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Report on Strategic Management (Estia Health)

Report on Strategic Management (Estia Health).

You are required to conduct strategic analyses for Estia Health Aged Care, an Australia’s publicly listed company ( (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.), for this assignment, focusing on its residential aged care business only. You are advised to conduct research such as Internet searching for industry and media reports, and browsing the website and annual reports of Estia ( (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) and other relevant organisations.Write a 3000 word report, excluding references and appendix. In this report, you are required to perform the following tasks:Describe briefly the background information (strategic context) of the organisation (Estia). This information should be brief and relevantto the discussion of your assignment and thus may include ownership, history, size, business scope, major products/services, and major markets of the organization selected.Conduct a macro-environment analysis (focusing on Australia only in this assignment) for the entire industry within which the organisation operates. You should use the analytical framework provided in the textbook. Foci will be placed on the understanding of the purpose of this analysis, the identification of key factors and their implications in terms of key opportunities and threats, and the discussion of their overall impact on the industry growth in the future. Draw your conclusion based on your macro-environment analysis.Undertake an industry (competitive) analysis using Porter’s 5-forces model. You are required to pay attention to the purpose of this analysis, the inter-connectedness of different aspects of the competitive forces, the links between the competitive forces and macro-environment, and their overall impact on the industry and the organization selected in terms of main driving forces in the competitive environment. Draw your conclusions based on your five-force analyses.Identify those resources and competences of the organization that are likely to provide sustainable competitive advantage. Justify why these resources and competences can be regarded as strategic capabilities using the four criteria (VRIO) covered in the textbook. References should be utilised within this Report to validate the information presented, and should be drawn from academic sources and organisational information such as the website and annual reports. The business press may be used to identify relevant issues.Learning outcome/s and capability developmentThis assessment is deliberately designed not only to test what you know, but also to build your lifelong learning skills. The skills that you will be developing include:cognitive conceptualisation skillscritical thinking and analysis skillscreative application skills.All these are valuable skills you will need in future employment. How well you are able to demonstrate these skills and knowledges will impact not only on you and your group (in terms of a mark) but also has the potential to influence the future of the case study organisation. Your work matters.Specifically, completing this assignment can help you develop your capabilities in the following areas:Understanding of the key concepts, models, theories, and analytical concepts covered from the relevant Modules (1-4) in this Course;Developing your ability to apply strategic management concepts and theories to the organisation selected, particularly in analysing its strategic position;Enhancing your capability in critical think through evaluating existing strategic concepts, analytical frameworks, and theories; andDeveloping your generic skills for pursuing your professional career in the areas of communication and report writing.Advisory notes for this assignmentYou should conduct an extensive information search on the organisation selected.Company websites, annual reports, and media reports are important sources of such information, but their objectives, and thus credibility, should be carefully analysed and evaluated.You should use appropriate concepts and analytical tools in your report.The report should be written in prose; however limited use of dot points is acceptable.This advice should be read in conjunction with RMIT assessment policy and the course guide.Guide for assignment presentationWritten assignments must be presented in a professional format. Quality of presentation, especially literacy, will be considered in the marking criteria. All sources of information must be fully referenced using standard Harvard or APA referencing systems. You are encouraged to use referencing software such as Endnote for referencing and formatting. The assignment should be in report format and use Times New Roman font size 12, 1.5 line spacing.
Report on Strategic Management (Estia Health)

Develop a Computer/Internet Security Policy. I need support with this Computer Science question so I can learn better.

You have been hired as the CSO (Chief Security Officer) for an organization. Your job is to develop a computer and internet security policy for the organization that covers the following areas:

Computer and email acceptable use policy
Internet acceptable use policy
Password protection policy

Make sure you are sufficiently specific in addressing each area. There are plenty of security policy and guideline templates available online for you to use as a reference or for guidance. Your plan should reflect the business model and corporate culture of a specific organization that you select.
Include at least 3 scholarly/ peer -reviewed references in addition to the course textbook.
Textbook reference :

Chapter 7, “Security”Khelf, R., & G-Z, N. (2018). IPsec/Firewall Security Policy Analysis: A Survey. 2018 International Conference on Signal, Image, Vision and Their Applications (SIVA), 1.

Chapter 10, “Information Systems Sourcing” pp. 224-234 Buhrendorf, E. (2019). Outsourcing IT is a money-saving cyber safety net for company data. Fairfield County Business Journal, 55(20), 12.

Your paper should meet the following requirements:
• Be approximately five pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.
• Follow APA6 guidelines. Your paper should include an abstract, introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.
• Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least three scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook.
• Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.
Develop a Computer/Internet Security Policy

American University Ethics of Care as A Teleological Ethical System Discussion.

1. In 500 words or more (no less), argue whether the Ethics of Care is a teleological ethical system or a deontological ethical system, support your claim.You may use examples, but you will still need to include a full scholarly definition of each, with commentary. You may use any scholarly source other than a dictionary, to include online video lectures. You may use Wikipedia as a starting point, but be aware that Wikipedia is not a scholarly source and therefore can never be quoted in your paper. You will need to include inline citations in your essay (last name, date, pg#) and must cite any sources in the reference list of your essay. If you include an inline citation, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list and vice versa. You can find tools and examples of APA citation formats at the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.2. An annotated bibliography is a list of scholarly works that one might use to prepare to write an essay or book. This is not a reference list or works cited attachment that you might include in an essay. Instead, this is a preparatory research document. Its express purpose is to find suitably rigorous, topical, usable articles and books to prepare for the writing of a book or essay. The format is similar to an essay’s reference list, but it differs in several significant ways.***For this assignment, you must only cite scholarly philosophical works***The American Psychological Association (APA) created a formal guide for exactly how to format your bibliography so that it is useful to a reader who wants to follow your line of reasoning. This is extremely important in academic work because it shows that you performed your due diligence and proper research before setting pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard as the case may be). Annotations to a bibliography are short summaries of the content of the work. For this assignment, you are specifically showing me that you actually read the article, book chapter, or whatever else by doing these summaries. Each annotation needs to be long enough to convey confidence that you know what’s going on; about 100 words or so should do it.Your bibliography must include 5 citations and their associated annotations. Each combined citation/annotation entry is worth 20 points. These points are based on your proper formatting of the citation, inclusion of all necessary elements, proper selection of a scholarly work, and reasonable and understandable annotation write-up.There are strictly four parts to every bibliographic entry, though each of these can be broken down further. Still, if you remember these four elements, you won’t have much trouble and you will always be pretty close.Author (formatted as last name, first initial, middle initial). Date (formatted as the year of publication set in parenthesis). Title (for title formatting rule, visit this site). Retrieval Information (usually the publishing house or website)If you include all four of these elements, then your citation will almost certainly be close enough the your reader can follow along. For the purpose of this class though, you need to adhere strictly to the APA format guidelines. Follow the link to the Purdue OWL for more information.
American University Ethics of Care as A Teleological Ethical System Discussion

ITS 630 UC Wk 3 Emotional Intelligence & Leadership on Decision Making Discussion.

Week 3 DiscussionWeek 3 DiscussionAfter completing the reading this week, we reflect on a few key concepts this week:Organizational performance is the fifth aspect of the model, reflect on the question, do certain leadership behaviors improve and sustain performance at the individual, group, and organizational level? Please explain your response.There were two types of innovation addressed this week (product and process innovation), please note your own personal definition of these concepts and offer an example of both.Note:Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic
ITS 630 UC Wk 3 Emotional Intelligence & Leadership on Decision Making Discussion

The Issues Of Forest Fires Environmental Sciences Essay

In the 21st century, influences of forest fires from demographic rapid changes, increase in human activities and unpredictable change in climate have become a crucial environmental problem in the ecosystems of the Southeast Asia region. It has unfavorably affected the natural environment and has put to risk the sustainable development as well as the management of resources (ADB, 2001). Indeed, haze pollution has been seriously affecting Indonesia and its neighboring countries due to the extensive burning of forests that arises in almost every year in Indonesia during the last 25 years. In 1997-1998, the global community raised its awareness on the critical conditions of constant haze and burning of forests. The occurrence of forest fires continued over long periods of time since the year 1998. The worst circumstances happened during 2001 and 2002 where the forest reserves and plantation areas of Riau province, West and Central Kalimantan and Sumatra burned. These corresponding areas were also affected by forest fires in 2003. The widespread forest fires happened in Sumatra and Kalimantan during March-July 2004 led to the increase of air pollution in Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, and especially in Indonesia. To determine the extent of burning is by knowing the extent of deforestation in Indonesia given that it is greatly caused by fire and not the destruction through spraying of chemicals. Estimates on the loss of forests have been compiled since 1985 and is evident in the report of World Bank in 2001. According to the reports, beginning at 1985 to 1997, the range of forest cover has been reduced from 119 million hectares to approximately 100 million hectares. The forest fires happened in 1997 to 1998 desolated 1.7 million hectares in Sumatra, 6.5 million hectares in Kalimantan, 1.0 million hectares in Irian Jaya and 0.4 million hectares in Sulewesi, and brought about air pollution in Indonesia and its neighboring countries. From the given information on the annual loss of forests during 1985 to 1997, it is expected that the forest lands in Indonesia is now just over 90 million hectares from 1.7 million hectares. Causes of forest burning The sources of forest burning in Indonesia are divided into three groups: traditional cultivators, small scale investors, and large scale investors. The most long-lived source of forest burning is the subsistence and semi-subsistence traditional cultivators. Some of these are the inactive farmers who burn their small lands after harvest in order to kill the pests or weeds and also to refresh the soil to be used for planting. Others are known as the shifting cultivators who practice the common slash and burn methods to empty a small plot of the forest for crop cultivation. The second source of forest burning is the pioneer and migrant farmers. These farmers are given the authorization to acquire several hectares of forested land for them to clear by burning and of course to plant commercial tree crops. The third source of forest burning is the timber and palm oil plantation companies. Timber plantation companies first select trees of commercial value for cutting in an area and then the other remaining trees and bushes are burned in order to make way for the planting of trees that grow much faster and are used for commercial purposes. The oil plantation companies also apply the similar process of forest burning in order to create widespread palm oil plantations. The Indonesian government grants these companies of additional land concessions because these sectors such as logging and palm oil companies contribute significantly to the external trade of the Indonesian economy and thus provides a major source of foreign revenue. Apart from the three main sources of forest burning, there are other factors that contribute to the forest fires. These are political, economic, physiographic, sociocultural, and institutional factors as well. The most important of these are the policies and institutions. According to the Asian Development Bank (2001), ‘lack of political will, inappropriate and poorly specified policies, weak legislation, ambiguous regulations, bureaucratic procedures, land-use conflicts, and inadequate resources for enforcement of laws and regulations were again and again crucial and crippling constraints.’ Harmful effects of forest burning It has indeed proved by the international environmental and health organizations that forest burning and air pollution have serious destructive consequences. The harmful effects are both seen in the areas of burning and in other areas and countries far from the fires (Jones, 2006). These impacts have several dimensions- economic, environmental, ecological, social, and others that may be onsite and offsite, direct or indirect (ADB, 2001). It is widely considered that the most serious effect of forest burning has been on public health, particularly as a result of people breathing in pollutants from burning of forests. Inhaling the smoke from the fires result in respiratory ailments such as upper respiratory tract infections, bronchial asthma and decrease in lung functioning. Also, it is evident that the smoke has serious effects on the skin and on the cardiovascular system. According to the estimations made by the Friends of the Earth in 1997, ‘the haze has already claimed the lives of 19 people in Indonesia and over 40,000 people have been hospitalized. Up to 70 million people across the region are being affected, and health experts have warned that up to 20 % of all deaths in the region could be caused by the smog.’ Furthermore, press reports in June 2003 stated that thousands of people admitted to hospitals in Central and Kalimantan complained on breathing difficulties as well as eye irritation, while in 2004, health clinics and hospitals on the island of Sumatra mentioned that several patients seek for medications on respiratory problems. Forest fire impacts have also affected the social welfare through the displacement of communities, loss of income sources, and decreasing livelihood opportunities (ADB, 2001). Another serious effect of forest burning has been on climate, agriculture and bio-diversity. Further decrease in rainfall combining with effects of El Nino and decrease in sunlight that affected the photosynthesis of plants are due to the smoke brought about by forest burning. Besides this, forest burning has also led to soil erosion and flooding that ultimately reduced the productivity of agriculture. Furthermore, the Indonesian rain forests are home to a wide variety of plants and animals where in some of these are rare or endangered. According to the World Bank and Friends for the Earth, as a result of widespread forest burning, it has threatened the lives of numerous rare or endangered species. Forest fires also contribute to the global climate change and warming due to its greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. These harmful effects, definitely, have detrimental economic and financial impacts on Indonesia and its neighboring countries. Evidently, the costs of these impacts include loss of forest timber, reduced agricultural production, losses resulting from soil erosion, medical expenses caused by ailments directly related to the haze, increased proneness to pests and diseases, need for new investments in forest rehabilitation and fire protection measures, costs arising from disruption to air travel and transport, and decreased revenue from tourism (ADB, 2001; Jones, 2006). It also had serious impacts on the means of livelihoods of indigenous people and it threatened the ability of the poor to improve their lives (ASEAN STRATEGY). According to the estimations made by the Asian Development Bank, the incident during the 1997-1998 alone cost the people and the Indonesian government around US$8.9 to US$9.7 billion. Linkage between climate change and social development Undoubtedly, the major impacts and threats of transboundary haze pollution that can contribute to climactic change are widespread. The most vulnerable to haze pollution (or climate change) are the poor because of the inability to adapt and recover to certain changes due to low income and limited access to basic services and needs. Also, the areas that they live in are highly exposed to natural hazards and are linked with their sources of income such as agriculture and forestry which are known to be climate-sensitive sectors. That is why it is necessary to come up with an immediate action. One solution is the need for adaptation where it is a process through which societies make themselves better able to cope with an uncertain future. It calls for taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of transboundary haze pollution (or climate change) by making appropriate adjustments and changes. There are several options and opportunities to adapt such as technological options, behavior change at individual level and early warning systems for extreme events. As a result of the speed at which change is happening, it is important that the vulnerability of Indonesia and other neighboring countries to haze pollution (or climate change) is reduced and their capacity to adapt is increased and national adaptation plans are implemented. Although adaptation to haze pollution (or climate change) is essential and is considered as an urgent priority, the affected countries have limitations that make adaptation difficult. These limitations are human capacity and financial resources. The major barriers for adaptation are the lack of funding in various forms and difficulties in accessing the funds which are available. In order for these affected countries to understand the impacts and vulnerabilities of the issue, as well as facilitating better policy decisions and management, it is necessary for research and training to be included in adaptation. However, these affected countries still face difficulties in incorporating concerns regarding the haze pollution into national policies because of lack of resources and institutional capacities. Despite the difficulties, in order for effective adaptation measures to work, the stakeholders must consider integrating the issue of haze pollution in all levels of decision making especially in planning and budgeting. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to present a framework analysis in such a way that it will be applied to the social issue being discussed, specifically the transboundary pollution in Southeast Asia. The framework tool to be used will be based on the polycentric approach in order to enhance policy actions regarding the widespread haze pollution in Indonesia and other affected neighboring countries. Also, one of the objectives of this paper is to discuss the stakeholders using the stakeholder analysis wherein it will identify the people, groups, and institutions involved that will influence the issue positively or negatively. Throughout the paper, included in the objectives, still, is to come up with a conclusion based on the analysis and recognize the failures that the framework tool was not able to elucidate. Finally, it also aims to give recommendations for the improvement or success of the issue. Stakeholder Analysis Secondary Stakeholders Stakeholder’s Interest(s) in the issue Assessment of Impact Influence of the group Global Agencies -World Bank, IMF, UNDP, UNEP, WHO, WMO, UNICEF Adaptation measures on haze pollution Prevention of haze pollution across the globe High High Regional Organizations -ASEAN, APEC, ADB Prevention of haze pollution in Indonesia and affected countries particularly in Asia High High Concerned institutions -health care, environmental protection, schools, religious organizations, charitable institutions Prevention of haze pollution Low Medium Concerned nongovernmental institutions -emergency associations (e.g. Red Cross, Medicins sans Frontieres) -Development NGOs -Environmental NGOs Prevention of haze pollution Low Medium Primary Stakeholders Stakeholder’s Interest(s) in the issue Assessment of Impact Influence of the group “Victim” State governments -Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia

ED 535 Case Study Assessing and Addressing Literary Needs Paper

essay writer ED 535 Case Study Assessing and Addressing Literary Needs Paper.

Will upload photos from book once accepted. Sample of case study attached.Using this unit’s readings and other course readings, select one of the cases for Chapter 4 in the Combs’ text focusing on Fluency and complete the case study using the assignment guidelines and rubric in the course syllabus. (You may work with a partner if you wish —please email me.)You will be assessed using the Case Study Rubric. Upload your assignment to the assignment folder for this unit titled with your last name, first initial and Unit number saved as a word .doc or .docx file. Choose 2 (optional) as preparation for the Case Study:Calo, K.M., Woolard-Ferguson, T., & Koitz, E. (2013). Fluency idol: Using pop culture to engage students and boost fluency skills. The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 454-458.DeKonty Applegate, M., Applegate, A.J., & Modla, V.B. (2009). “She’s my best reader; she just can’t comprehend”:Studying the relationship between fluency and comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 62(6), 512-521.Kuhn, M.R. & Schwanenflugel, (2018). Prosody, pacing & situational fluency (or why fluency matters for older readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(4), 363-368.Leathers, J. (2016). It’s all about audience. The Reading Teacher, 70(4), 499.Marcell, B. & Ferraro, C. (2013). So long, Robot Reader! A superhero intervention plan for improving fluency. The Reading Teacher, 66(8), 607-614.Ness, M. (2017). “Is that how I really sound?”: Using iPads for fluency practice. The Reading Teacher, 70(5), 611- 614.Son, E.H. & Chase, M. (2018). Books for two voices: Fluency practice with beginning readers. The Reading Teacher, 72(2), 233-40.
ED 535 Case Study Assessing and Addressing Literary Needs Paper

Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. Marketing Strategy in Action Abercrombie & Fitch As you stroll into the store, you are greeted by blaring music, racy photos, and a cooler-than-cool ?sales force? that doesn?t actually try to sell you anything. And if you?re over 25, there is a decent chance you are the oldest person in the place. To borrow a phrase from another company?s marketing compaign, Abercrombie & Fitch is definitely not your father?s clothing store?although, interest- ingly, it may have been your grandfather?s. A&F is one of a handful of retail chains that has done a masterful job of appealing to fashion-conscious teens and college students. The challenge for A&F, The Gap, J. Crew, and others is how to remain relevant to the notoriously fickle youth subculture. Founded in 1892, A&F was originally an outlet for camping gear. Early in its history, in fact, it outfitted former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt?s African safaris. Later it established a niche selling conser- vative menswear to an older clientele, but eventually sales plummeted and A&F filed for bankruptcy. The Limited purchased the chain in 1988 and four years later hired Michael Jeffries to oversee A&F operations. Jeffries wanted to shift the company?s focus away from, as he describes it, the ?70 to death? demographic toward a much younger and faster-growing group: consumers between ages 14 and 24. The tweed suits came off the racks, replaced by jeans and T-shirts. It worked. By the time The Limited spun off A&F in 1998, the company was already a hit. Sales exploded from $165 million in 1994 to $1.6 billion in 2002. The number of stores jumped from 36 in 1992 to 340 in 2003 (plus 167 Abercrombie stores and 112 Hollister Com- pany stores). A 1999 survey showed A&F to be the sixth coolest brand in the world among kids, outranking Levi?s and Nintendo. In the summer of 1999, A&F?s spot in the pantheon of youth culture was solidified in a hit pop song by the group LFO, who sang about how much they liked girls who ?look like Abercrombie and Fitch.? A&F and its direct competitors are appealing to the so-called echo boom generation?people born between 1977 and 1994. It is estimated that by 2010, the United States will have 34 million people between ages 12 and 19. And, unlike previous generations, most of these youths have money to spend. In 1998 the average teen earned almost $80 per week, and because most live at home and have few financial responsibilities, much of that money goes toward clothing. At an A&F store, there is no such thing as a minor detail. Accord- ing to an analyst at Goldman, Sachs, & Co, ?they are very single- minded and very driven. Everything they do is directed to making sure they are truly representative of the lifestyle of their core college- age consumer.? A&F unabashedly admits it hires employees based less on skill than on how they look and act. In fact, because A&F believes young people don?t like being told what to buy, the sales staff doesn?t actually offer sales help. Their job is to greet customers, walk around, and look beautiful. ?We?re not interested in salespeople or clerks,? declared Lonnie Fogel, director of investor relations. ?We?re interested in finding people who represent the brand?s lifestyle . . . who portray the image of the brand.? And management makes cer- tain employees don?t deviate from that image. For example, employ- ees can wear only certain kinds of shirts with certain styles of pants. And black shoes are completely forbidden because the company believes they project an undesirable urban street image. A&F?s reach is not limited to its storefront. It is one of only a hand- ful of clothing companies that have successfully targeted young buy- ers via catalogs. Alloy and the very hip Delia?s also have a large catalog customer base. But A&F?s publication, the Quarterly, is more than just a catalog. It has become required reading for people who consider themselves cool. The catalog is filled with erotic photo- graphs of scantily clad coeds and buff frat boys cavorting on the beach or caught in compromising positions. The Christmas 1999 catalog included a fake interview with a mall Santa purported to be a pedophile, along with sex advice from a renowned porn star. Older folks?including the Michigan attorney general?expressed their con- cern, and A&F agreed to distribute the publication only to people over 18. But one can assume the controversy and establishment out- rage probably made the catalog (and the brand) all the more appeal- ing to A&F?s younger clientele. How does any company remain popular and keep up with what fashions young people consider cool? It?s not easy. Thanks to the Internet and MTV, the concept of ?fashionable? has become a con- stantly moving target. Wet Seal is a company that specializes in ?club? clothing. Its president, Ed Thomas says, ?The market is all about change. You have to constantly reinvent yourself to attract people to your store and that?s constantly a challenge.? The Limited, A&F?s former sister chain, was once hailed for its skill at keeping pace with youth fashion trends. But somewhere along the line it lost its touch. In 1998, a $40 million operating loss forced The Limited to close stores. A&F is trying to keep pace with its customers by filling its merchandising and design staffs with people right out of college? young people who already live the A&F lifestyle. Plus, the company employs a team of ?field editors,? college students from all over the United States who provide weekly reports on the latest fashion and lifestyle trends. Despite A&F?s success, it does not have a monopoly on the youth market. Some elements of that subculture don?t find the A&F lifestyle or clothing appealing. ?A lot of my friends think Abercrombie?s kind of silly, between the way they advertise with magazines and their high prices,? says Erik Lappinen, a high school senior from New Jersey. Another New Jersey high school student, Kristen Ricciardi, agrees: ?I?d rather buy the same clothes from The Gap or American Eagle and not have the company?s name on my shirt.? Gap, Inc.?s Old Navy stores, with their $8 T-shirts and $25 cargo pants, appeal to those who want to keep pace with fashion but won?t pay A&F?s prices. Of course, there are some young people who want to get as far away as possible from the A&F lifestyle and sense of fashion. At the 270-store Hot Topic chain, you can buy patent leather military boots, hair dye, vinyl pants, and even jewelry for your pierced tongue. Why have A&F and other companies been so successful market- ing to teens and college students? It is largely because they appeal to a sense of belonging that is especially important to people in this age group. ?These young people want to be with one another,? says the 55-year-old Jeffries. ?That is totally different. My generation grew up as loners.? So while the definition of what is fashionable may vary from person to person, most young people do feel social pressure to wear clothes and live a lifestyle that others in their peer group con- sider cool. Of course, there is a catch-22: How cool is too cool? Airwalk ini- tially marketed its shoes to teens who were part of a more alternative subculture. But eventually so many people were wearing Airwalks that the brand was perceived as mainstream and therefore not appropriate footwear for someone truly avant-garde. Now the com- pany is trying to reshape its image to become more relevant to those in its original target market. So, somewhat paradoxically, while young people seek social acceptance, they also want to retain some sense of individuality. As one teen said about A&F, ?No one wants to admit they shop at a store because it?s cool.? In sum, it is a never-ending battle for companies like A&F. Cultural tastes change, fashions change, established competitors redouble their efforts, and new competitors spring up seemingly out of nowhere. To remain a major player in the youth clothing market for the long haul requires an intelligent marketing strategy and an accurate feel for the ever-changing lifestyles of young consumers.ÿsubculture and how it’s used in this marketing strategy?Earth Sciences homework help

Properties And Uses Of Green Fluorescent Protein

Properties And Uses Of Green Fluorescent Protein. ABSTRACT Green fluorescent protein has natural fluorescent properties which can be used in various applications. Mutagenesis of wild type GFP gives variants that are widely used as protein fusion tags, as biomarkers, used in studying protein interactions and localization of signals. GFP variants have led to technological advancement in biological studies such as FRET. In this review, we will study properties, uses, and variants of GFP developed in recent years. INTRODUCTION The green fluorescent protein was first observed by Shimomura et al in Aequoria victoria. He suggested 4-p-hydroxybenzylidine imidazoline-5 as its chromophore, which is involved in the fluorescence activity of GFP (Tsien 1998). The expression of this gene was later explained by Chalfie et al (1994). The chromophore which is made of 3 residues which are ser-tyr-gly (65-67) in the GFP protein makes the 4-p-hydroxybenzylidine imidazoline-5 structure later by post translation (Yang et al 1996). The structure of GFP as suggested by Tsien is β-barrel with 11 stands. The chromophore lies in the centre of the β- barrel and is attached via alpha helix. The number of amino acids which make up the GFP is 238 (Tsien 1998). PROPERTIES AND USES OF GFP The wild type GFP from Aequoria victoria has an excitation spectrum of 395nm and 475nm (absorbs blue light) with an emission peak of 508nm and 503nm (maximum) (emit green light) respectively (Tsien 1988). The GFP can be excited by UV lamps as well as fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) filters due to its spectral range (Margolin 2000). The cloning and expression of GFP gene has given the important information of fluorophore synthesis in protein (Schwartz and Patterson 2006).The wild type GFP folds very slowly to attain active fluorescent state(mature chromophore) (Margolin 2000).The synthesis of fluorophore in GFP protein is an autocatalytic process. Mutagenesis of GFP tells that G67 is required for the fluorophore formation. The core fluorophore from Renilla reniformis is identical to A.victoria. It shows an excitation of 498nm (Yang et al 1996). With the help of Mutagenesis variants of GFP were created, one of the point mutation was S65T which increased the speed of fluorophore formation. The other mutations Ala206-lys206, leu221-lys221, phe223-arg223 helped to overcome GFP dimerization (Schwartz and Patterson 2006). There are 7 distinct classes of GFP variants based on chromophore component which acts on different absorbance and emission spectra (Tsien 1998).The Enhanced GFP (EGFP) variant has S65T mutation (improves fluorophore formation and brightness), phe64-leu64 (pacifies sensitivity to temperature), and codon optimization (expression in mammalian cells), which makes it a useful protein tag (Schwartz and Patterson 2006). Figure 1. The above graph shows the absorbance and emission peaks of wtGFP and EGFP. The blue circles depict the majorProperties And Uses Of Green Fluorescent Protein