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Religions of Mesoamerica Term Paper

How the Codex Fejervary represents the body as the center of the world The Codex Fejérváry has represented the human body as the central point of the world using various imageries. In order to achieve the in-depth understanding of the correlation that exists between the human body and the world, certain unique elements of the tonalpohualli have been used in form of a Mesoamerican augural cycle. It has a cycle of 260 days. The world has been divided into five main parts. In addition, the compass points have been delineated using vivid T-shaped tress. As such, the top side has been marked as the eastern direction while the bottom side of the sculpture has been labelled as the western direction. On the other hand, the northern direction has been positioned to the left side of the figure while the right side depicts the southern position. Carrasco (1998) notes that “the history of religions teaches us that, at one time or another, almost everything has been considered sacred” (65). This explains why the centre of the world has been taken as the central and sacred point that is being surrounded by the four directions. On the overall, the god of fire also known as Xiuhtecuhlti takes the centre stage and this is why the central part that has been surrounded by the four cardinal points is taken to be sacred. The importance in Aztec religions of the head and its connection to “tonalli” Those who believed in the sacred practices of the Aztec religions (such as the Nahuatl people) held a belief system that there were three key essences in a human being. These essences were largely responsible for life and overall wellbeing of an individual. The most significant of these three essences was the tonalli. The latter was located right at the top of the head. Hence, tonalli always resided on the head. In addition, every individual had his or her own tonalli. The fact that tonalli was located on the head meant that it controlled every fate in the life of an individual. For example, tonalli fashioned and controlled individuals in terms of who they were or what a person would be destined to perfect in life. In addition, it directed the kind of actions or activities which a person was most likely to engage in while still alive. According to Carrasco (1998), another significance of the head was the grown hair on it. As such, the energy possessed by tonalli and which was being needed by an individual on day-to-day life was extracted by the hair on the head of a person carrying the tonalli. This would symbolize getting hold of the tonalli himself. Their souls would be equally grasped in the same process. The importance of the heart and its connection to “teyolia” Teyolia was the second most important essence of an individual. It is kept in the heart of a person because it is largely believed to be the actual soul of an individual that supports the breath of life. It also provides the much needed energy in the process of thinking and acting. It also rules and directs the status and genetic makeup of an individual. The feelings and subsequent response to stimuli are also governed by teyolia. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the energy provided by teyolia explains the reason why people are alive and can make rational decisions. This implies that a person cannot remain alive if the teyolia does not provide the much needed energy. Hence, a person will die without this form of energy from teyolia. It is also pertinent to note that the human blood also contains some elements and sacred power of teyolia (Carrasco, 1998). The world centering role of the sacred mountain in Aztec religion The Nahuatl people greatly valued and revered the Serpent Mountain which was also called Coatepec. The mountain was a sacred place of worship where the gods resided. Huitzilopochtli god was also born at the Serpent Mountain and hence the location served as a very important spot where godly powers emanated from. This mountain also signified a place of sacred war bearing in mind that a fully armed and newly born god exterminated Coyolxauhqui who was his sister. This is because the latter had attempted to murder Coatlicue (their mother) in collaboration with the 400 Southerners who were her brothers. When the Mexica/Aztecs were migrating towards Aztlan which was to be their mythical homeland, they made a temporary stop at the Serpent Mountain. However, this group of people stayed longer than expected because they resided in this mountain for close to 30 years. During their stay at this mountain site, they constructed a temple. According to Carrasco (1998), “each community had a public ceremonial precinct, which oriented all human activity and influenced social life” (70). Hence, this sacred structure was built in order to give honor to Huitzilopochtli who was their patron deity. Hence, the Serpent Mountain was also a significant place of worshiping gods. The Aztec foundation myth and the world centering role of the great temple The Aztec foundation based its belief system on the patron god who was known as Huitzilopochtli. The emergence of the Aztecs boosted the significance of this god bearing in mind that he was initially of negligible value among the Nahuas. Most of the mythical foundations of the Aztec religion were based on this supernatural being especially when he was finally made the solar god thereby taking the position of Nanahuatzin. The latter was known to regularly struggle with the absence of light. It also needed to be nourished as one way of making sure that the cycle of the sun would remain uninterrupted for fifty two years. This was yet another foundational myth among most Mesoamerican religions such as the Aztecs. in addition, the festive seasons were specifically set aside for offering sacrifices for this god although this practice was supposed to done on a daily or regular basis. Huitzilopochtli was accorded only a single day for sacrifice although there were eighteen festive days. We will write a custom Term Paper on Religions of Mesoamerica specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the generations of Nahuas lived through constant feat over the possibility of the world coming to an end. On the same note, the Aztec religion held a belief system that if Huitzilopochtli was offered human blood as the sacrifice, the termination of the world would not take place (Carrasco, 1998). The Great temple was also associated with the two gods because they were considered to be integral in the survival and overall wellbeing of the people. Hence, the temple was reserved for them. It was mythically believed that the unity of the two gods was supposed to be maintained because they were specifically destined to be together. Hence, the role of the Great Temple was boosted both as a place of offering sacrifices and a symbol of unity between the two gods (Carrasco, 1998). Human sacrifice in the New Fire Ceremony and the Festival for Tezcatlipoca The early Aztec civilization practiced human sacrifice as one way of appeasing the gods. However, it is important to note that this practice was also widespread among other civilizations. The Aztec religion valued a lot the 52-year cycle because it was believed that this cycle always marked the end of the word. Hence, a New Fire Ceremony was held after every 52 years coupled with a human sacrifice. This practice was meant to renew the world. It was deemed to be successful if the sun appeared the next day (Carrasco, 1998). On the other hand, Tezcatlipoca was a very influential and mighty god. He controlled and dominated human destiny, sorcery and the night. This religion also believed that people obtained all types of foods as a result of the battle that was triggered by this god. This god also performed the role of renewing the world because he could relive diseases and forgive sins. The god could also liberate a person from natural fate from life (Carrasco, 1998). Reflection From the discussion above and also based on the material that I read when compiling the task, the ancient Mesoamerican religion sheds light on the contemporary culture bearing in mind that the modern cosmopolitan society is also characterized with myriads of religious beliefs and practices. Each religious group tends to exalt its belief system similar to how it was during the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations. Although we live in a technologically advanced world, people still have strong belief in the existence of gods. The development of science has not dissipated belief systems of people. In addition, we may not be sure of the existence of gods because these are intangible beings that cannot be seen or felt. However, there is a deep conviction in the belief system of people that gods exist. These gods are also believed to supply mankind with hope and restoration of life. Generally, good deeds result into positive results. Therefore, the belief system of the modern has not changed remarkably. Not sure if you can write a paper on Religions of Mesoamerica by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Carrasco, D. (1998). Religions of Mesoamerica: Cosmovision and Ceremonial Centers. San Francisco: Waveland Press. Victor, D. H (2000). Carnage and Culture. New York: Doubleday.
MGT 323 SEU Project Management Hector Gaming Company Work Portfolio Case Study.

3664Please read the Case-2.1 “Hector Gaming Company.” from Chapter 2 “Organization strategy and Project Selection” given in your textbook – Project Management: The Managerial Process 8th edition by Larson and Gray page no: 61 also refer to specific concepts you have learned from the chapter to support your answers. Answer the following questions with 500 Words limit.Peters has hired you as a consultant. She has suggested the following format for your consulting contract. You are free to use another format if it will improve the effectiveness of the consulting engagement.Provide a detailed action plan that attacks the problem. Be specific and provide examples that relate to HGC.1. What is our major problem? (150 words)2. Identify some symptoms of the problem. (150 words)3. What is the major cause of the problem? (200 words)INSTUCTIONSReferencing and in-text citation APA , without plagiarism.Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced)Without cover page or header
MGT 323 SEU Project Management Hector Gaming Company Work Portfolio Case Study

COSo Framework

COSo Framework. Can you help me understand this Computer Science question?

The COSO framework of internal controls is practiced within companies around the world. The objectives of the COSO framework are closely related to its five components.
——————————————————————————-please discuss these five components of the COSO frameworkBe sure to include each components’ impact on each of the COSO framework objectives. What do you feel an auditor would most be concerned with during an IT audit? Lastly, discuss suggestions for integrating COSO framework compliance into a company in which you are familiar.

Paper should meet the following requirements:
Follow APA6 guidelines.
Be approximately four to six pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.
Paper should include an abstract, introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.
Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations.
Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques.
COSo Framework

Writer’s Choice

assignment writing services Writer’s Choice. Paper details SPECIAL ASSESSMENT (IN LIEU OF PARTICIPATION) FOR HMDEV201 Instructions: Below is a series of questions/tasks, one relating to each of the tutorial sessions for this paper. With the exception of number 4 (which requires you to copy and paste an image), for each of the questions/items please provide a response/summary of around 100 words. Please leave the question/task information in the document and provide your response below each item. To get the full 10 marks you will need to provide a carefully considered response to ALL questions. It is fine to not address all of these, but your mark will be determined based on how many you do address.Writer’s Choice

The Political And Legal Systems Of Indonesia

1. Country profile: Indonesia is located in the southeast part of Asia. Indonesia stretches 5120 km along the equator and has 13000 islands between Australia and Asia. Due to this there has been an influence on the social, cultural, economic and political life of the country. Indonesia’s total area is 80% sea mass. Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Papua and Sulawesi are the five a largest island of which java is the most populated island, a total population of 125 million (CIA 2010). Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. Indonesia has a tropical climate which consists of two season’s summer from May to September and the rainy season from October to April. Indonesia experiences rain during both the seasons. The fourth most populated country in the worlds is Indonesia with a population of 242.96 million (CIA 2010). Indonesia is the largest Muslim country. It is an ethnically diverse country with more than 300 languages. http://mapoftheunitedstates.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/indonesia_.jpg Figure 1: Indonesia Map Sources: CIA Website 2010 2. Political system and Legal systems: Indonesia today is Southeast Asia’s most vibrant democracy. The Indonesians enjoy a level of political freedom. The present improved political system now encourages freedom and equality for the people of Indonesia. Figure 2: Political system of Indonesia Source: Indonesia 2009: An official handbook The three key branches of the Indonesian government are The executive branch The legislative branch The judicial branch 2.1 Executive branch: The president is the head of the state and government, in turn is on top of the executive branch. Under him is the vice-president, cabinet ministers and also non-departmental agencies. He is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The main role of the president is to govern his nation, make policies and look in to the foreign affairs. The president has the power to assign and reject the cabinet ministers. One of the main roles of the president is to assign the judge for the Supreme Court. 2.2 Legislature branch: This branch consist a representative body which is the people’s consultative assembly or (MPR). The MPR has the right to question the integrity of the president. The MPR has two lower chambers i.e the People’s Representative Council or the (DPR) and the Regional Representatives Council or (DPD). 2.3 Judicial branch: The Indonesian judicial system has three main courts i.e. the high court, Supreme Court and the district courts. The Supreme Court is the highest level. These courts have the rights to exercise both civil and criminal cases. Indonesia has different courts for different matters, religious courts, military courts and administrative courts. Firstly all the civil disputes are handled in a state court and then forwarded to the high court. A commercial court exists to handle bankruptcy and commercial matters. The three branches of the legal system in Indonesia are The notaries Advocates Legal consultants. A notary is appointed by the Department of Justice

Islamic Economics And Finance System

What is economics? Economics studies how individual and societies seek to satisfy needs and want through incentives, choices, and allocation of scarce resources. Nations use economic system to determine how to use their limited resources effectively. But what is an economic system? An economic system is generally defined as collection of institutions set up by society for the arrangement of economic activity; the allocation of resources, production and exchange of goods and services, and distribution of resulting to income and wealth. An economic system is not in itself complete; it is a part of the overall system of life which all its aspects (religious, ideological, social, political and ethical) are well synchronized. Primary goal of an economic system is to provide people with a minimum standard of living, or quality of life. The system is functioning to produce the outcome which is depending on the social priorities. These priorities would determine the goals in the effort, for example; what goods and services should be produced – nuclear guns or commodity goods? How this goods and services be produced? And what is more important – aggressive economic development or moral preservation? Fundamental Characteristics The objective of all economic systems is to achieve the well being of the society. The efficiency of a perfectly competitive capitalist: consumers maximize their total benefit and firms also maximize their total profits. . There are sufficient number of firms, consumers and owners of factor of production in each market. Individuals are price takers, rather than price setters. Major economic systems besides Islamic economics system are capitalism and socialism. Capitalism is based on the individual right and requires a free market, competition, and the idea of private ownership of the means of production. Decisions are made according to law of supply and demand. Socialism views that the central government should own and control major industries, and they make decisions about the resources and productions. On the other hand, the basic characteristic of Islamic economic system is the whole of set of beliefs, values, procedures and rules should be made accordingly to the Qur’an and Sunnah. Sources of law of Islamic economy – Islamic economy is based on Shariah (Islamic law). While capitalism and socialism do inevitably relate to other aspects of life, Islamic economic system needs to be viewed systematically as a division of a bigger system which is the religion Islam itselt. The primary sources of Islamic economic system are Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah (the authentic traditions of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam), while the supplementary sources are Al-Ijtima (the consensus of opinion), Al-Qiyas (the judgement upon jurist analogy). The simplest way to describe the relevance of Islamic economic system is by studying how its differences from Capitalism and Socialism surpassed the two and solve problem which arises from or left unsolved by capitalism and socialism. For example, in Capitalism government does not regulate anything for the benefit of the workers and there is no minimum or fair wage. Everything is left on the principle of supply and demand in the market. The rich get richer and the poor people get poorer. Socialism which is based on the idea of centralized government intervention, warrants the authority to determine the wages regardless of the effort made by workers. But Islam comes to solve this issue by ruling the equalization in the distribution of income and wealth. The Concept of Private Property Socialist thinkers of the West promoted the ideas of centralized public ownership of the means of production. They went to one extreme and completely denied the concept of private ownership. Land, labour, capital was all controlled by the state. The best resources were allocated to the armed forces, space program etc. Under this system, there was little incentive to produce better goods and services for the community, take an example as former Soviet Union saw a rapid decline in the production of agricultural goods. This system faces problem of poor quality goods, shortage of commodity, and diminishing production. While Capitalism practises most of the resources are owned by private ownership. They will make the decision on supply and demand and decide how to produce goods. In a Capitalist system unlimited liberty and right of ownership for private property is given which has resulted in the capitalist exploitation of workers. In Islamic economics, it is literally owned by Allah; all property, wealth, resources are Allah’s ownership. Islam do recognize the private ownership while ask the owner to spend the property in the way of Allah, and the use of wealth should not harm other individuals’. The sources of wealth should be Halal and not be realized from Riba, cheating or monopoly. The wealth should not be used against public interest, to corrupt the society or to exhort political power. While reaping the benefits of private ownership, Islamic economic system seamlessly subdue the negative effects or capitalism. Islam allows the right of private ownership and freedom of enterprise in limited capitalism. Islamic economic sees in wealth as means of human satisfaction, and an increase in the capacities of man for a better service and worship to Allah. Consumption of Wealth In Capitalism anything can be consumed especially when they create demands to profit-makers and the competition is always present in the production to have the best products and services. Unhealthy competition would lead to volatility in demand and supply and the price would fluctuate in the market. The rich people are freely to use the wealth but there is constraint to the poorer when it comes to interest in money lending. As for communist society, only consumer goods and services are allowed to be produced in the country. Capital goods (as the means of production) are directly allocated to meet economic demands so that production is oriented towards needs only. In Islamic system only “HALAL” goods and services are allowed to be produced and consumed. “HARAM” goods and services are not allowed to be produced and consumed. Islam teaches the principle of balance e.g. moderation and avoiding extravagance. Even though spending is lawful, it must be moderate and not overspending. In today’s scenario, this may alleviate the household debt problem while maintaining the drive for excellence in production of wealth. The balance is maintained between the interest of the society and the interests of the individuals. [4:29] O you who believe, do not consume each others’ properties illicitly – only mutually acceptable transactions are permitted. You shall not kill yourselves. GOD is Merciful towards you. Production of Wealth Capitalism motive is profit-oriented as they aim to produce goods for only profit. People have freedom to produce anything. It has huge gap between the wealthy and the poor. The wealthy tend to overlook the needs of very needy people as they only focus to production to maximize the profit. For example, the production of drugs, gambling, lottery, music and etc. Government has no roles in controlling the production. In communist society on the contrary, central authority make decision what to produce and how much to produce. They failed to meet consumer needs and wants. There is little room for innovation or change. They also tend to lack of modern technologies and have low standard of living comparing to free market society. The impact to society as people will be likely to smuggle the goods and the existence of black market. But in Islamic System only have to produce “HALAL” goods and “HARAM” goods like alcohol drink, drug etc are not allowed. In production, Islam recommends the efficiency, proper evaluation of factors of production and proper pricing of output. Islamic economy enforces better utilization of natural resources and fixed assets for the benefit (maslahah) of public interest. Distribution of Wealth In Capitalism concentration of wealth goes to few hands due to unlimited right of ownership and free competition. Thus there is big gap between rich and poor. In communism system the authority act as a dictator created due to concept of public property. It will sacrifice of individual freedoms to pursue public goals. Islamic economic system favour fair (not equal) distribution of wealth in the sense that it should not be restricted to any particular segment of the society. For fair distribution of wealth Islam reduce the disparity of individual income. Zakat is introduced in Islamic system as a major source of revenue the government in an Islamic state. It is a “transfer payment” which is payable to the needy at given rate. Zakat eliminates conflict between different classes and promotes the economic stability and social security to the unemployed. Hospitals, schools and the community centre can be constructed for the poor by using the Zakat fund. Interest free Economy The interest made brings unequal between saving and investment borrowing to promote capital structure in a capitalist society. The economy can be influenced easily by interest rates. When interest rates are high, people do not want to take loans out from the bank because it is more difficult to pay the loans back with the compounded interest on money lent. In history 1997 Asian financial crisis because of huge increase in interest rate which extremely damaged the economy causing more bankruptcies for the societies. In communism, interest does not pay any role for saving and investment. In the Islamic system interest based economic activities are strictly banned. Hence interest is not a source of capital formation in an Islamic. Islamic economic is free from this injustice and imbalance in the distribution of wealth. The Qur’an counters this rule in Al-Baqarah, 2:275 “And Allâh has permitted trade, and forbidden interest.” (2:275) In the conflict between Capitalism and Socialism, only that way of life can be assured of a secure and bright future which not only prohibits interest but also makes people abide by this prohibition. In such cases, those who have money should practice and provide interest-free loans to those who are in need of money for coping with the hardships of their life. Therefore, efforts for the development of Islamic economics and financial engineering should be based on the objectives (maqasid) of Shariah. The challenge is to present new products that would meet current and future needs, the regulatory body, besides to set out a new strategy for Islamic economics that would involve the whole society. Islamic economics is a relatively new discipline that requires more study. And knowledge of fiqh (jurisprudence) is essential for researchers in the field. It can be concluded that Capitalism and Socialism are materialistic in nature and they only look to satisfy the material wants of the people. Capitalism had failed to address major international economic issues including poverty, inflation and unemployment. But Islamic economic system provides a fine blend of materialism and spiritualism. Islamic economics must be presented to the world as the best solution to all economics problems in a convincing manner. Islamic economic system satisfies the needs of all creatures and promotes the positive effects in the inner self to the person, and the purification of individual’s wealth and soul.

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