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REPLY TO THIS DISSCUSSION_Applying EBP- Homeless Population_LISA

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The homeless population is at an increased risk for hepatitis A. Since 2018, there has been a significant increase in Hepatitis A with 7000 cases reported in 12 states. Hepatitis A (HAV) is caused by poor sanitation and contaminated food and water. In addition to the homeless population, Hepatitis A is prevalent in international travelers, IV and non-injection drug abuse, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Effective prevention of this disease is possible with the Hepatitis A vaccine. The recommendation is for those at increased risk starting at the age of 12-23 months old. This vaccine creates antibodies that persist for at least twenty years (Centers for Disease Control, 2019).
However, the data is showing that non-U.S. born minorities are least likely to get the Hepatitis A vaccine. Many of these people travel back to their country of origin without receiving the necessary vaccines. Vaccination coverage is lowest for non-US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Lowest vaccination rates were for Hispanics over 35 years of age, with high school education or less, and unemployed. Thirty-five percent of people with Hepatitis A are hospitalized (Narayanan, Elsaid, NeMoyer, Trivedi, Zeb, & Rustgi, 2019).
Aside from encouraging these populations from getting the vaccine, handwashing is an important preventive measure especially after using the bathroom. Homeless shelters could offer the vaccine to all who enter and have signs about handwashing. With these interventions in place, the rate of and spread of Hepatitis A can be decreased.
Narayanan, N., Elsaid, M. I., NeMoyer, R. E., Trivedi, N., Zeb, U., & Rustgi, V. K. (2019). Disparities in hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination coverage among adult travelers to intermediate or high-risk countries: The role of birthplace and race/ethnicity. Vaccine, 37(30), 4111-4117. doi:…
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Hepatitis A Vaccine for Persons Experiencing Homelessness (2019). Retrieved, from
REPLY TO THIS DISSCUSSION_Applying EBP- Homeless Population_LISA

Table of Contents Introduction How the study was conducted Results of the study Conclusions and recommendations References Introduction This evaluation is based on a journal article entitled Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Mediation Program. It was a research conducted and documented by Elder et al. (2011). The research study involved 106 students out of which 68 of them were meditating students. The students were sourced from public schools located in Arizona, South Dakota, and Connecticut. The schools in Connecticut were located in the urban settings with a huge number of African American students. Schools in South Dakota are found in rural settings. The majority are the native Indian populations. On the other hand, Arizona schools serve most of the Hispanic students. The selection procedure ensured that the American Indians, the Hispanics, and the African American were 19%, 26%, and 25% respectively (Elder et al., 2011). How the study was conducted This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Psychological distress among the racial and ethnic minority in the United States. The program is taught in American schools in a seven-step course. Moreover, the students are encouraged to practice it at least twice every day while still in school. In each of school where this research study was carried out, the students volunteered to the program. It was carried out in a period of 4 months whereby two major groups were involved in the study. The actual participants of the Transcendental Mediation program and a control group that did not learn or practice the program helped in ascertaining the difference (Elder et al., 2011). The participants of the study were to be involved in programs such as sitting quietly, resting, reading, and working at home. The psychological distresses were measured using Strengths Difficult Questionnaires (SDQ) of the participants. It was also based on the emotional symptom scale. The scale has 3 points of reference (0-2). A questionnaire entitled “how I feel” containing twenty items to be responded to by the student was used to ascertain the anxiety levels. In addition, mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory (MHI). It employed a six-point response scale (Elder et al, 2011). The variability in the expected outcomes was analyzed using a control group. Results of the study The study indicated positive results for participants of the program. Hence, the program reduced the psychological distress of the participants. The results were consistent across all ethnic groups that participated in the study. The data indicated reduced anxiety, emotional, and depressive symptoms among all the students who took part in the program. These students had a generally positive influence on those who were non-meditating and the school as a whole according to the information gathered from the school administration. This method was found to be an effective way of controlling distress among students in secondary schools. It implied that the application policies had to be revised in order to ensure effective application of the procedure. This is important because previously, research studies indicated high levels of distrust among secondary school students. This category comprised mainly of those from the minority groups in the United States (Chawkin, 2011). The enforcement of this procedure will enhance positive behavioral patterns, impressive performance, decreased psychological anguish, and overall good health (Chawkin, 2011). Conclusions and recommendations The article would be very informative especially if theoretical knowledge can be fully implemented (Chawkin, 2011). The research study was effective. However, using of the control group is highly recommended in this study. It will ensure that the results of the study are authentic. Since the study did not involve the non-meditating students, it is necessary for future research studies to incorporate this category. References Elder, C., Nidich, S., Colbert, R., Hagelin, J., Grayshield, L., Oviedo-Lim, D., Nidich, R., Rainforth, M., Jones, C.,
Analysis of the Use of a Biblical Text in a Cultural Text The story of the Prodigal son found in Luke 15 (Ellis, 1974) tells a story of a young son leaving his home and leaving his father and older brother to begin a new lifestyle. Unfortunately, things do not plan out as the son had hoped and after some time, after a memory from his father, he is reminded of his destiny and returns home. The meaning of this parable symbolizes forgiveness and fatherly wisdom. Likewise, the story of the Lion King film (, 2019) too tells a story of a son leaving home in longing for a new beginning and after an encounter with his father’s spirit, the son returns home. Although the two stories have their differences, there are evidently links between the Disney film and this parable. There is the connection of the sons returning home after hardship and both tell a moving story about the circle of life which portrays a son’s journey from childhood to adulthood and the realization of one’s destiny. The characters in the Disney film additionally, resemble God’s world in a contemporary cultural text, there is the main character of Simba who resembles the Prodigal son, the father Mufasa who represents God and there is the uncle, Scar who symbolizes sin. Thereby, the Lion King film is a representation of a reinterpretation of God’s world and is an example of how the biblical text “The Parable of the Lost Son” has been reinterpreted in a contemporary context. The parable of the Prodigal son is the last one of the three parables in regards to loss and redemption. It follows the parable of the Lost Sheep (15:1-7) and the Lost Coin (15:8-10). Jesus speaks of these parables to the Pharisees and religious leaders after they accused him of welcoming and eating with the sinners. The fathers overjoy which is depicted in the parable signifies heavenly love, the “boundless mercy of God’ and “God’s refusal to limit the measure of his grace” (Sellew, 1994). The story of the Prodigal Son is found in Luke 15:11-32 and opens with a man and his two sons. The youngest son asks his father is he could have his inheritance, his share of the estate early. The father agrees to his sons proposition and so the youngest son hastily ventures off to a faraway land and starts to waste his inheritance portion on wild living. Soon the money runs out and a brutal scarcity strikes his country and the son finds himself in ominous conditions. Desperate for money, the son finds a job feeding pigs and in due course finds himself longing to eat the food scraps which the pigs receive. The son eventually, from memories from his father, accepts he made a mistake and makes the journey to return home to his father who he asks forgiveness from. The father had been watching and waiting for his youngest son to return and now that he had, he greeted him back with open arms. The father promptly asks his servants to prepare a celebratory fest in honour of his son’s return. It is soon afterwards that the eldest son returns from work to discover his younger brother has returned and is fuelled with anger and jealous rage. The father, in hopes to calm the older brother tells him” You are always with me, and everything I have is yours.” (Sellew, 1994). The parable of the two sons was said to teach forgiveness and fatherly wisdom. While there is no exact date, there are two options for the historical date of Luke which are present in academic literature, the 60’s and 75-85 AD/CE (Bultmann, 2006). The historical concerns from that time included the catastrophic fire which almost destroyed the city of Rome, the rebellion in Jerusalem against Roman rule and the Civil War (Schulman, 2019). The third Gospel does not specify its author. The passage of Luke 15:11-32 is allegoric, genuine and is rich in a homely style. The parable, if received as purely subjective can be entertaining. While the sole objective of this parable is to offer the reader/hearer a new interpretation of the situation and to lead them to make a choice, the story too joins together to divide into two distinct stories of one family that bonds together at the end of the parable. The parable divides, first there is an emphasis on the youngest son, the Prodigal son through verses 11-24 and then focuses on the eldest son through verses 25-32 (Bultmann, 2006). Both stories have a focus on the son first and then the focus shifts to the father. The Lion King is a 1994 American animated musical film which was produced by Walt Disney. It was the 32nd Disney film which was animated and was the fifth animated film throughout the period recognized as the Disney Renaissance (, 2019). It Is an example of how the biblical text “The Parable of the Lost Son” has been reinterpreted in a contemporary context. The story is about a young lion called Simba who is the next in line take over from his Father Mufasa to become King. Simba dreams of the day but unfortunately the dream of being King was stolen from underneath him when his uncle Scar who wanted the title of King himself, murders Mufasa and convinces Simba that he was at fault for his father’s death. Struck with guilt, grief and anger, Simba leaves the kingdom and Scar became King. It wasn’t until years later when a childhood friend, Nala and a baboon, Rafiki, tells Simba that Scar is King and has destroyed their home of Pride Rock. She pleads for him to return but Simba still felt too ashamed to ever go home. It wasn’t until an unexpected encounter with what can only be explained at Mufasa’s spirit that Simba is reminded of his destiny and ventures home to conquer Scar and bring back harmony to his home, Pride Rock (, 2019). Although the return of Simba is different from what Luke 15 wrote, it still captures the raw emotion of a father waiting for his son to return home. From this plot, it can be alluding to the parable of the Prodigal Son. Simba, evidently is the Prodigal son by which we make references to the childhood egotism, and the physical and emotional transition from childhood to adulthood. Resembling the Prodigal son, Simba too was unsatisfied from his privilege and was eager to receive his destiny. Both the Prodigal son and Simba awaited their birth right which was warped into something they were due. Both Simba and the Prodigal son leave home to begin a new lifestyle. Simba adopts a Hakuna Matata lifestyle which translates into “no worries” (i.e. ignorance), while the Prodigal son after wasting away his inheritance, finds himself eating food scraps which are fed to pigs until both sons realize they must return home and face their actions. Additionally, Mufasa can be connected to the father in the parable and thereby, within the storyline of The Lion King, Mufasa is represented as God. Considering the father, son relationship which exists between Mufasa and Simba and the responsibility Simba has over the kingdom which he obtains from Mufasa signifies our inheritance from God. Mufasa’s character embodies God’s kindness, leadership and love and by being the King of Pride Rock represents an appropriate reminder of God’s authority and power. Moreover, the character of the baboon called Rafiki who we see in the beginning on the movie preforming a ritual on newborn Simba represents a strong suggestion of baptism. Likewise, Rafiki too symbolises our call from God from recognising Simba needs to realize on his own what his fate is and choose it for himself. And lastly, Scar, the evil brother of Mufasa and Simba’s uncle, represents sin. Scar is often portrayed as surrounded by flames which is quite reminiscent of the scriptural idea of hell fire. Scar separates Simba from his life when he convinces him that he will never be forgiven and tells him to “Run. Run away, and never return”. As sin separates the people from God, Scar is recognised as sin as he has parted Simba from all things good in his life. This is the same phenomenon that keeps the Prodigal Son from going back home in the parable and what keeps the people from accomplishing God’s requests (Ellis, 1974). Thus, these characters in the story The Lion King have symbolic meanings and represents a reinterpretation of God’s World within a contemporary cultural text. To conclude, the biblical text “The Parable of the Lost Son” has been reinterpreted in a contemporary context through the 1994 film, The Lion King. Ultimately, the story conveys that good will always prevail and evil will be conquered due to God always being in control. It may perhaps be said that Christ is the Disney hero. Word count: 1475 Reference List Bultmann, R. (2006). Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids. Vol. 2. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Ellis, E. E. (1974) The New Century Bible Commentary: The Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. (2019). The Story of The Lion King. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019]. Sellew, P. (1992). Interior Monologue as a Narrative Device in the Parables of Luke. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: The Society of Biblical Literature, pp.239-253. Schulman, M. (2019). World History 1-100 AD. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].

How The Media Influences Public And Political Opinions Media Essay

This essay will draw on a range of scholars to show and explain how the media have influenced public and political opinion on controversial scientific and technical issues like biotechnology, nanotechnology, cloning and genetic modifications. This essay on the one hand will argue and show how the media exert influences on the perceptions of the public and policy-makers. On the other hand, it will object this notion by showing that the media do not ultimately determine public and political opinions. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn and ideas for further research in this field will be highlighted. Plein (1991) explains that ‘biotechnology refers to the use of recombinant DNA techniques, cell fusion and bio-processing techniques to modify life forms for various research and commercial uses’ (ibid: 474). Biotechnology and other technical scientific issues have attracted intense media attention that it has become a fundamental aspect of an everlasting public and political debate. According to Hansen (2006), discourse and research about biotechnology began to gain prominence in the 1990s and as a result of the increasing public and political controversy surrounding biotechnology, ‘a wealth of studies has examined the nature and evolution of public discourse on genetics/biotechnology representations in press, film and other media’ (ibid: 816). Durant et al (1998) describe biotechnology as the ‘third strategic technology of the post-war period’ (ibid: 189). Durant et al (1998) describe biotechnology as strategic because it has ‘been seen to carry the potential to transform our future’ (ibid: 189). Biotechnology is said to possess benefits like ‘new diagnoses and therapies to eliminate diseases, new crop varieties to eliminate world hunger’ (Durant et al 1998: 189), whilst feared for its threats to biodiversity (see Durant et al, 1998). A controversial scientific issue like biotechnology was in its early stages surrounded by scepticism and disputes. According to Nelkin (1995), ‘one of the earliest disputes over biotechnology applications focused on the field testing of ice minus, genetically altered microbes intended to inhibit water crystallisation and protect strawberries from frost injury’ (Nelkin, 1995: 58). Nelkin (1995) emphasised that environmental groups were worried over the health hazards that this novel technology posed. Nelkin (1995) explained further that news reports of the ice minus test presented images which were ‘striking and provocative’ (ibid: 258). Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) point out that ‘modern biotechnology’s thirty-year old history has been inherently political’ (ibid: 360). The media are at the fore-front of this political controversy concerning biotechnology. Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) state that the ‘mass media comprise the principal arena where policy relevant issues come to the attention of decision-makers, interest groups and the public’ (ibid: 360). This is perhaps why Nisbet and Huge (2006) noted that ‘media coverage is likely to both reflect and shape policy debate’ (ibid: 14). In policy processes at first instance, the influence of the media comes in early as they determine what issues will be addressed by the policy-makers. These issues are usually generated by mass fear and scepticism created by the media. In the early stages of political policy processes, the influence of decision-makers can be direct when they manage to ‘keep decision making behind closed doors from public or media attention’ (Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 361). However, the progress of such clandestine decision making often results in the ‘mobilization of bias’ (Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 361). That is, decisions made only reflect the interest of certain members over others (see Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 361). Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) explain that if this interest succeeds in controlling media and public attention, ‘then it has succeeded in controlling media and public agenda’ (Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 361). However, Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) point out that if such issues appear in the media and an interest can ‘define their stand as well as alternatives available for discussions’ (ibid: 361), then they have succeeded in ‘delimiting arguments that oppositions can make and screening them off from participation’ (Berkwitz, 1992, cited in Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 361). This therefore relates to controversial scientific issues where different media frames are created by conflicting groups in order for their voices to be heard by the public and policy-makers. Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) importantly note that policy-makers are aware of the importance of the media in influencing policy outcomes. Nisbet and Huge (2006) identify ‘framing’ as a key mechanism used by the media to influence public and political opinions. Nisbet and Huge (2006) emphasise that frames are ‘thought organisers’, devices for packaging complex issues in a persuasive way by focusing on certain interpretations over others, suggesting what is relevant about an issue and what should be ignored’ (Ferree et al, 2002, cited in Nisbet and Huge, 2006: 11). Frames are hence the tools that the media use to successfully exert influences on political and public attitudes towards biotechnology and other controversial scientific issues. The frames ‘help guide policy-makers and citizen evaluation about causes, consequences of an issue and what should be done’ (Ferree et al, 2002, cited in Nisbet and Huge, 2006: 11). In the case of biotechnology which attracted negative media coverage in the 1990s (see Nisbet and Huge, 2006); media frames could however be an antidote to suppress the negativity associated with it. These frames will act as an educative tool to reduce public scepticism and influence political opinion. Nisbet and Huge (2006) emphasise further that plant biotechnology has been ethically framed in a ‘…promotional light, emphasising the moral duty to pursue a gene revolution that could “end world hunger” (Nisbet and Huge, 2006: 11). Plein (1991) emphasised that biotechnology today is being associated with positive economic themes such as ‘patent rights, international trade, research funding and regulatory policy’ (Plein, 1991: 475). This is as a result of the ‘efforts of a well-organised coalition to define biotechnology in positive terms’ (ibid: 475). This has also been achieved by brilliant media-agenda setting techniques which have influenced public and political opinion positively. One will emphasise that this is because these well-organised agenda-setters present the beneficial aspects of this controversial technology to the media and the media in-turn influence positively the notions of biotechnology in political and public fronts. Plein (1991) importantly notes the reason for the decline in biotechnology scepticism was due to its application to the fields of ‘agriculture, industry and medicine’ (Plein, 1991: 476). Marks et al (2007) however, pointed out that the news media’s coverage on the medical features of biotechnology has been positive compared to that of the agricultural features. In fact, Marks et al (2007) stated that negative public opinion regarding agricultural biotechnology reflects the power of the news media. On the other hand, Plein (1991) pointed out that as a result of poor-organisation in the years of 1968 to 1980, the pro-biotechnology community were ‘exposed to a hostile climate of opinion…’ (Plein,1991: 475). This negative influence on public and political opinions concerning biotechnology was as a result of scientists being primarily interested in ‘scientific freedom and protection from regulatory intrusion by government’ (ibid: 476), rather than use the media to educate citizens on the blessings of biotechnology which would hence influence positive political and public opinions. Nevertheless, the 1980s ‘marked a turning point in biotechnology history’ (Plein, 1991: 476) as it turned from being a ‘dangerous pursuit of another weapon in America’s competitive arsenal’ (ibid: 476) to being a technology deserving inexhaustible accolades. Biotechnology has been made to be seen by citizens as one of the biggest scientific successes through brilliant agenda-setting techniques. In fact, Nelkin (1987: 40) emphasised that in the media ,’biotechnology underwent a metamorphosis from a runaway science of genetic engineering to a new technological frontier’ (cited in Plein, 1991: 476). In the political arena, the climate of opinion changed dramatically as biotechnology and its features began to dominate policy processes (see Plein, 1991). One can say therefore that well organised media campaigns can revolutionise an issue that was before deemed dangerous and harmful to the society. Plein (1991) further explains that the ability of biotechnology to be defined in positive terms was as a result of its alliance with well-established groups which provided an opportunity for mediation and therefore influenced public and political opinion. Plein (1991) noted that the cultivation of support with well-established groups and businesses provided a better atmosphere for policy considerations and media coverage which hence reduces public scepticism. This therefore reflects the influential power of the media. For instance, a well established group like the London biotechnology network, a network of over 800 organisations which began in year 2000 has further helped reduce biotechnology scepticism through mediation ( Plein (1991) writes further that another reason for the positive media influence on public and political opinion was as a result biotechnology supporters to ‘disassociate biotechnology from negative issues such as environmental risk and ethical ambiguity’ (Plein, 1991: 480). This further provided an opportunity for media coverage as scientific groups were able to frame biotechnology in terms of its benefits to economic growth and development. Plein (1991) explained that these groups were also able to use the media to increase political support as they predicted that ‘biotechnology can play an important role in reversing America’s declining role in the global market place…’ (ibid: 481). One will assert that such prediction makes biotechnology a topical issue for the media as its coverage on it will garner more support thereby pushing policy-makers to take biotechnology into important consideration. Biotechnology proponents have also been able to frame this technology in the media as not being novel or alien; rather it is a ‘benign, incremental technology…’ (Plein, 1991: 481). Therefore, it has been able to disassociate itself from common fears that it is a ‘new form of technology fraught with dangers’ (ibid: 481). Biotechnology has also been seen to dominate media agenda because of its association with already media-worthy topics (a period where science reporting became on the increase); therefore it has been able to draw the media to its side thereby communicating to the public and policy-makers the blessings of this technology. Hence, it influences a positive public and political opinion. This technology according to Plein (1991) has been able to attract favourable media coverage because of its ability to undercut the positions of anti-biotechnology groups. The coverage of this conflict further boosts the confidence of citizens and policy-makers that biotechnology is indeed beneficial. However, Plein (1991) importantly notes that such well-organised coalition frames are ‘never secure in its fortunes’ (ibid: 484). That is, the issues and events that attracted media coverage and gave biotechnology its stamp of legitimacy ‘will likely pass’ (ibid: 484). This is because other questions will emerge which cannot be effectively answered and therefore the medias coverage of this debate will influence public and political scepticism. This might be due to the emergence of ‘competition among proponents of biotechnology’ (ibid: 484) who have ‘issues with differing priorities and agenda’ (ibid: 484). Hence, the controversy is re-built by the media as such scandals and conflicts add sensation and spice to their stories thereby creating and influencing public and political uncertainty. Scientists have even pointed out that their major reason for involving the media in biotechnology issues is for it to utilize its influential power in ‘public education’ (Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 363). This is important as such education will reduce public and political fear. Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) also pointed out that scientists are not only the ones involved in capitalizing on the medias influence. Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) explain that in the early 1980s, media coverage was characterized by biotechnology promotion. Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) showed that even policy-makers after being influenced also attempted to shape biotechnology strategically to influence positive public opinion. This is because policy-makers after being educated and influenced ‘considered biotechnology development critical to domestic economic growth, international competitiveness and global security’ (Krimsky, 1991, cited in Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002: 364). These considerations are therefore sounded-out more by the media, thereby exerting influences on public opinion. In fact Nisbet and Lewenstein (2002) point to a 1984 OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY (OTA) assessment report that ‘uncritically characterized biotechnology as a possible solution to many of the worlds health problems including; malnutrition, disease, energy availability and pollution’ (cited in Nisbet and Lewenstein, 2002). These characteristics will be highly reflected in the media’s report agenda and will hence influence positive public opinion. However, biotechnology opponents were also active in using the media to present it as being associated with environmental risks and hazards. This is perhaps why Nisbet and Huge (2006) stated that as a result of the agenda-setting techniques of biotechnology opponents in the 1990s, the media attention garnered by them increased the controversy and scepticism towards this technology. Nevertheless, as part of the power game of politics, advocates for biotechnology still aimed to frame biotechnology positively in order to gain favourable coverage and hence influencing public and political attitudes. Priest (2001) emphasises that journalists have been accused of only covering the controversies associated with biotechnology as this is reflected in public attitudes towards it. Since ‘news serves as a primary source of risk communication’ (Marks et al, 2007: 184), it only goes to show that the coverage of the risks of biotechnology will influence the publics idea of it. Marks et al (2007) state that it is the media who ‘…spark up public concern about a potential hazard’ (ibid: 184). Biotechnology has been accorded media attention and such media dominance ‘influences the priority accorded to it by the general public’ (McCombs and Ghanem, 2001: 67, cited in Marks et al, 2007: 184). Priest (2001) states further, that even institutions within the biotechnology industry ‘seek to use the media to frame public perceptions of policy issues in ways they feel will be to their advantage as well’ (Plein, 1991, cited in Priest, 2001: 31). This further proves the influential power of the media. Priest (2001) importantly notes that the media’s influence on the public will determine the influence on public officials. This is because public officials tend to respond in line with that of the public. In fact, Priest (2001) affirms this as she writes that ‘when the U.S public responds with vigor to particular perceived threats to public safety, this often seems to come as a shock to stakeholder corporate interests and government officials alike’ (ibid: 52). Durant et al (1998) alike, explain that with the development of biotechnology, public debate and criticism increased and in response, policy processes became sensitive to public opinion. The generation of public debate towards this issue can be tied to the media who as a result of the news-worthiness of this technology, cover its merits and de-merits which influences public and political opinion. However in Lewenstein (2005)’s account, the medias influence on policy-makers does not automatically lead to an influence in public attitudes. This could be seen in the attempt of policy makers and activists attempting to generate a positive consensus towards a ‘G.M Nation’. Contrary to what policy-makers might have hoped for, given the intense media coverage which it attracted, no consensus was reached. Nevertheless, Bauer (2002)’s research from 1996 to 1999 confirmed that opinions of biotechnology became negative which was in line with the medias coverage of biotechnology during this period (see Bauer, 2002: 103). Nucci and Kubey (2007) in their account emphasise that the media play a vital role in the public awareness and understanding of new innovations in science in the ‘genetic engineering of food products for human consumption’ (Nucci and Kubey, 2007: 149). Nucci and Kubey (2007) write that the experience that the ‘majority of the public have with genetics and biotechnology means that news coverage has a strong influence on theses subjects’ (Nucci and Kubey, 2007: 149). In fact, Priest (1999) emphasises that the ‘media possess the ability to influence public opinion on science and technology than other issues’ (cited in Nucci and Kubey, 2007: 149). In fact, Nucci and Kubey (2007) noted that the PEW foundation found that ‘the U.S public’s knowledge of G.M food tends to be driven mostly by the degree to which it is covered by the media’ (PEW INITIATIVE ON FOOD

Saudi Electronic University Adaptive Leadership Question

cheap assignment writing service Saudi Electronic University Adaptive Leadership Question.

I’m working on a management discussion question and need support to help me learn.

Throughout this course we have conversed about leadership—particularly its importance and uses within an organization. One aspect of leadership that is becoming increasingly relevant is adaptive leadership, mainly because of the ever-changing world in which we live.In the following discussion question, compare and contrast one theory of leadership with the theory of adaptive leadership. Then select one model of adaptive leadership (e.g., situational challenges, leader behaviors, and adaptive work) and showcase how that model can be utilized to address—and potentially resolve—an issue or problem with in your organization, or one you are aware of in Saudi Arabia.Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (including supporting citations) along with at least one current, scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article. You may find that your discussion of leadership characteristics is easily supported with such current scholarly research, while the information about how your chosen leader exhibits those leadership characteristics is supported by popular research.Keep in mind that current scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search. Current research means published in the last five years.
Saudi Electronic University Adaptive Leadership Question

Are People With Anorexia Or Obesity Deviant?

Anorexia is seen as deviant because it defined as an illness. People literally starve themselves at times. It is a world known behaviors especially in women. Many women become victims to anorexia due to society and the media creating the “perfect” body for people. (deviance sociology) this is mentioned in the functionalist theory which looks at society. Obesity people are seen as deviant because people stereotype them as lazy, slobs and ugly. Medically overweight people are those who are 20 percent over their ideal weight. (deviance) The media is one of the most influential cultures; it can impact individuals and cause society issues. It can impact society negatively due people relying on media for information. (Wright 1986). How does society define the right weight? If there was no gym or healthy table how would you know if you had the right weight? American Company Metropolitan established the first table of the right weights and height in 1942; it was based on the measurements and life spans of a large number of their clients. (Deviance and social control p. 129). Healthy people find it easier to get insurance, somebody suffering from obesity or anorexia will struggle to get health insurance. Women have been stereotyped there image since history could remember. In ninetieth century to be thin signaled nervous exhaustion and lack of fitness to fulfill the ideals of wife and motherhood (Ewen 1988). Only in the 1920’s did the image of women start to change. Anorexia can be seen as a form of rebellion A Sociologist’s looks at issues from a different perspective, they focus their attention on social factors. They look at regularities as with all social behavior, it is socially patterned. Emile Durkheim Deviance has to do with going against the norms of a particular society. For years it has been discussed how celebrities and their super slim bodies have tainted the self-image of the very impressionable youths. We have reached a point where eating disorders have saturated the adolescent population and as such society has expressed their disgust. Previously it was a topic that was avoided as much as possible but the realization has come forth that the only way to attack this problem is head-on. As such, a very negative stigma has been placed on eating disorders especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This stigma has caused those affiliated with the act to be viewed as deviants and treated as such. They are institutionalized so that they can be rehabilitated and released back into society when it is thought that they can function normally. The Interactionist Perspective emphasizes things such as peer pressure, the influence of role models, and the role of peer groups on an individual (Adler and Adler 49). Because people often associate with others who are similar to themselves, the obese person’s peer group becomes many other obese people. Often, these people reinforce each other’s eating and exercise habits, as well as beliefs concerning obesity. It becomes an acceptable practice to eat often and poorly as well as not exercise. These peer groups perform the function of support and acceptance, making the obese person feel better about him/herself. The group even allows its members to feel a sense of normalcy about themselves. Outside of this peer group, however, these people are seen as deviant. According to McLorg and Taub, as a part of developing the deviant identity, people experience both primary and secondary deviance (Adler and Adler 247-250). Between these stages is societal reaction. In primary deviance, the person violates norms that do not affect self-concept or social role performance. In this stage, the person overeats, but has not yet begun showing signs of being overweight or obese. They do not feel differently about themselves. Between stages, the person begins to be visibly deviant, and is labeled obese by society. In secondary deviance, the person deviates in response to society’s having labeled them. Once this has occurred, the obese person internalizes that identity and begins to interact with others in such a fashion. It affects his or her self-concept and social roles. One begins to associate with others like him/herself. At this point, the deviant has achieved a new status that defines him/her. Additionally, the people surrounding the deviant often expect the person to fulfill the deviant role. Deviance is not the person who is being breaking the rules but the social groups who apply those rules. The deviant behavior is who labels the people (Becker 1963:9). According to downs 1999 labelling theory has had a dramatic impact on social policy. It stresses the negative consequences of societal reactons to deviance that have more to do wth stigmatizing outsiders than attempting to prevent crime. Obesity can be considered deviant due to its societal reaction. Obesity is visibly deviant, therefore, making it easier for the labeling process to occur. Once the obese person has been labeled, he or she is deviant. besity has become statistically an average behavior in the United States. Nevertheless, it is still “abnormal.” The norm stands that thinness is attractive and worthy (Adler and Adler, 245). So long as this norm is upheld, obesity will be deviant and people will be labeled for their deviance and inability to conform. Also, it has been noted in a study done by Hammarlund et al, that poor family functioning and parental control are risk factors contributing to childhood obesity. Adult obesity is often rooted in childhood obesity making it harder to lose weight later in life (Wardlaw 324). Deviant behaviour is pathological in that it repents the viollateion of shared norkms (Elliott et al. 1985) have shown thast young people behaviour needs to be understood in terms of immediate goals (such as doing well in school, being popular and being successful in sporot) as well as long term economic success ( Lawson snd heaton 1999:58). Women are taught that image is their master status and that those who do not meet a lofty standard will be branded as inferior or unfit (or in the words of Tepperman, citing Erving Goffman, “stigmatized”. [Tepperman, 52]) Becker 1963:9: What kinds people commit deviant acts (Roach Anleu 2006:26). 2500 words defend argument provide evidence refer work to sociologists sujpport claims use the sociological models to organize the argument atleasst 10 references It further questions why, given those definitions, some people come to be defined as deviant, and what consequences this has for them (downes 1999:223). Girls as young as six or seven years of age react to being labeled. This labeling often originates when mothers pressure their young daughters into becoming aware of their physical appearance. (ibid) This image pressure can range from nominally harmless activities like encouraging children to play with make-up and dresses to overtly telling a “chubby” child that she should lose weight. By enshrining image and appearance near the top of the child’s list of cultural goals, mothers often render their daughters susceptible to further and perhaps more harmful pressures from other sources in their adolescent years. Mertonian Functionalism and Symbolic Interactionism are only two of the many sociological perspectives that make substantial contributions to our understanding of eating disorders One particular example of research that an SI sociologist might perform would be an examination of the “intervention” process. Many individuals who are perceived to suffer from a psychological illness, including those related to body image such as obesity and anorexia, are subject to interventions and confrontations by their friends and family. During an intervention, a wide variety of social sources attempt to get the subject to admit to having a problem. This strategy of confrontation is not unlike the way that psychiatric hospital staff treat patients who insist they are not actually ill, as developed David Rosenhan’s famous study that utilized SI paradigms. (Rosenhan)

due today ….. 9 hours ……. child education

this assignment is due in 9 hours and there is no extended time  Do the following:  READ the first attachment Classroom Evaluation document and follow all directions listed  The 2nd attachment has topics we touched in class  The 3rd attachment is the book which you must make reference to using the topics  MUST FOLLOW ALL DIRECTIONS IN 1ST ATTACHMENT AND DO THEM ALL