natural”-ness of their products.Your presentation will be judged on how well you succeed in producing a well thought out, clear research that shows you can interpret and intelligently discuss the issue and how well you can backup your findings with evidence.Create a research presentation must include one of each the following categories:Part OneA Restaurant that promotes a healthy menu itemAn item that can be purchased in a grocery store claiming to be a healthy choiceA television, magazine, or billboard advertisement claiming a healthy choicePart TwoAnalyze and explain the associated health problems of the obesity epidemic.Address the following:Assess the various techniques for measuring body fat.Describe the risks associated with excess body fat.Discuss at least three factors that influence the obesity epidemic.What are some health problems associated with obesity?Explain at least three research supported strategies for weight management.Describe the essential components of an exercise regiment to maintain healthy body weight.Slides: Create a 12- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® or Prezi® presentation. Include a title slide, introduction, content, conclusion, and a references slide.Include relevant images, graphs, charts and media clips specific to your disease. Avoid overemphasis on Clip Art.Speaker notes in paragraph form that detail the implications of each slide are strongly encouraged.Citations & References: a minimum of three references- the course text and two additional references. All presentations must have a reference slide adhering to APA format. Relevant images should be included and cited.
University of Phoenix False and Misleading Food Labeling and Advertising PPT


PROMPTS 1 AND 2 680. LOGIN INFO: [email protected]: Student123CLASS OC_NURS680B_202105SUIOL_OL-BE-BOOK:  Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 5th EditionPhysical Examination and Health AssessmentPLEASE RESPOND TO WEEK 3 PROMPT  1 and 2 AT LEAST 2 REFERENCES CITED AT THE END OF EACH PROMT,1 PAGE PER PROMPT  REFERENCES SHOULD BE NO OLDER THAN 5 YEARS PLEASE USE THE E BOOK AS 1 OF REFERENCE . DO NOT POST NOTHING THROUGH CANVAS WEBSITE Read: Jarvis, chapters 21, 24–26Dains, chapters 2, 4, 9, 11, 17, 24, 31–34Complete your Week 3 discussion prompt.Select one of the following case studies to address:A 62-year old female complains of pain over several finger joints over bilateral hands that is “getting worse” to the point that she is no longer able to work in her garden. A 38-year old male construction worker complains of severe pain to his right lower back. States he woke up with the pain after an especially difficult work day. A 58-year old obese man complains of pain in his left knee. The pain seems to be unrelenting, he says it is better when he rests, but gets stiff when he rests too long. For the case you have chosen, post to the discussion:Discuss what questions you would ask the patient, what physical exam elements you would include, and what further testing you would want to have performed.In SOAP format, list: Pertinent positive and negative informationDifferential and working diagnosisTreatment plan, including: pharmacotherapy with complementary and OTC therapy, diagnostics (labs and testing), health education and lifestyle changes, age-appropriate preventive care, and follow-up to this visit.Use at least one scholarly source other than your textbook to connect your response to national guidelines and evidence-based research in support of your ideas.In your peer replies, please reply to at least one peer who chose a different case study.  PROMPT 1  SHIELAHello Prof Leonardo  and Class,Choice #1, 62 year oldSubjective: â€œpain over several fingers joints over bilateral hands is getting worse”History of Present Illness: A 62-year-old female presented with pain over several finger joints over hands that is getting worse which limits her from working in her garden.Assessment Questions:When did the pain started?How severe the pain is from scale 1-10, 1 being the mildest and 10 being the worst? Does it occur with exercise or rest?How long does the pain last in a day?How would you describe the pain? Is it sore, sharp, burning?What triggers or relieves the pain?Does the pain radiates to other parts of body?Did you have a recent injury?Do you have other symptoms like fatigue, fever or swollen joints?Past Medical History:Do you have history  of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack, cancer, stroke, arthritis?Surgical History: Any surgeries in the past?Familly History: Do any family member have arthritis, cancer, smokes, stroke?Social History: check for patient’s living situation, if able to access healthcare. check social habits such as smoking, drinking or use of illicit drugs. Check marital status, nature of work.Allergies: to medications or environmentalMedications: Are you on any over the counter or prescription  drugs?Health maintenance:  when was the last mammogram or pap test?Immunization? Are you up to date in vaccine?Review of Systems:General: any fever, or weakness, weight loss or decreased in appetiteHead: any lumps in the head or painEyes: Any discharge or burning sensation? Any change in vision recentlyNose: any nose bleeding, redness, deviation of septumThroat: any pain  when swallowingRespiratory: Any shortness of breath,  cough or sputum productionCardiovascular: Any chest pain, palpitations, swelling to upper and lower extremities?Gastrointenstinal:  Any abd pain ,nausea/vomiting or diarrhea?Genitourinary: Any dysuria or blood in the urine, vaginal discharge?Musculoskeletal: Assess for swelling of joint? Any decrease in range of motionLymphatics: Any nodules noticed in the neck or axillary regionUrogenital: Are you sexually active? Are you in a heterogenous or homo relationship?Pertinent positive findings:  joint swelling and pain, morning stiffness. Female  is more risk in RA than males. Deforming fingersPertinent negative findings: no fever, non deforming fingersObjective: Vitals, BMI, General appearance of the patient and physical examination obtained by the clinician.General Appearance:  Patient is alert and oriented, not in apparent distress, dressed appropriately. She is the primary source of information. Speech is clear and coherent, and she maintains eye contact throughout the interview.Integumentary: no open areas, skin is intact,  no night sweatsHead:  Inspect for lumps, and symmetry of the headEyes: Assess for PERRLA, discharge, erythemaEars: assess for tenderness, redness or dischargeNose: Assess if there is drainage or erythemaThroat: Assess the tonsils if there is enlargementRespiratory: assess for lung sounds, signs of congestionChest/Breast: Assess for tenderness, rash, dischargeCardiovascular: any chest pain, increased heart rate? swelling of upper and lower extremities?Gastrointestinal: Assess for bowel sounds, abdominal tendernessGenitourinary: assess for dysuria or retentionMusculoskeletal: joint pain and swelling, deformed fingers.Lymphatics: lymph node enlargement notedAssessment and Plan:Working Diagnosis- Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes joint swelling, pain, and synovial joint degeneration, resulting in severe disability and early death. RA has a wide range of symptoms, including morning stiffness of symmetrical tiny joints in the hands and feet, edema, and increasing tiredness. Rheumatoid nodules are soft, spongy nodules that develop on the skin, hands and elbow (Dains, J., et al).Differential Diagnosis- Gout ArthritisPlan:Blood Tests- Rheumatoid factor, one of the autoantibodies frequently seen in with RA, ESR, CRPAnticyclic Citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody- positive in 70% with RA.Medications- methotrexate 7.5mg orally once weekly, increase gradually ,maximum is 20mg/week. Folic acid supplementation is recommended to reduce the risk of some adverse effects.Corticosteroids- Prednisone 1-10mg orally dailyPain reliever- motrin 400mg-800mg 3-4x a dayTherapy- PT/OT who can assist you in joints exercises to make it flexiblePatient Education/Follow-up Care:. Healthier Lifestyle- Gentle exercise can help strengthen the muscles that surround your joints while also reducing tiredness. Before you begin exercising, consult your doctor. If you’re just getting started, go for a stroll first. Tender, damaged, or highly inflamed joints should not be exercised.Application of heat or cold- Heat can help you relax stiff, aching muscles and relieve pain. The sense of discomfort may be lessened by exposure to cold. Cold can help numb the skin and decrease edema.Relax- Reduce stress in your life to find strategies to manage with discomfort. Pain management techniques include guided visualization, deep breathing, and muscular relaxation.Referral to Rheumatologist for further evaluation (Mayoclinic, n.d) References: Dains, J., Baumann (2016). Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care. Retrieved from!/4/2/[email protected]:0Epocrates (n.d) Rheumatoid Arthritis. Retrieved from (n.d). Rheumatoid Arthristis. Retrieved from,be%20worried%20about%20you%20but%20might…%20More%20 PROMPT 2  RITAA 58-year old obese man complains of pain in his left knee. The pain seems to be unrelenting, he says it is better when he rests, but gets stiff when he rests too long. Chief Complain: Left knee painPertinent positive information: obese, left knee pain, unrelenting which according the patient, “is better when he rests, but gets stiff when he rests too long”.Pertinent negative information: NoneQuestions to ask:When did your symptoms begin?Have your symptoms changed over time?Which joints are affected?Does any activity make your symptoms better or worse?Are your symptoms interfering with daily tasks?Differential Diagnosis: FibromyalgiaWorking Diagnosis: Rheumatoid ArthritisRheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than joints. It is an autoimmune disorder that  occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks one’s own body’s tissues (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:Tender, warm, swollen jointsJoint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivityFatigue, fever and loss of appetiteDiagnostic Tests: Blood tests, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, X-ray, MRI.Treatment plan:Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Corticosteroid medications, Conventional DMARDs. These drugs can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage. Common DMARDs include methotrexate (Trexall, Otrexup, others), leflunomide (Arava), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) and sulfasalazine (Azulfidine). Side effects vary but may include liver damage and severe lung infections (Mayo Clinic, 2021).Alternative Medicine: Fish oil, Tai chi, Plant oils.Physical or Occupational therapySynovectomyTendon repairJoint fusionTotal joint replacementLifestyle Modifications:Exercise regularly.Gentle exercise can help strengthen the muscles around your joints, and it can help reduce fatigue.Apply heat or cold. Heat can help ease your pain and relax tense, painful muscles. Cold may dull the sensation of pain. Cold also has a numbing effect and can reduce swelling.Relax. Find ways to cope with pain by reducing stress in life. Techniques such as guided imagery, deep breathing and muscle relaxation can all be used to control pain.Follow up: In three weeks. Rheumatoid Arthritis. (2021). Mayo Clinic. 1 AND 2 680

Case Study of Decision Making Planning, and General Organization

Ryanair is one of the leading airline companies of Europe. This airline company is known for its low cost and high quality service. It “operates more than 1,400 flights per day from 44 bases and 1100 low fare routes across 27 countries, connecting 160 destinations” (Ryanair-a, n.d.). This paper endeavours to analyse Ryanair, with special emphasis on situation analysis, decision making, planning and controlling process, leadership and organisational structure. This paper will conclude with some plausible recommendations on future growth and progress. Situational Analysis SWOT is a very helpful management tool for analysing the situation of a company. Ryanair was established in 1985, and despite its shortcomings it established a strong position in the market. Strengths Ryanair has developed a strong brand name in airline industry as a low cost service provider. Ryanair has been in the airline company since the last 25 years and has gained sufficient experience in it. Ryanair has developed its internet facilities and has made it an important selling point. This helps the company to eliminate the costs of agents. Ryanair’s fleet includes aircrafts with high sitting capacity and low maintenance cost. Ryanair’s services performance is of high standard with punctual fleet timing. Weakness To save cost, Ryanair charges its passengers for services like refreshments, wheelchair etc. It creates very impression among passengers about the company. It is not a preferred airline with the high class passengers. Opportunities The European Union market is expanding with time and most of the passengers prefer low fare for their air travel. Regions like North America and Asia have greater scope for low cost provider like Ryanair. Threats The existing airline companies are following strategies that lower the cost and hence competition within the industry is increasing with time. The oil market is a major supplier to airline business. In recent years, price of oil has increased significantly. The customers are becoming very price and service sensitive. Porter’s 5 Forces The bargaining power of suppliers is very high as the number of aircraft manufacturer and oil suppliers are very less in the market. Availability of proper airports is also very important for this industry. However, airports bargaining power is quite low as they depend on aircraft companies. The bargaining power of customers is very high as they have many airline service providers to choose from. The barrier entry of airline industry is quite high as it requires heavy investments and technical expertise. Airline is the fastest mode of transportation for overseas and long distance travel. No other substitute can match the service of airline industry. Competition among existing rival is the most import factor in this industry. The rivals are competing with each other for increasing their market share. In European Union, Lufthansa, Ryanair, Easy jet etc are leading airline companies. 3. Decision Making 3.1. Decision Making Process in Ryanair Ryanair provides low cost and high quality airline services to its customers. It places customer satisfaction above all other priorities. The decision making process is primarily centred on concerns regarding ways to provide higher customer services. Fleet planning, airline fare, fleet scheduling etc are some of the chief aspects of Ryanair’s effective decision making process. 3.2. Decision Making Approach Decision making approach can be defined as strategic approached of an organisation. Ryanair’s management team aims to follow ‘rational decision making approach’. The rational decision making approach is an ongoing and dynamic process. This approach helps to identify the underlying problems and to find relevant solutions (Kroon, 1995 p.187). For example, in 2004, when the company was passing through a financial crisis, rational decision making approach not only helped it to overcome it but also paved the path of growth. 3.3. Types of Problems and Decisions Making In Ryanair In 2004, Ryanair was one of the worst performers in FTSE Eurotop 300 index. During that period, competition in airline industry was very high in the European nations as many new companies entered the market. Despite the stiff competition, the company enjoyed a healthy growth rate till 2003. But the management’s inability to understand and rectify the inherent weakness of its decision making process stunted its growth. 3.4. Decision-Making Conditions in Ryanair While framing the strategic move for any decision making process; Ryanair’s first priority will be to analyse the elements of external competition. The European airline industry is crowded with many leading companies like Lufthansa, Virgin, Aer Lingus, and British Airway etc. Consumers’ needs are also very important for Ryanair’s decision-making. Prior to 2003, the company’s concern for customer service was very low, except the low fare advantages. 3.5. Decision-Making Styles The decision making style of Ryanair’s management team seems to be affected by different factors. However, the decision making methods are quite flexible. After analysing its rapid growth during 2002-2003, it can be claimed that it focuses on short term objective rather than long term goals. Creativity is another major feature of its decision making style. 3.6. Decision- Making Biases and Errors Ryanair’s temporary fall during 2004 brought into fore many drawbacks of its decision making process. Robbins has identified some unexplained prejudices and errors of decision making like biases relating to overconfidence, anchoring, confirmation, availability, escalation of commitment etc (Robbins, 2009, p.126). Ryanair’s decision was affected by two major biases i.e. anchoring biases and status quo biasness. Its decision making was based on the past success that failed to take in to account unfavourable macro-economic conditions resulting from 9/11 attack on WTC. 4. Planning 4.1Vision and Mission Statement Vision and mission statements help an organisation to prepare a roadmap for its operational activities. Ryanair’s official website does not have the vision and mission statement of the company. However, the public statements of Michael O’Leary and other higher executive member of Ryanair indicate that it aims to achieve growth and success by being the lowest cost provider in airline industry (Box and Kent, 2007). 4.2. Purposes of Planning In general, the purpose of planning is to bring effectiveness and efficiency in the operational activities of a business. The implied mission and vision of Ryanair’s clearly states its purposes of planning. To counter the increasing competition, the company has decided to follow low cost strategy. Hence, its planning is designed after taking into consideration this objective. 4.3 Planning And Performances in Ryanair According to Riezebos, planning is a very crucial element of operational activity that affects the performance level (Riezebos, 2001, p.12). Planning is one of the major tools of motivating participants to achieve the common organisational goal. Due to rational decision making approach, the company is able to plan its operational and strategic activities properly. Ryanair is able to achieve its target with the help of an efficient planning process. 4.4 Types of Goals in Ryanair The primary goal of Ryanair is to become the lowest cost airline service provider in Europe. The idea of offering low fare proved successful for the company. However, initially it failed to understand the necessity of good service for customer. Currently, the company is committed to provide lower fare, high quality service and punctual air schedule (Ryanair-b, n.d.). 4.5 Types of Plans in Ryanair Ryanair’s decision making process follows rational approach and it also follows rational model for its planning process. Basically, planning can be divided as short term goal and long term goal. The company’s management team was concerned only with the short term goal. The company often changes its plan as per the requirements of the market. In 2002, the company’s plan was to provide low cost fare and after 2004, its planning process also took note of service quality. 4.6 Contingency Factors in Planning Ryanair faces three major contingency factors. Firstly, the organisational level affects the operational planning of middle and low level managers. Secondly, the uncertainty of macro-environmental or other external factors affects the planning process. Therefore, Ryanair aims to develop a flexible planning system. Thirdly, the long and short term objectives of Ryanair affect its planning process. The company always tries to concentrate on its current objective. 4.7 Objectives The primary objective of Ryanair is to attain cost leadership in European airline market. However, to achieve this objective, the company needs to concentrate on other long term goal. These include increasing its operational activities to enter new markets like North America, developing customer centred business model and increasing the use of internet as a major selling point (O’Cuilleanain et al, 2004). 4.8 Management by Objectives (MBO) Management by objective (MBO) approach of management leads to increase in the performance of organisation. “MBO is a result-oriented, non-specialized managerial process for the effective utilization of organisational resources by integrating individuals with the organisation and the organisation with the environment (Goyal, 2005, p.304). During 2004, in order to overcome its crisis situation, the company introduced MBO approach to improve its performance. 4.9 Strategic Management Process Ryanair’s strategic management process is based on its objective of achieving cost leadership in European airline industry. The company has improved its positioning by implementing proper strategic management process. The key elements of its strategic management include low fares, high frequency of point-to-point flight within short routes, proper route choice, reduction in operating cost, increase the internet use for selling, maintenance of safely and high quality service etc (O’Cuilleanain et al, 2004) 5. Organising 5.1 Organisation Structure and Design: Proper organisational structure and design helps to develop efficient management performance. There are four elements of organisation structure and these are departmentalisation, span of control, centralization and formalization. Appendix 1 depicts the organisation structure of Ryanair. Michael O’Leary is the CEO of the company and there are seven Directors and a Chairman. For each department like customer services, finance, HR etc, there are individual head management personnel having a team. 5.2 Chain of Command The Chain of command in Ryanair is based on its organisational structure. The appendix 1 portrays that the CEO is the chief person of command of the organisation. However, the decision making process in Ryanair includes all the senior managers of each department. To maintain high level of transparency and to develop ‘two-way’ communication system in cross functional departments, the chain of command is very essential. 5.3 Span of Control The span of control in Ryanair is effective and helps to maintain a sound organisational growth. The span of control of the CEO Michael O’Leary is the highest and most effective. As per appendix 1, the entire department is required to report on the ongoing activities to the CEO. The CEO along with the Directors and Chairman is responsible for making the final decisions of the organisation. However, for better planning and implementation, the employees should be involved in the decision making process. 5.4 Centralization and Decentralization The decision of centralization or decentralization depends on the nature and expansion of business. Ryanair is a multinational company having different units in European countries and North America. For the airline industry, decentralization is more preferred over centralization. However, Ryanair follows a centralized organisational model. Decentralization of organisation will help it to compete with the major competitors of different markets. 5.5 Mechanistic and Organic organization The mechanistic organisations are those having a well defined hierarchy. Ryanair has a centralized organisational structure and it is an example of mechanistic organisation. Appendix 2 shows the major difference between the mechanistic and organic organisation. The company has been very strict in maintaining its relationship with the employees. However, such organisational structure of Ryanair creates biases and errors in decision making process. 5.6 Contingency Factors There are many factors that affect the organisational structure of a company. The industry trend, the growth structure, the social and demographic characteristics of employee