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Repressive And Ideological State Apparatus Cultural Studies Essay

Althusser (xxxx) points out that, to assure its existence and continuity, “every (industrialized) social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces.” Therefore, societies must be able to reproduce and maintain their productive forces as well as the exiting relations of production. He makes clear that, in order for these processes to be successful, capitalist societies put into operation (repressive) state and ideological state apparatuses. On the one hand, departing from stringent Marxist ideas, Althusser states that the repressive state apparatus is embodied by the prison , the courts, the police, the army, etc. which ensure the domination of the bourgeois capitalist society over the working classes by “securing the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production” so the latter is subjected capitalist exploitation. This apparatus function mainly by violence, which not necessarily always take physical form. In other words, “force is used to obtain compliance in the society” (Francis, 1995). However, a distinction is made between state apparatus and state power, being the latter related to the objective of the class struggle while the former is the concerned repressive actions and may survive circumstances affecting the tenure of the state power. On the other hand, ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) refer to a body of specialized institutions including the church, the educational, the family, etc. the communications which function predominantly by ideology, and secondarily, by repression since school and church often apply mechanisms of repression such as punishment, expulsion, selection, etc. According to Althusser, ideology functions or acts by recruiting and transforming every single individual into subjects in a process is called interpellation. At the same time, ideology allows mutual recognition among subjects and, eventually, the subject’s recognition of himself, which assures that the subject freely recognizes and accepts his own subjection to a meaningful, natural and commonsensical way of viewing the world. McLaren states that ideology can be described as “the intersection of meaning and power in the social world” where rituals, social practices, values and beliefs are seen as “common sense.” Extending this idea he adds that: ” (Ideology) produce(s) in the individuals distorted conceptions of their place in the sociocultural order and thereby serve to reconcile them to that place and to disguise the inequitable relations of power and privilege.” In spite of their differences, the unity of the ISAs is secured as long as they work under the principles of the ruling ideology as the ruling class has the power of the (repressive) state apparatus so it is acceptable that “this same ruling class is active on that Ideological State apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized”. As long as the (repressive) state apparatus is unified under “the leadership of representatives of the classes in power” the ISAs are relatively autonomous and provide a buffer zone to mitigate the clash between capitalist and proletarian classes. Therefore, the (repressive) state apparatus provides a shield for ISAs, which concentrate the ruling ideology, to “largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relation of production.” The Educational State Apparatus Althusser special attention to Educational state apparatus and puts forward the idea of school as the dominant ISA due to its paramount role in the reproduction of the relations of production. This apparatus has been installed by the bourgeoisie, the author explains, to replace the previously predominant ISA: the church the reason for this is that “school has replaced church in its functions.” He states that the power of this ISA resides on that no other ISA has the obligatory function of leading the children at their most vulnerable age, “squeezed between family and school”, into the capitalist social formation during such long periods of time weekly. It is by “transmitting the skills and knowledge necessary for workers to adjust to their role in capitalist mode of production” (Francis, 1995) and producing marketable knowledge (Phillipson, xxxx) that the relation between exploiter and exploited is intensively reproduced. School appears as a ‘neutral’ environment where parents can endeavor their children to ‘free’ and ‘conscious’ teachers for them to lead students along a path of ‘liberating’ virtues. In other words, school fulfills three basic functions in capitalist societies: economic-reproductive, ideological (inoculation of values, attitudes and beliefs) and repressive (the imposition of sanctions for not accede the demands of the school) (Phillipson, xxxx). Hegemony Antonio Gramsci (as cited in Stillo, 1999) develops the concept of hegemony departing from the Marxist concepts of base/superstructure, economic determination and class struggle. However, he considers these ideas as overly deterministic and focuses on the superstructural institutions where political and ideological institutions as well as the hopes, dreams and culture of a society can be found, i.e. ,as McLaren (2003) states, “hegemony could not do its work without the support of ideology”. Gramsci states that the supremacy of the bourgeoisie is based on two equally important concepts, these being the economic domination and intellectual and moral leadership. He claims that class struggle must always involve ideas and ideologies, which would make the revolution or prevent it. Furthermore, Stillo (1999) states the Gramsci recognizes the importance of the human agency since “economic crises by themselves would not subvert capitalism” and builds up a more “dialectic” than “deterministic” theory stressing the “autonomy, independence and importance of culture and ideology.” Stillo (1999), on referring to Gramci’s theory discuss that the concept of hegemony as a process where the ruling class persuades subordinated classes to accept its moral, political and cultural values. Hegemony, in this sense, can be understood as a “set of ideas by means of which dominant groups strive to secure the consent of the subordinated groups to their leadership.” In other words, hegemony is a struggle in which the dominant win the consent of the oppressed, “with the oppressed unknowingly participating in their own oppression” (McLaren, 2003). However, consent in not always achieved peacefully and “may combine coercion with intellectual, moral and cultural inducement” In other words, social control be sustained in two ways: coercive and consensual. While the latter is exercised by direct force and threat, the latter “arises when the individuals voluntarily assimilate the worldview of the dominant group.” Dominant groups will provide the symbols, representation and social practices in such a way that the unequal relations of power remain hidden (McLaren, 2003). Thus, the oppressed Furthermore, hegemony must be constantly renewed, re-negotiated and can never be taken for granted. In fact, during revolutionary scenarios, “the function of the hegemonic does not disappear but changes its character” (Stillo, 1999). In this fashion, hegemony goes beyond culture and ideology. Culture represents the way in which “men and women define and shape their lives”, while ideology is a system of values and meanings projects a particular class interest, thus “the form in which consciousness is at once expressed and controlled” (Stillo, 1999). Strinaty, 1995: 168-169) holds that Hegemony operates culturally and ideologically through state ideological apparatuses which characterizes capitalist societies and that these institutions namely the church, the family, the school, popular culture, etc. are determinant in the construction of our beliefs, identity, opinions under the rule of a dominant “common sense.” In other words, hegemony is entirely related to the issues of ideology and is itself “ideology that has been institutionalized and legalized by ruling classes” (Cheng
Complete Graphic Organizer (BURCH). I’m studying and need help with a Writing question to help me learn.

For this assignment you are to select a graphic means to work with to internalize the content regarding theories you’ve addressed in EDMG 5214, organize the content in a meaningful way, and show your integrative understanding of the theories individually and as a group of perspectives that can be used to explain the behavior of young adolescents with which you work.
You should include a minimum of five theories on your graphic organizer from each of the following domains of adolescent growth: 1) motivation, 2) learning, and 3) personal, social, and emotional development in addition to a well-considered rationale for including the particular theory in the organizer. Besides choosing an appropriate graphic organizer you should identify the theory, give a thorough explanation of its important points, correctly classify the domain to which it belongs, and provide examples/applications of the theory in action (both middle-school-based and to the out-of-school lives of young adolescents
Complete Graphic Organizer (BURCH)

OUMC Business Law & Administrative Law Discussion.

Congress enacted legislation in 1933 to regulate the securities industry and prohibit various forms of fraud with securities. The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was passed a year later. This law created the Securities and Exchange Commission as an independent regulatory entity whose function is to administer the two laws. The SEC has generated rules and regulations to administer these acts. Discuss these regulations.Tony raped Jane in the parking lot of Joe s Brew Pub. The district attorney s office prosecuted Tony on rape charges. Subsequently, Jane filed a lawsuit against Tony for money damages. Classify each legal action
OUMC Business Law & Administrative Law Discussion

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management. I need an explanation for this Management question to help me study.

Question 1: You are the HR manager for a commercial airline. You have been assigned to develop a realistic job preview for flight attendants. Your objective is to give a balanced picture of the job so that applicants will better understand what they will be asked to do. Job duties, schedules, and other facets of the job should all be well understood early in the recruiting process to avoid poor P/E fit later on.

How would you gather information about the job context and environment? Explain what sources you would use and why.
How could you use technology to show the positive and negative aspects of the job

Question 2: Why is evaluating training an important part of strategic training?
Requirement: For Questions 1 and 2 – Minimum 250-270 words, 12-point Times New Roman font using APA format. Must have a minimum of two sources to support each answer. In-text citations and 2 references each. No plagiarism.
Question 3: Pick 2 topics for your AB from the objectives listed

Be able to name and discuss the steps in the selection process.
Be able to explain why criteria development is an important part of the selection process.
Give examples of types of criteria that can be developed.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of internal and external candidates.
Explain the various types of interviews and interview questions.
Discuss interview methods and potential mistakes in interviewing candidates.
Explain the interview process.
Explain the types of tests that can be administered as part of the selection process.
Be able to discuss the types of selection models.
Explain the steps in making the offer to the candidate.
Explain the four steps involved when training an employee.
Be able to explain and give examples of the types of training that can be offered within an organization.
Explain the types of training delivery methods.
Be able to design a training program framework.
Understand the uses and applications of a career development program.

Requirement: Each AB should be ½ to ¾ pages long. It should be double-spaced, and you are to use Times new Roman 12 font.For your AB, you must have: • Your name, date, course, and AB number at the top (see example) • APA Reference before the information (see example) Annotated bibliographies must be written in manner, in which, they are understandable. You must describe all-important data such as: • The participants • The reason the study was conducted • What research design was used (surveys, interviews, case study, etc.) • Which research analysis was used (MANOVA, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallace, etc.) • The results of the study along with any conclusions of the author(s) Your study must include all of these (if applicable).
Please check the format of AB
Annotated Bibliography Example
Name:
Date:
Course Objective
APA REFERENCE Craig, W. (2015). From Family To Franchising: Five Ways To Start Your Business Empire. Forbes.
According to this article there are more than half a million new businesses started across the country every single month (Craig, 2015). There are many ways to become a business owner in the world today and there are many risks involved with each of those avenues as well. When starting a business from scratch the most important aspect is having a product that people actually want. According to this article, nine out of ten startup companies fail and 42% of polled startup owners claimed their business failed due to lack of need for his or her product (Craig, 2015). A business can also be acquired by inheritance or taking over of a family business. Craig (2015) also found, only about 10% of family owned businesses will survive long enough to see the third generation take over. The reasons for this is the perception by younger generations that the family business will always be available as a backup option if other ventures don’t work out. Buying an existing business is also an option for those who have a keen insight for opportunity. Becoming a franchise owner is another way to become a business owner. This step also takes determination and focus but can be very rewarding. There is a stability that comes with taking over a location that has an established corporate presence already backing it up with corporate sponsors that are ready and willing to help get you started on the right track.
Note: Answer the questions separately in different documents.
Human Resource Management

college algebra

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I need someone to log on my Knewton.com website and do my few homeworks. I am sick and I can’t do them all myself at the moment so seeking help. They are not hard but just I am not able to do this at this instance.
homeworks which need to be done
7.5.1.Matrices and Matrix Operations
7.5.2.Matrices and Matrix Operations
7.6. Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
7.7.1.Solving Systems with Inverses
7.8.1.Solving Systems with Cramer’s Rule
7.8.2.Solving Systems with Cramer’s Rule
8.1.1.The Ellipse
8.1.2.The Ellipse
8.1.3.The Ellipse
8.2.1.The Hyperbola
8.2.2.The Hyperbola
8.2.3.The Hyperbola
8.3.1.The Parabola
8.3.2.The Parabola
8.3.3.The Parabola
Everything is MCQ type.
college algebra

PBHE 112 AMU Essence of Policy Implementation in Organization Discussion

PBHE 112 AMU Essence of Policy Implementation in Organization Discussion.

Please answer the following questions regarding the implementation and operations of policies: Question 1: What is the essence of policy implementation? Discuss the effect of implementing organizations on policy implementation. Response for each question should be submitted using the text box and be at least 100 words long and no more than 200 words long. Please ensure you cite your references in APA format with a minimum of 3 references (You may use your textbook as a reference and you should have a minimum of 2 academic outside references). Assignment will be graded based on the following areas: Foundation and synthesis of knowledge, application of knowledge critical thinking, writing skills, and organization of ideas and format. Refer to Library Online Resource Center for any research assistance.
PBHE 112 AMU Essence of Policy Implementation in Organization Discussion

CO 101 LU Pennsylvania Establish Credit Dimensions of Credibility Discussion Ques

CO 101 LU Pennsylvania Establish Credit Dimensions of Credibility Discussion Ques.

There are four dimensions of credibility that work together to give the audience an overall impression of the speaker.In a new Word document, answer the following in roughly 600 words:Why is the audience’s impression of the speaker important?Name at least one public figure that you believe has credibility and explain the characteristics this person exemplifies that give the impression of credibility. Be specific.How is trust built between a speaker and the audience? What specific behaviors or mistakes tend to erode trust and credibility in speakers that you’ve heard?How does trust and credibility potentially enhance the speaker’s ability to make a meaningful connection with the audience?Explain at least one way you could boost credibility and trust in your upcoming demonstrative speech.
CO 101 LU Pennsylvania Establish Credit Dimensions of Credibility Discussion Ques

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