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Although I feel my everyday decision making is very similar to the scientific method, obviously the scientific method is superior. What is most valuable of the scientific method is that it evaluates information either qualitative or quantitative (Myers, 2012). I find myself overthinking everyday decisions where and find myself evaluating information, however, the scientific method is always superior because of the reliability the research process provides. Whereas when I evaluate information before making a decision, my feelings and opinions will definitely have an impact on the decision. However, I do believe that it can blind us into thinking it is the only way to gather and interpret data, when in reality, it may not be
GM 594 Purdue University Global Code of Ethics Business Project.

In this assignment you will be assessed based on the following Outcome:GM594-5: Judge the behaviors and decisions of project stakeholders in light of the Codes of Conduct of different organizations involved in a project.In this assignment, you will explore ethical codes of conduct pertaining to an organization you choose. Successful organizations are committed to having guidelines regarding acceptable behavior. As part of this effort, appropriate and constant training is necessary.Through Internet research, you will find a code of conduct of an organization in which you are interested. Remember that different organizations use different phrases and terms to title their codes of conduct. So, you may need to use combinations of keywords and phrases in your research such as, “code of ethics,” “code of conduct,” “code of professional responsibility,” etc.Compare and contrast the code of conduct you select with PMI’s Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (n.d.) in terms of organization, content, and specificity. Then, present a real or hypothetical project scenario in which a Project Manager would be subject to both of these codes. Explain what section(s) of each code would apply to the scenario and discuss what actions would and would not be appropriate for the project manager, given your interpretation of the specified sections of the two codes.Your paper must contain the following titled sections:Introduction (present a thesis and explain how the body of the paper is arranged to support the thesis)Organization of the Codes (Compare and contrast the organization of the two documents in this section)Content of the Codes (Compare and contrast the content of the two documents in this section)Specificity of the Codes (Compare and contrast the degree of specificity of the two documents in this section)Project Management ScenarioSections of the Two Codes Applicable to the ScenarioAnalysis and Discussion of Acceptable Behaviors in the Scenario Based on the CodesConclusion (The main points of the paper are summarized and synthesized)ComponentsTitle page formatted in current APA style with the following information: Title of the paper, your name, course number and section number, and date.A table of contents using the following headers: Introduction, Organization of the Codes, Content of the Codes, Specificity of the Codes, Project Management Scenario, Sections of the Two Codes Applicable to the Scenario, Analysis and Discussion of Acceptable Behaviors, Conclusion, and References.A minimum of three scholarly journal and textbook source references cited and credited according to current APA formatting style using a minimum of six in-text citations. With help with APA, go to the Writing Center under Academic Tools.The paper should be focused and to the point, containing between 600–800 words (at least 5-pages) specific to the table of contents items, excluding references.ReferenceProject Management Institute (PMI). (n.d.). Code of ethics and professional conduct.
GM 594 Purdue University Global Code of Ethics Business Project

Existence of Racial Segregation on Current Society Discussion.

Read attached text. Then write a response.What is the main argument? What are some of the terms that are used in this work and what do they mean in this context? Who are the people and what are the social and legal institutions involved in this work? What does this work tell me about the sociolegal field? What are the methods involved in the making of this work? What questions do I have about the subject matter, the methods or the analysis of this work?For this 2-3 paragraph response, you will be asked to refer to the class glossary. You are to suggest words from the reading to add to it and also, should expand upon some of the definitions in the glossary. You will be expected to be able to use these concepts and discuss them in your responses.
Existence of Racial Segregation on Current Society Discussion

In 1962, the first Wal-Mart Inc. discount store opened in Rogers, Ark. The founder of Wal-Mart is Sam Walton. The company was incorporated in Delaware in October 1969. Sam Walton was a man of vision, he along with his associates was passionate about helping people to have the same things that rich people have but with lower prices. The first three Sam’s Clubs were opened in 1984, the first supercenter opened in 1988 and the first Neighborhood Market was opened in 1999. Wal-Mart retail stores specialize in providing a broad assortment of quality merchandise and services at everyday low prices (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. – Financial and Strategic Analysis Review, 2010). The company operates in three business segments: Wal-Mart Stores, Sam’s Club and International. The Wal-Mart Stores segment includes, supercenters, discount stores and Neighborhood Markets in the United States. The International segment consists of operations outside of the United States. Wal-Mart operates 803 discount stores, 2,747 supercenters, 158 Neighborhood Markets and 596 Sam’s Clubs in the United States. Outside of the United States, the company operates 43 units in Argentina, 434 in Brazil, 317 in Canada, 252 in Chile, 170 in Costa Rica, 77 in El Salvador, 164 in Guatemala, 53 in Honduras, 371 in Japan, 1,469 in Mexico, 55 Nicaragua, 56 in Puerto Rico, 371 in the United Kingdom. Wal-Mart also operates 279 stores in China through a combination of joint ventures and minority-owned subsidiaries (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. – Financial and Strategic Analysis Review, 2010). According to the article “Wal-Mart Stores Inc” under “Financial Performance” states that, “Wal-Mart reported revenues of (U.S. Dollars) USD 408,214.00 million during the fiscal year ended January 2010, an increase of 0.95% over 2009. The operating profit of the company was USD 23,950.00 million during the fiscal year 2010, an increase of 5.05% over 2009. The net profit of the company was USD 14,335.00 million during the fiscal year 2010, an increase of 6.98% over 2009” (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. – Financial and Strategic Analysis Review, 2010). Wal-Mart was named “Retailer of the Decade” by Discount Store News in 1989. Even with After Walton’s death in 1992, Wal-Mart’s sales continue to grow significantly. Sam Walton envisioned a goal at Wal-mart to saving people money so they can live better. Today, with thousands of stores in a number of formats around the globe, this mission is embedded in their business; it lives in their culture; and it impacts every part of Wal-Mart, from customers and shareholders, to associates and communities. Wal-mart believes that by applying “Save money. Live better” mission to big global challenges like energy or the cost of prescription drugs, they can deliver both value and quality to customers, and ensure that neither comes at the expense of responsibility ( According to the article “Can We Do It” states Wal-marts three main goals which are: “To be supplied 100% by renewable energy; this calls for existing stores to be 20% more efficient in 2012, and new stores to be 30% more efficient in 2009. It’s looking to increase fleet efficiency by 25% in 2008, and 50% more efficient in 2015 compared with today. To create zero waste; the plan here calls for a 25% reduction in solid waste in 2008. All private brand packaging is being improved this year in terms of being right-sized, and made from reusable materials whenever possible. And to sell products that sustain our resources and environment; Wal-Mart is looking to have 20% of its supply base aligned to specifications here in 2008, with preference given to aligned suppliers” (Can We Do It, 2007). Stakeholders are the groups that are affected by the Wal-Mart; the stakeholders could be anyone that is involved in the organization; including managers, community, suppliers, associates, employees, vendors and customers. Groups that are interested or affected by the work of organizations and believe to gain profit from its activity are basically the stakeholders. CHALLENGES: The challenges Wal-Mart faces today are intense competition, price matching program by Target, legal issues, growth potential and foreign currency fluctuation. Make sure all paragraphs are a minimum of 100 words. There is competition everywhere from schools to businesses. Every person wants to be on top. Wal-Mart is facing intense competition from a large number of local and international companies including Carrefour, Tesco, Target, Home Depot, Sears, Kohl’s, Kroger and Best Buy. Wal-Mart Stores competes with retailers that operate discount, department, drug, variety and specialty stores; supermarkets, super center-type stores; and hyper marts, as well as internet-based retailers and catalog businesses. Sam’s Club competes with wholesale clubs such as Costco and Metro, as well as discount retailers and wholesale grocers. Wal-Mart also competes with internet-based retailers such as,, and However, stiff competition could adversely affect the revenues and profitability of Wal-Mart. (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009) Target is Wal-Mart’s biggest competitor. Target planned to bring back the price matching program that was held down in 2002. Target has recently tested the price matching program in few of its store. As per the program, Target will match the competitor’s prices on identical items. Wal-Mart is currently offering a similar pricing program of matching the competitor’s advertised price on key value items under its save even more strategy. If Target successfully launches the program and expands the program across the US, it would reduce Wal-Mart’s existing market share (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Wal-Mart is currently running in 15 international countries where currency fluctuation can affect Wal-Mart’s performance. According to the article “DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc”, “During FY2009, the company’s international operations generated 24.6% of its total net sales. During FY2009, fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates had a $2.3 billion unfavorable impact on the net sales of Wal-Mart’s international segment as compared to a favorable impact of $4.5 billion in FY2008. The unpredictability of the foreign exchange fluctuation would affect the company’s international planning process” (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). “Wal-Mart plans to add another 1,500 Supercenters to its base in the U.S. over the next five years, a 40% increase, or close to 300 million sq. ft. of new retail space.” Scot told Times Magazine that he is not trying to be flippant but plan to be everywhere they are not (Wal-Mart’s Challenges Mesh with Lee Scott’s Skills, 2003). OPPORTUNITIES: The opportunities from which Wal-Mart can benefit include; expanding brand portfolio, rising US healthcare spending, increasing online sales and increasing store network. In February 2008, Wal-Mart became the first nationwide US grocer to adopt Global Food Safety Initiative standards. Global Food Safety Initiative program requires Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club private label food products to audit and certify by the independently licensed auditors. The GFSI standard program would further strengthen consumer confidence over the quality of the company’s private label products, which in turn would ensure strong customer loyalty and increase in private label sales (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Online shopping is very popular in the US and has grown very rapidly. Although US retail sales have been decreased by the recession in the States, the online retail sales according to the “DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores Inc” has increase at 11% in 2009. The country is expected to see an online expenditure of $156 billion in 2009, higher than $141 billion recorded in the previous year. Wal-Mart has a strong presence in the online retailing format. The company markets more than 1,000,000 products through its flagship e-commerce websites and Further, Wal-Mart scored 77 points out of 100, in an annual consumer survey measuring e-commerce satisfaction by the US consumers. As per the survey the company is well ahead of some of its major competitors such as (76 points), (75 points) and best (74 points). This indicates Wal-Mart’s strong position in the online retail format. Wal-Mart is well poised to benefit from the expected increase in online sales. Moreover, online sales, while offering convenience to customers, also improve the company’s margins by cutting down operating costs (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Behavior Practice: Wal-Mart is based on the principals of individual respect; strive for excellence and excellent customer service. These beliefs are what help promote and build the illusion of integrity and ethical conduct that is the foundation of Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has been successful, unsuccessful and both in the years passed. Wal-Mart makes good effort to control and improve work environment. Wal-Mart’s goal is to motivate, retain and develop their employees. Wal-Mart is very much aware that if employees are not motivated that they can’t provide the customer satisfaction in which they have a great passion for. Managers can better assist employees to work towards the goals of the organization when they know what motivates them to work (Wire Zone, 2010). Wal-Mart could better enhance individual motivation and performance beyond what it is currently doing by working as a leader instead of getting motivated by its employers. Wal-Mart teams are consisted of six to seven members. Members are interdependent. They rely on each other’s skills. The benefits these teams bring to the organization are huge. They establish rules, roles and procedures. Teams may be empowered to various degrees. Among the areas over which they may have control are: Determining responsibilities within the team, Absenteeism and other member problems, Allocating vacation time, Scheduling, Recruiting and hiring new members, selecting their own leaders, setting performance standards for members, Appraising group performance, Budgeting and Training (Kalbaugh, G Edward, Sept 1998). The strategies that Wal-Mart uses to support encourage, or reward teams are bonus, health insurance coverage, and stock option. In 2007, Wal-Mart gave bonuses to around 80% of their associates based on store performance. Wal-Mart uses effective communication skills to engage its employees and get feedback on regular basis. The key is to balance the organization with greater individual responsibility, trust and internal support, and control (Zone- Wire, 2010). According to the article “Using Leadership Skills to Improve Company Performance” states that, “The transfer of knowledge and skills, from leader to individuals, should be constantly encouraged as it provides a good way of educating and developing potential leaders.” The organizational culture at Wal-mart has been shaped by the founder Sam Walton. According to the article “Sam Walton made us a Promise” Walton says in his autobiography, Made in America, “If you’re good to people, and fair with them, and demanding of them, they will eventually decide that you’re on their side. (Mark Gimein, 2002). The organizational culture at Wal-Mart is devised a set of simple rules; three basic beliefs, ten foot rule, open rule, the sundown rule, grass roots process, servant leadership, teamwork, and Wal-mart cheer to guide the organization’s culture. Walton was passionate about keeping the costs of the business as low as possible. There are three basic corporate beliefs; respect to individual, service to customers and strive for excellence covering employee motivation, customer satisfaction and competitiveness (Culture, Wal-Mart leaders ensured discipline and uniformity in the organization that was growing at such a rapid pace and had been operating for over many years now and such unity of purpose and a spirit of oneness was created and maintained across the organization that lead to resistance to change in the organization. Wal-Mart employees are trained well before they step into the organization. This training makes the employees well fit for the organization and they know what is expected from them. Employees are taught the rules, mission and goals which they have to fulfill. RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS: In spite of the fact that Wal-Mart is doing great as an organization, there is still room for improvement. Wal-mart faces some weaknesses which need to be overcome by the organization. Wal-Mart is facing self-cannibalization in the process of opening new stores in the US. According to Wal-Mart’s internal estimates, “the impact on comparable store sales because of new-store-openings was approximately -1.1% in FY2009 and -1.5% in FY2008. Although the comparable store sales of the company increased by 3.5% and 1.6% in FY2009 and 2008 respectively, the new store openings in existing areas impacted the overall performance of the company adversely. If self-cannibalization trends continue further, the new stores may reduce sales from the existing outlets; this in turn would impact Wal-Mart’s business performance in the long run” (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Wal-Mart is involved in a number of legal issues. One of which is gender discrimination. Women are discriminated at the time of promotion, pay, training and job assignments. Wal-Mart is presently involved in a class action suit, Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores. The complaint is from the former and current female employees in Wal-Mart’s US retail and warehouse club store operations. The claimants sought $11.5 billion for injunctive relief, front pay, back pay, punitive damages and attorney’s fees. The suit is one of the biggest gender discrimination cases in the US. Wal-Mart is should also focus on wages. Many employees are not getting paid for the work done. Such proceedings may adversely affect the company’s brand image. Moreover, any unfavorable outcome from the investigations could affect the company’s result of operation and profitability (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Wal-Mart was involved in several product recalls lately. In April 2009, Wal-Mart recalled the EB brand fitness ball because of reports on these fitness balls bursting unexpectedly; the event caused a fracture to a user and resulted in multiple bruises to another. The company also recalled Philips Senseo One cup coffeemaker, Joyfair Rashelle shoe, Stanley works stud sensor, Evenflo majestic high chair, and Conair clothes iron among others for possible health and hazardous reasons. Though the product defects are outside the company’s control, frequent product recalls indicate lax quality control measures by Wal-Mart. Moreover, continuous product recalls would lead to adverse publicity and loss of confidence among customers and would discourage consumers from buying the company’s products (DATAMONITOR: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc, 2009). Conclusion: Every organization faces ups’ and down, the ones that survive can enhance their management by correcting their mistakes in future. Wal-Mart has come a long way with many obstacles overcome by the management and employees. Wal-Mart has the key to balance the organization with greater individual responsibility, trust and internal support, and control. Organizations have to get involved with their employees to know what motivates them and provide feedback, training and coaching. According to the article “What does Wal-Mart know that others do not?” by Barbara Young states that, “Sam Walton, company co-founder, may easily go down as the best businessman the world ever produced. His concept of bringing low prices to the masses not only proved to have staying power, but the company he co-founded is changing the way Big Business is run” (Barbara Young, August 2008).

Protecting America. Security and Human Rights Essay

Introduction They consider us to be at ‘war’, even if the war is not a declared one with specific rules and a recognized enemy. pg. 103, In Goold, B., Lazarus, L., [eds.]. 2007) After the 9/11 bombings of the World Trade Center, the US government under President Bush executed and implemented a series of actions that catapulted the country to a period of war. In November 2001, President Bush pushed into law the USA Patriot Act. Among the things stipulated in the law is the “detainment of non-citizens for up to seven days before being charged with a crime; expanded wiretapping, which extends to cell phones and tracking people with multiple numbers; and unprecedented information sharing between the CIA and FBI” (PBS Online Newshour: 2001). In addition, the Justice Department has authorized the monitoring of conversations between attorneys and clients held in federal prison on suspicion of terrorist activity. The government has also announced plans to interview some 5,000 young Middle Eastern men who entered the country on temporary visas after January 2000. Undoubtedly, the protection of America has come at a high price in the name of “security” and “human rights”. Seven years after, America is still at war. Protection is still questionable. Human rights advocate contesting the government’s tactics of surveillance and inhumane treatment of detainees. Intellectuals debate over actions of the administration whether “right” or wrong”. US soldiers are deployed and are still being deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq to fight and rebuild. In light of this confusion, inaccuracy, power, and struggle, this paper presents arguments that would confer how constitutional rights and civil liberties are limited in the wage against the war on terror. At the same time show the ambiguities surrounding administration acts compared to in reality. Ambiguous Democracy A day after the 9/11 attacks, with less than 3,000 people injured and millions of properties turned into rubbles, President George W. Bush, said on the 12th, “What happened yesterday were more than acts of terror. They were acts of war.” This statement propelled the Executive branch of the government to usher in new directives to tighten the security of the country and to hunt the culprits behind the attacks. President Bush, through numerous press conferences, stated repeatedly that he will “smoke them out” of their holes and bring them to justice. He guaranteed and promised Americans that he will do everything in his power to “prevent any further attacks” on the American people. America, he stated, is at war thereby making him the Commander in Chief wherein he has unlimited executive powers to make decisions in the name of protection and security. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Constitutionally, the executive branch can not just wage war globally or change the status of his power as a president without the authorization of the Congressional branch or to conduct actions within the United States without the required legal procedures. But then again, the Office of Legal Counsel, under the Justice Department, granted absolute power to the president in the argument that the country is in a time of terror. Six weeks after the attacks, President Bush delivered his promise of “security” in the form of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001. This law allows the Executive Branch to research the following within the United States even if you haven’t committed a crime: Medical and financial records; Computer and telephone conversation; Books you’re taking out from the library; The act allows the government to have “roving” surveillance and interception of communications electronically. In this regard, the academe, advocates, and ordinary citizen clamored for violation of human rights particularly on “privacy” matters. For the sake of national security, it would seem appropriate to limit some rights. However, the question is to what extent should private citizens allow for their rights to be limited? Is it a justifiable cause that people should just give up their right to the government to be safe? Logically, how can the government help protect the people when they are vulnerable and have no rights to fight for? Given the authority of the Executive branch to search and intercept communications, the government has given enough reason to doubt if the person (receiving or sending a message containing “threats”, “attacks”, “terrorism”, “human rights”, scrutiny against the government”, “Bin Laden”, “Al Qaeda”, and others) is a suspected terrorist. Not only was the Executive branch authorized to search and intercept, but they were also authorized not to divulge how and what actual information did they extract. The government can identify suspected enemies but they are not required to explain thoroughly the process of how the suspect was accused. President Bush once said, “It’s important for us not to reveal how we collect information. That’s what the enemy wants and we’re fighting an enemy.” Analysts and intellectuals argue that this one-sided debilitation of human rights is not fair to the people. For America to secure its homeland, citizens should be cautious when expressing their opinions and views because whatever information intelligence agencies gathered under the order of the president, can be used against anyone, whether an alleged threat to the national security or personal. We will write a custom Essay on Protecting America. Security and Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interception of telephone calls and messages is just one aspect of authority the government can exercise. And with that instance alone, the freedom of expression is tainted to its very foundation. How much more personal freedoms would be lessened after collecting financial and medical records and even reviewing the borrowed books from the library? Personal information of American citizens is open access to the government and the government justifies this because we are in a state of war. In addition, the Bush administration openly admits to the public that methods of gathering intelligence are strictly “classified”. This reminds me of a classic case of “what’s yours is mine, what’s mine is mine” and people are on a “need to know” basis. Is it fair that the government intrudes on ordinary people’s lives and then not informs them of what they are to be protected from? If eavesdropping on people’s communications can bring them closer to knowing the enemies then why not tell the people. In essence, the Bush administration can strip people of their rights, hide methods of gathering intelligence from the people, and convince the very same people that they do this for their protection and security. Another aspect of the Patriot Act is the suspension of habeas corpus. The suspension of the Right of the Writ of Habeas Corpus legitimates any arrests on suspected terrorists, enemies, or people harboring the terrorist. Without the given right, the arrested suspect is more vulnerable to interrogations and punishment to extract more “substantial” information for future attacks, instead of exercising its right to prove his innocence or guilt. There are several reports about this which will be discussed in the second part of this paper. Any arrest made to someone should be protected by law even if the person is indeed a terrorist and proven guilty for committing an act but without the writ of habeas corpus, arrests can be made anytime on the grounds of suspicion. It would be degradingly unlawful at the end of the alleged terrorist is innocent. It was said that the Bush administration tried to stop congress to conduct its own 9/11 investigation. Congress pursued it because it was its duty. When congress finished its investigation, the executive branch censored 28 pages of the report, especially those pages stipulating the involvement of the Saudis in the attack. When Congress did not authorize the request of the executive branch to enhance its power to wage war and protect the nation, they asked the judicial branch, and through the Office of Legal Counsel, it was granted. The new memorandum said: Memorandum Opinion for the Deputy Counsel to the President In both the War Powers Resolution and the Joint Resolution, Congress has recognized the President’s authority to use force in circumstances such as those created by the September 11 incidents. Neither statute, however, can place any limits on the President’s determinations as to any terrorist threat, the amount of military force to be used in response, or the method, timing, and nature of the response. These decisions, under our Constitution, are for the President alone to make. Yoo, J. (Sept. 25, 2001). If after September 11, the president said that it was an act of war, and with the new memorandum saying that the president has “constitutional” enhanced power as the Commander in Chief and that no statues can limit that power, what is the “constitutional” authority left for both the Congress and Judicial Branches? Ironically, the enhanced power given to the president is said to be constitutional, meanwhile, the rights of the congress to exercise its power to countercheck the executive is also constitutional. When congress summoned Vice President Cheney to the congress to testify against massive surveillance, Cheney argued that he was protected with the enhanced executive power. Not sure if you can write a paper on Protecting America. Security and Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the point of view of the executive, the congress was not acting based on the newly enhanced power, while the Congress claimed that the executive is unlawfully acting excessively by arguing to be in the state of war and need of national security. Recently, President Bush calls Congress to act immediately on another bill that would “protect” America. The Protect America Act of 2007 “amends the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to state that nothing under its definition of “electronic surveillance” shall be construed to encompass surveillance directed at a person reasonably believed to be located outside the United States.” This bill strengthens and justifies the method of gathering electronic surveillance to people both in and out of the United States who are in suspicion of terrorist activities. In a recent news bulletin, President Bush commended the bi-partisan House of Senate in reaching an agreement to re-authorize the Protect America of 2007 Bill. However, the president was not missive to note that the House of Congress failed to act. Critics and analysts say that even if this bill is not re-authorized, the president will secretly use his “enhanced” powers to pass this bill. The President, on the other hand, was quick to respond that by not passing the bill, current intelligence activities by governing agencies will be stripped of its power to survey and gather information for the protection and security of America. In this regard, is it constitutional for the Commander in Chief to ignore the authority of the congress and to use the legal power of the judiciary when the actual war is in another country? In this said time of war that the president has enhanced powers, is it constitutionally unlawful for congress to deny the request of the executive? What are the duties and responsibilities of Congress and Judiciary to the Commander in Chief in times of “war”? Why are these laws enacted upon the American people who are not actually and physically at war? What powers does the constitution have to limit and countercheck the President’s actions and judgments as to the head of a democratic country? Extraordinary Rendition Last October 2007, a film by Gavin Hood entitled “Rendition” was shown and afterward received mixed and rave reviews from the public. The film sets when an American died in a terrorist attack in Africa. An investigation leads to an Egyptian who has been living in America for years and is married to an American and has Egyptian-American kids. He is apprehended by the CIA on his way home to the US and is secretly transported to Kenya where he is interrogated and tortured. His wife solicits the help of a friend and finds out that her husband is held by the government but the government denies anything about the case. It seems very fictional for an ordinary person to see or hear something like this. However, for people who are non-US citizens, the stories unfolded on Extraordinary Renditions, are simply a reality and a nightmare they have to live with for the rest of their lives. In a show by PBS Frontline World entitled Extraordinary Renditions, renditions began in early 1883 when a man was picked up by the Pinkerton Detective Agency and was rendered in Chicago and faced trial for larceny. Renditions then were renditions to face court trials. Since then, renditions have had several changes. After the 9/11 attacks, to protect citizens from further terrorist attacks, the Bush administration allowed government agencies to “wiretap” people who are suspicious of conducting terrorist activities or harboring suspected terrorists. Once government agencies have eavesdropped and gathered information on certain individuals, they would pick them up covertly and transfer them to countries that are known to use coercive methods for interrogation and with whom the US has close ties. Normally in rendition procedures, the person rendered goes back to his country of origin or to the country where he is wanted to face trial. However, in recent cases of extraordinary renditions secretly conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), people rendered are sent to countries like Egypt, Morocco, Ethiopia, and Kenya who are predisposed to use coercive methods of interrogation—torture in other words. Moreover, the detainees are kept for long periods incommunicado and without access to a lawyer or even to hear the crimes they have allegedly conducted. Similar to the film released last 2007 there have been alleged cases of renditions. The following cases are taken from the documentary on Extraordinary Rendition shown by PBS Frontline World. Muhammad al-Zery and Ahmed Agiza, two Egyptians seeking asylum in Sweden, are handed over to a hooded U.S. team at Stockholm’s Bromma Airport and rendered to Egypt. Agiza, in particular, has fallen under suspicion because of his alleged ties to militants implicated in the assassination of former Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. The Swedish government turns down his request for asylum on national security grounds, and on the same day, he is arrested and flown to Cairo. Both men rendered from Sweden later allege being tortured at the hands of Egyptian intelligence officers. After two years in a Cairo prison, al-Zery is released. Agiza is convicted of terrorism charges in Egypt’s Supreme Military Court and sentenced to 25 years, later reduced to 15. Binyam Mohamed, an Ethiopian allegedly working with José Padilla, the so-called “dirty bomber” who was later arrested in Chicago, is taken into custody at Karachi Airport while attempting to leave the country on a false passport. The United States accuses Mohamed, whose home is in London, England, of receiving orders from 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to carry out an attack with Padilla in the United States. After his arrest, Mohamed is rendered to Morocco. He recounts being brutally tortured by his Moroccan guards and interrogators, including being cut with razor blades, during the 18 months he was held there. From Morocco, he is taken to the CIA’s secret “dark prison” in Afghanistan and then on to Guantanamo. He admits he did receive weapons training in Afghanistan but claims that it was to fight in Chechnya. And he denies knowing Padilla or plotting any attack. Canadian citizen Maher Arar is detained by U.S. officials at New York’s JFK Airport and interrogated about alleged links to al Qaeda. The Syrian-born immigrant is held for seven days and then deported to Syria, where he spends 10 months at the notorious Palestine Branch Prison in Damascus. A year after his arrest, he is finally freed and sent home to Canada. Maher Arar is innocent. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is captured in Pakistan, the confessed mastermind of the 9/11 attacks. Mohammed is held for 3 ½ years by the CIA in an undisclosed location (thought to be Poland) before eventually being transferred to Guantanamo Bay. Some U.S. intelligence analysts question the legitimacy of some of his confessions and the number of high-profile acts of terror he claims to have planned or carried out. According to a recent New Yorker report, “Colonel Dwight Sullivan, the top defense lawyer at the Pentagon’s Office of Military Commissions, which is expected eventually to try Mohammed for war crimes, called his serial confessions ‘a textbook example of why we shouldn’t allow coercive methods.’” Khaled el-Masri, a German national of Lebanese origin, is struggling to find work as a car salesman in his hometown of Ulm, Germany. He would later report that his marriage was also in trouble. In December 2003, he buys a bus ticket to Macedonia for a brief vacation. He is held at the border crossing between Serbia and Macedonia and accused of being a terrorist, even though throughout his ordeal no one makes any specific accusation. He is held for three weeks in a hotel room in Skopje, where he says he was interrogated and beaten. After this, he is drugged and loaded onto a CIA Boeing 737 bound for Kabul, Afghanistan. He spends four months in solitary confinement at the CIA-run “Salt Pit” prison. In May 2004, CIA director George Tenet orders his release. The CIA refuses to make a public comment, but sources confirm that it was a case of mistaken identity: They had nabbed the wrong man. These cases of extraordinary renditions are exactly that – extraordinary. This calls to question the rights of these people who are either ordinary citizens accused mistakenly or combatants. Since the US Patriot Act, there have been thousands of detainees rendered in Guantanamo, Egypt, Ethiopia, and other countries for interrogation and torture. Some have died, some are still detained, some are innocent, and some are still currently being tortured for intelligence. Under the Geneva Conventions Article Three, it states the rights of combatants wherein under any circumstances, all shall “be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria”. All acts of “violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; taking of hostages; outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; and the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples” are strictly prohibited at any place. At the same time, combatants have the right if wounded to be cared for by an impartial humanitarian body such as the International Red Cross. Given the rights stated, are the said rights exercised or made aware of to the detainees of extraordinary renditions? Probably not. Combatants, alleged terrorists, Muslims, Iraqis, they are also human beings. They are constitutionally provided certain rights under the Geneva Conventions and international law. However, these cases of extraordinary renditions secretly conducted by the CIA to “fish out” objective intelligence are a blatant manipulation and disregard for their rights as human beings. Some cases of renditions are simply mistaken identity. Most of the time, the detainees have no real intelligence to give. Half of the time, detainees make up stories to stop interrogators from torturing them, while others are killed and covered up as suicides. To quote Douglas Freeman (played by Jake Gyllenhaal), CIA intelligence operative from the movie Rendition: In all the years you’ve been doing this, how often can you say that we’ve produced truly legitimate intelligence? Once? Twice? Ten times? Give me a statistic; give me a number. Give me a pie chart, I love pie charts. Anything, anything that outweighs the fact that if you torture one person you create ten, a hundred, a thousand new enemies. The motive of the President to “smoke out” terrorists from their holes and to gather intelligence are not the one in scrutiny but the methods and tactics used to achieve this objective. In a time of war, the president has exercised much power and authority to “prevent any further attacks” on America. At the cost of gathering objective and legitimate intelligence, interrogators use coercive techniques to “soften up” detainees. Understandably, times of war are difficult times, and military personnel, soldiers, politicians, judges, et al. are pressured by the fact that they have to produce intelligence to “protect America”. But the questions remain, at what cost and to what extent? Is it right to torture or inhumanely treat other people just to get information? Is America producing quality intelligence information that helps in the cause of counterterrorism? The perspectives are widely varied. Some like Michael Scheuer, former head of CIA’s Bin Laden Unit, say that this “is the single most effective counterterrorism operation ever produced…and has kept Americans safer”. Others, however, like Massachusetts Congressman Bill Delahunt (D), say that “renditions not only appear to violate our obligations under the UN Convention against Torture and other international treaties, but they have undermined our very commitment to fundamental American values.” Does the End Justify the Mean? “The claim is not the preserve of only neo-conservative US politicians, such as Vice President Dick Cheney, who argue that ’emergency is the “new normalcy”‘. Supposedly left-wing European leaders also argue that the “rules of the game have changed”. Similarly, the idea that we are facing the ‘normalization of emergency conditions’ and the ‘age of terror’ calls for unprecedented measures is not taken increasingly seriously within the academy across an ever-extending range of the political spectrum.” [Goold and Lazarus (eds.) p. 3]. At present, American soldiers are still in Iraq and Afghanistan addressing the call of the Commander in Chief to fight the “on going war.” On the battlefield, American soldiers, insurgents, and civilians of all ages have died for the cause of “preventing terror.” Furthermore, millions of dollars have been spent on weapons of mass destruction and millions of dollars worth of properties have been destroyed. The more death and damages the war creates the more hatred it would incur in the issues of cultural differences and religious beliefs. It would be detrimental to conclude that the act of suicide bombings and terrorist acts is very common to the nationality of the people that had been arrested, killed, and marginalized. While the American soldiers are at the forefront of the battlefield, they are becoming the initial target of counterattacks and hatred. Although armed forces are trained to defend and kill, the very purpose of killing, in this case, is so ambiguous to explain, since they are asked to dismantle insurgents of which they are not even aware. Hence, the psychological aspect and principles of the soldiers could be affected due to the situation and to the influence of the environment. If mistaken identity happens on renditions, the mistaken killing of innocent civilians is more likely to occur on the battlefield. The increasing death toll of both American soldiers and civilians is an utter display of neglect to uphold the social contract, right to life, democracy, and, in a way, an act of terrorism. The fundamental contradiction thesis is a pro-human rights argument: in essence, terrorists have forsaken the democratic path and are by their methods attacking democratic values, constitutionalism, and human; and therefore if governments respond to such attacks by abandoning constitutionalism and human rights protections, they are behaving in the same as the terrorists and undermining the same values. (Ashworth, A, pg. 206, In Goold, B., Lazarus, L., [eds.]. 2007)” The value of the US Dollar is depreciating every day in the global market at the same time the US’s political arena is a shambles. American citizens are regularly reminded that they have to be protected from future terrorist attacks, which is unlikely to happen due to the profiling measures formed against the so-called “enemy”. The Americans with their limited rights are the direct victims of the weakening economy and the continuing debate on the role of the government in times of terror. Hence, if Americans have restricted rights, are suffering from the economic crisis, political ambiguities, and psychological threats what is there for the people to benefit from? Or what is there for America to sow by ripping war and death to other countries? The United States is a democratic country bound to uphold the law of the United Nations to maintain social contract, peace, unity, freedom, and justice among other countries. Claiming to be at war and bypassing the norms and principles of the UN and organizations advocating human rights is inexcusable, especially, if it’s for retaliation. If America is entitled to disregard rules agreed by several countries, then other countries should also be excused to rules and should not be responsible for loss and damages they would incur if they are at war as well. Up to what point should we put an end to this chaos? And up to what degree this chaos is justifiable? Finally, who has the authority to stop this chaos? News, updates, issues, pictures, and videos about this ongoing war, terror, and politics are rampantly available online. The growth of information technology is bringing images of brutal human behaviors and anomalies in the convenience of home. Unfortunately, the younger generations are susceptible to acquire the values of this phenomenon as an ordinary act of dealing with other nations or people. Or worst, they might consider as a reasonable act against human beings. Psychologically, spiritually and socially, war is detrimental to the formulation of judgment and honing of principles of the youth either Americans, Asians, Middle Eastern, Africans, or others. From a worldwide perspective, America is now seen as a notorious and unjust democratic country that retaliated on the basis of the 9/11 attacks. Post 9/11 created varying degrees of ideologies from different countries and nationalities concerning the notion of liberty and justice. The core of American values and western culture is rocked by this phenomenon. What the Bush administration created with their actions and policies is not a stable and “protected” environment. More so, Americans learned to distrust the president himself. The situation at hand is something that future learners globally will be remembered. I as a learner have struggled to grasp the different perspectives on the war on terror. There have been and are many admirable points of both sides of the coin but what I can take from this is not to choose sides but to take everything and create my idea. For me, it is a judgment call as a concerned American citizen, as an individual, and as a human being that there are “no winners in war…only victims.” When this issue is over, when this moment is remembered, hopefully people whether Americans of non-Americans, will learn the lessons to avoid deaths and chaos instead of justifying the destructions it caused. References Ashworth, A. (2007). Security, Terrorism and Value of Human Rights. In Goold, B., Lazarus, L., (eds.). Security and Human Rights. Oregon, USA: Hart Publishing. Bigo, D.

Uniqlo In Hong Kong Business Essay

help writing Uniqlo In Hong Kong Business Essay. Many businesses exist and flourish because they are successful in satisfying a need in the market. These needs are determined by the consumers who are considered an important component of any business endeavour. The primary reason for a business existence is to continue identifying consumer needs and then come up with tangible responses to address these needs. This requirement makes business companies spend a considerable amount of effort and intellect in analysing the behaviour of the consumers in order to effectively formulate appropriate marketing strategies that would assist the firm in effective production and delivery. Smart, D. T.,Uniqlo In Hong Kong Business Essay

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants. Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in plants and give medicinal plant examples. Introduction Plants are eukaryotic organisms that evolved over billions of years. There is enormous diversity in reproductive strategy in plants. Eukaryotes have nuclei in each cell that contain DNA coiled into chromosomes. Chromosomes are the organism’s reproductive functional unit and occur in single (haploid), double (diploid) or multiple copies (polyploid) in each cell. Genetic material is replicated by enzymes and other classes of molecules that act on the chromosomes. Over evolutionary time, plants have evolved myriad reproductive strategies. Researchers have shown that different reproductive modes can be experimentally induced in plants, suggesting that gene expression interacting with the environment facilitates which reproductive strategy the plant selects. Sexual reproduction involves a specialised division process in highly differentiated cells called meiosis. Meiosis includes a reduction step in these cells which halves their ploidy, for example reducing them from diploid to haploid, and produces male and female gametes. The gametes may be spores, as in the pteridophyte, which includes the medicinal plant Equisetum arvense, or in seeds. Seeds evolved in Gymnospermae, a group that contains the medicinal tree Ginkgo biloba where they are referred to as naked seeds, and in Angiospermae that produce seeds from flowers (Heinrich et al. 2012). The gametes later fuse and the resulting zygote retains the parent plant’s original ploidy. Sexual reproduction may occur between gametes of different individuals of the same species or between gametes of the same individual in a process known as selfing. Plant ploidy is a factor in a plant’s phenotype and reproductive strategy. For example, researchers found that a diploid form of the medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale reproduced sexually while a triploid form of the same herb tended to reproduce asexually by apomixis (Verduijn et al. 2003). Asexual reproduction involves clonally reproducing offspring such that they are genetically identical to the parent plant, except for differences caused by random genetic mutations (GléminSexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants

Unit #5 Readings Video Essay

Unit #5 Readings Video Essay.

Relative to the U.S. Constitutional Structure and “Politics” in Practice Relative to Federalism. Read pages 107 to 116 – Iron Triangles and interest groups in the text – View the video discussion about “Social Movements” and the possibilities for social changeBreaking It Down with Robert Brem Part 2 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.And answer the question:Explain and evaluate the ways an individual can effectively participate in politics at the national, state and local level.Be certain to provide examples for each level of government.Are there differences possible for the different levels of government?Where would you be most interested or motivated to participate?Why?PreviousNext
Unit #5 Readings Video Essay

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