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Religion and Society in Ancient Egypt Essay

Early Egypt was divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper kingdoms along with other villages and tribes nearby. Eventually, they united into a single kingdom, establishing the capital at Memphis. Kingship was the primary form of Egyptian government at first, consisting of dynasties of ruling families. At this time, kings had strong power but were not yet considered absolute and godlike. Over generations, the kings usurped more power and resources as well as attempted to glorify their rule. Society was gradually transitioning into a class-based hierarchical system, of which the king was the leader. The government administrative complex housing the king was known as The Great House or Per Ao. The name eventually became adapted into the title for the king after 1400 BC, now known as pharaoh. The king sought to control the flow of resources which were collected from the provinces and peasants and channeled upward. Large palaces and symbols were erected as the king and his officials led a lavish way of life (Freeman, 2014). The transition of Ancient Egypt is extraordinary. Before the unification, the Ancient Egyptian society was agricultural and egalitarian. However, the transition created a hierarchy and aristocracy which was difficult to escape. The first leaders which emerged were actively engaged and voluntarily escaped the role. Eventually, the transition led to pharaohs becoming despots. Pharaohs were extremely powerful, both practically and symbolically due to the monuments erected in their honor as well as their status as gods. Egypt is considered to be one of the first examples of civilization where one person and his royalty accumulated such tremendous wealth and power over the nation. The rise to power of the pharaohs was based on a few factors. One was the natural growth of population density which occurs in an organized and agrarian society. With population growth, there is less availability of land and resources. Populations grow denser and people become dependent on the distribution of resources from the government. Furthermore, the location of the Egyptian civilization in the Nile River valley and surrounded by desert prevented people from massively migrating or seeking residence outside the pharaoh’s influence. Therefore, the cost of leaving was high, forcing populations into an autocratic rule of the pharaohs for centuries. Meanwhile, the government maintained its power by all means of control, preventing any mass uprisings at early stages. Religion was central to Egyptian society. They believed in the idea of deities and god (neter) as an omniscient power that guided all their aspects of life. Wealth, power, good crop yields, familial life, and other aspects were believed to be a result of the divine will which could not be disputed (Budge, 1895). Egyptian polytheistic religion was in place from the early days of its formation as a civilization, with evidence suggesting worship around 2400 BC, far before the building of the pyramids. Order and a sense of community were centered around religion, as Egyptians were increasingly sensitive to spiritual influences. They believed that worshipping specific gods would protect against disorder, misfortune, and environmental disasters. The belief was so far-reaching that even familial conflicts would be rationalized through stories of gods and their humanized emotions. Political disunity would be spiritualized as well by “merging” deities to form new gods (Freeman, 2014). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The period of the most popular religious following in Egypt was the Osiris period. The symbolic nature of gods symbolizing practically every aspect, both natural and manmade in Egyptian society made religion both an unavoidable and irreplaceable component of society. Individuals had no incentive to reject religious beliefs and traditions so deeply integrated into daily life. Religion was flexible in its mainstream popularity and culture. Egyptian gods took upon different forms, could group, merge, and assume various identities within the well-developed mythology of the civilization to meet the human and spiritual needs of the society. Religion was involved in explaining aspects such as creation and afterlife as well which dominated the purpose of life for many Egyptians (Freeman, 2014). Ancient Egyptian society was held together by religious concepts as it defined their beliefs, traditions, as well as societal order. There was class division present, led by priests and royalty, and government or military officials followed by the middle class of crafters and merchants. The lowest tier was unskilled peasants and slaves. The class division was strongly present in the mythology of Ancient Egypt and was accepted as status quo. Pharaohs were viewed as gods rather than human rulers. Rural areas or classes which did not have open access to temples prompted the rise in domestic religion and the presence of private shrines and chapels. The nonroyals attempted to copy the architecture of temples for at-home worship. Meanwhile, temples became a place that collected all the cultural aspects of civilization. The cohesiveness brought by religion had positive aspects as well since communities throughout Egypt had common beliefs and values (Bussmann, 2015). Religion was a driving force of cultural expression which, in turn, reflected in the expansion of the civilization References Budge, W. E. A. (1895). The book of the dead: The papyrus of Ani. Web. Bussmann, R. (2015). Egyptian archaeology and social anthropology. Oxford Handbooks Online, 1-29. Web. Freeman, Charles. (2014). Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean. (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
The Battle of Britain was an aerial campaign launched by the German Luftwaffe in summer 1940 to achieve air supremacy over Britain and potentially pave the way for a German invasion of the British Isles, ‘Operation Sealion’.[1] This essay will analyse how close Fighter Command came to defeat during the Battle of Britain. In order to answer this question, this essay will examine the following key points. Firstly, the effect the Integrated Air Defence System (IADS) had on the battle will be explored. Secondly, failures in German intelligence will be evaluated, focusing on the accuracy of the intelligence obtained and its subsequent utilisation by the Luftwaffe. German High Command’s inability to deliver an effective and consistent strategy will also be analysed. Lastly, a comparison of attrition will be drawn, in order to assess the number of pilot losses, recoveries and aircraft production from both sides. Losing air superiority would have meant defeat for Fighter Command, as they would have been incapable of effectively defending Britain from the air. This essay will explain that Fighter Command did not come close to defeat during the Battle of Britain. Fighter Command had an advanced early warning system in the form of the IADS, developed under the leadership of Air Chief-Marshal Hugh Dowding (Commander of Fighter Command), who foresaw the importance of an integrated defensive network.[2] This air defence network connected the Royal Observer Corps (ROC) and Radio Direction Finding (RDF) assets to ground operations and onward to air assets at sector level.[3] Fighter Command was divided up geographically into groups, in order to cover specified areas within Britain.[4] These sectors had an Air Officer Commanding appointed so that ‘mission command’ could be utilised to allow sectors to decide how best to deploy specified aircraft closest to, or more suitable for the battle, economising their resources.[5] This had a force multiplying effect and also meant no time would be wasted in making decisions from the top. RDF provided Fighter Command with the ability to determine the direction and strength of a raid before it arrived. This gave them vital time to react, allowing Fighter aircraft time to climb to a tactical height and minimise the disadvantage of their defensive position.[6] As a result, Britain did not have to waste valuable resources on unnecessary standing patrols and could appropriately portion its time and assets.[7] This also meant British pilots could rest but Luftwaffe pilots were expected to fly continuously, which would not have been sustainable for an extended battle.[8] However, RDF was not without its faults. There was no capability for a ‘inward’ looking air picture which meant that when the Germans flew inland, they had to be monitored by other resources such as the ROC.[9] To counter this, IADS employed redundancy, utilising the other systems in its network to overcome these deficiencies. Initially Luftwaffe strategy was to destroy the fighter control system, including radar stations.[10] After targeting RDF early on, the Luftwaffe discovered the towers were hard to hit and damage long-term. In these cases, stations could be rapidly repaired, meaning it had little overall effect on Fighter Command’s capability. For heavily hit RDF stations that would take time to repair, the Royal Air Force (RAF) deployed mobile reserve equipment that could be moved into any area of the Chain Home system.[11] Had German Commanders realised how much of a role RDF would play in Fighter Command’s operations, stations may have been attacked more determinedly and this strategy would not have been abandoned.[12] The German failure to recognise the importance and accept the revolutionary technology of RDF was a significant strategic oversight, which would be a great influence on the outcome of the battle.[13] Failing to realise the importance of IADS was one of several shortcomings in German intelligence which undermined the Luftwaffe’s plan to defeat Fighter Command. German intelligence was described as inefficient and disorganised, primarily because the intelligence agencies never collaborated.[14] Analysing German intelligence from the battle, it is clear to see that because of British defence preparations, the Luftwaffe’s morale began to suffer and impact negatively on their operations. The RAF was constantly misrepresented as a technologically and tactically incompetent force. This included poor estimates of serviceable aircraft, pilots and functioning airfields. This misinformation meant that Luftwaffe pilots were met with more fierce resistance than expected.[15] The cycle of misinformation continued as Luftwaffe pilots inflated their reports of successes against the RAF. Estimates of losses of up to 50 percent of its fighters since August 1940, against a loss of 12 percent of German fighters, did not reflect the reality.[16] Some departments would only tell German commanders what they thought the Air Staff and the Luftwaffe’s Reich Marshal Herman Goering, would want to hear.[17] This led to German commanders making strategic decisions based on inaccurate information. Luftwaffe strategy during the Battle would be directly affected by the consistent poor intelligence. Goering and Fuhrer Adolf Hitler had a divided aim and Hitler was beginning to grow impatient, conscious that winter was approaching, and the invasion would not be viable in adverse conditions.[18] Goering, while ignorant of his forces’ position, promised Hitler that the Luftwaffe could destroy Fighter Command within four weeks.[19] Phase 2 of the Luftwaffe strategy was to destroy airfields and fighters on the ground.[20] Field Marshal Hugo Sperrle advocated the continued attacks on RAF airfields.[21] But this was at odds with Hilter and Goering, who ordered the shift in strategy to focus on British Cities,[22] which is believed to be in response to the bombings of Berlin and the misinformation that Britain was ‘on its knees’. This, along with the inaccurate intelligence that the ‘last’ of Fighter Command’s aircraft would get sucked in to attacks over London aided the decision to be made hastily. [23] This added to tensions and frustration in the Luftwaffe’s leadership and allowed Fighter Command time to repair damaged airfields and fighters. This shift was described by Luftwaffe pilot Adolf Galland as ‘perhaps the greatest mistake Goering would make during the war’.[24] Goering’s inability to deliver an effective and consistent strategy in combat, left his subordinates frustrated and confused, while senior Luftwaffe Commanders Albert Kesselring and Sperrle ‘literally did not know what they were doing’ when attempting to interpret the strategic objectives of their High Command.[25] It is debated that, had the attacks on airfields continued, this could have led to the defeat of Fighter Command as at this point the RAF was under severe pressure. Nonetheless, essential Fighter Command sector stations remained at, or swiftly returned to operational status.[26] Also, sectors that were being attacked heavily had the option to order the retreat of resources in land, where range would severely limit the Luftwaffe.[27] Extra protection from other groups could be requested had they needed more coping strategies. In these cases, any serious damage was largely attributed to attacks by the Ju-87 Stuka, or low-level raids. However, such tactical operations and specialist aircraft were withdrawn from the campaign due to their high attrition rate.[28] Therefore, it is unlikely that the Luftwaffe would have been able to carry out and sustain attacks on such a large scale if they had continued. The leadership’s continuing shift in strategy, meant that they were not able to fully complete a strategic phase and therefore were never in a position to decisively defeat Fighter Command. On examining both the Luftwaffe and Fighter Command’s abilities to wage campaigns of attrition, it is evident that the Luftwaffe remained deficient in both the material and personnel needed to sustain an extended campaign. The Luftwaffe had enjoyed substantial success in the Polish and French campaigns, building an air of complacency throughout the ranks. In the months preceding the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe was largely inactive. There was an inadequate effort to replace the 1,667 aircraft lost in the French Campaign, as its bomber force fell to just 841 aircraft by late June 1940, far below what would be considered an effective force.[29] In 1940, Britain was outproducing Germany by 40 percent, which continued to rise over the following years.[30] During the campaign, the Luftwaffe lost almost twice as many aircraft as the RAF.[31] Crucially, Britain’s supply chain simply outclassed Germany’s by producing two aircraft for every one manufactured by German industry. This was due to the Shadow Factories and Civilian Repair Organisations (CRO) employed to counteract the military shortcomings in manpower and help spread out industry, making it harder to target.[32] Despite the persistent campaign waged, there was never a shortage of aircraft,[33] however, Fighter Command suffered from a shortage of man-power in the early stages of the Campaign. Through necessity and adaptation, Fighter Command turned to aircrew from overseas, including the experienced pilots of Poland and Czechoslovakia, who relieved the burden long enough for training to adequately meet frontline demands.[34] The Luftwaffe did not duplicate such a solution which is significant because they needed to replace lost or captured crews over enemy territory. However, RAF crews, if uninjured, could return to their squadron as they were fighting over Britain.[35] Throughout the conflict, the Luftwaffe lacked foresight in planning to resolve these deficits. They entered the campaign to deliver a short, sharp and fatal blow to Fighter Command and break British resistance, but Fighter Command developed a sustainable long-term plan capable of enduring an extended campaign of attrition.[36] Fighter Command never came close to defeat with respect to attrition, as the RAF ended the battle with more operational pilots and aircraft than the Luftwaffe.[37] In conclusion, these main arguments reveal that the Luftwaffe failed to comprehend the revolutionary IADS technology, and its importance to Fighter Command. It allowed Fighter Command to deploy its resources economically, therefore was ‘force multiplying’ and removed the Luftwaffe’s element of surprise. Further to this, the Luftwaffe was continually fed inaccurate and exaggerated intelligence to such an extent that its aircrews had become a victim of German propaganda. This inevitably shattered German morale when a lack of progress was evident and inaccurate intelligence fuelled questionable decisions made by the German High Command. As the campaign progressed, the initiative slipped from the Luftwaffe’s grasp as it grew desperate, stumbling from one strategic objective to another, hoping to find the knockout blow in the process. The crucial switch from bombing airfields to cities was another mistake in Luftwaffe strategy. Nevertheless, even if they had continued bombing, Fighter Command relied on many redundancies and would have survived through their proven innovation. The Luftwaffe had not come decisively close to achieving destruction of its adversary, and with every passing week, Fighter Command remained able to function. It grew stronger in resources towards the Battle’s closure, no doubt due to its ability to absorb a campaign of attrition better than the Luftwaffe. Britain outproduced Germany with the support of CRO, Shadow Factories and drafted in pilots from the Commonwealth to counter the loss of experience. At best, the Luftwaffe had tested Fighter Command, but at a strategic level, it had only maintained the status quo prior to the start of hostilities. The Luftwaffe was by no means any closer to destroying Fighter Command. Instead, it had left them battle hardened, confident and more resource-rich than it had begun. Ultimately, these key points show that Fighter Command did not come close to defeat during the Battle of Britain. Bibliography Bungay, Stephen (2001), The Most Dangerous Enemy – A History of the Battle of Britain (London: Aurum press). Clayton, Tim

Business Integrated Strategy and Policy

Business Integrated Strategy and Policy. Need help with my Business question – I’m studying for my class.

Your assignment is to propose a strategy that will increase sales in a changing global market
Instructions: FORMAT
1. You are the new Manager of Business Operations at Midwest Sports.
2. The CEO has asked you to write a one-page summary of a strategic plan that you have for increasing sales. This is not a letter or a memo. It is a one-page report.
3. Single-space the paragraphs, and double space between paragraphs.
4. Pronouns: Write this in first person plural (we/our) when referring to Midwest Sports. You are part of this company and are presenting your report to the CEO and the key decision-makers.
5. You do not need to use outside sources, but should discuss competition, production costs, and the effects of current trends in nationalism and global marketing.
6. You must use your own words, although you can use facts from the report.
7. Please use some simple words to complete the writing. I am an international student!!
-More details in the files!
Business Integrated Strategy and Policy

HSTR 102 Montana State Univ The Cataclysm of Revolution 1789 to1799 Discussion

essay writing service free HSTR 102 Montana State Univ The Cataclysm of Revolution 1789 to1799 Discussion.

I’m working on a history discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

The French Revolution is characterized as a “cataclysm” in your Sourcebook. But, for many people, the Revolution did not markedly change their lives. There were political continuities that persisted, and many French subjects/citizens still felt the oppressive hand of government, whether monarchical or republican. Using your textbook and the readings in Lualdi’s Sourcebook, discuss who was left out of the advances during the French Revolution. In what ways were individual rights limited before and after 1789? How did experiences of men, women, slaves, and perceived “enemies” differ during the French Revolution, and how could violence be used to justify restricting rights?
HSTR 102 Montana State Univ The Cataclysm of Revolution 1789 to1799 Discussion

5 Pages Prospectus

5 Pages Prospectus. I’m stuck on a Writing question and need an explanation.

Last time you established an annotated bibliography and research question(, and you have all the sources related to the economic topic of the Mexican drug war. This time please combine what you have and write a 5 pages prospectus. You have all the sources from previous essay and a research question and you also have a specific topic which is economics. Instructions below.

You should think of a prospectus as a proposal to write a paper. That means you need to convince the reader that:
a) You have an interesting questionb) You have an important thesisc) You have the evidence to support your thesis d) That your paper tells us something that matters
There are, generally, seven components to a good prospectus:
1) ***A discussion of why you are asking a question. You don’t need to tell the reader (me) that Mexico is in the middle of a bloody drug war. You show that there is something specific that is interesting about the drug war, about which you will ask a question. ***Specific, rather than general, information is the key to doing this well.*** The point is to make the reader curious about something, so that they care about the question.***
2) A stated question. With a question mark. This is set up by component #1. This is your research question, and establishes what your paper is fundamentally about, since the majority of your paper (though not your prospectus) will be spent answering the question.
3) Your thesis. You may use language like “I will argue…” to help make your thesis identifiable to the reader. It is important to be assertive. Crucially, your thesis should argue that something offers the best answer to the research question, and is better than something else. So, for example, your thesis might be that cartels have been hard to eliminate because municipal police forces are easily corrupted.
4) Another possible answer to the question. While your paper argues that your thesis offers the best answer to the research question, you will establish that your thesis is an argument and not a statement of obvious facts by demonstrating that there are other possible answers to your question. So, in this example, you might argue that another possible answer to the question is persistent rural poverty that makes criminal activity appealing. This explains to the reader that you will advance an argument that answers the question better than another plausible answer. Fundamentally, the purpose of the research paper is to argue that something better answers the question than something else.
5) An explanation of why your thesis is, in fact, the best answer. This is the logical claim that your answer is stronger than the other possible answers, because, for example, the other answers do not utilize certain data, do not understand the root cause of the problem, etc. This component is important, but don’t stress over it. For the current example, you might simply observe that rural poverty does not have a one‐to‐one correlation with criminal activity, because some of the poorest regions of Mexico do not have significant cartel presence.
6) The current support for your thesis. This should comprise a significant portion of your prospectus. You should discuss scholarly and non‐scholarly sources with an accepted academic citation method (MLA). This should explain how the sources relate to your answer to the research question.
7) A statement of why your paper matters. This functions as the conclusion to a prospectus, and is effectively the “stakes.” This is the statement of what the importance of your answer to the question is. For example, if you are arguing that municipal police corruption is the fundamental cause of criminal activity, you might conclude that this matters because it suggests more spending should be channeled into municipal police training, and away from economic development programs. The “stakes” section can be tricky to write, but it is important, and will be vital to making the final paper compelling.
5 Pages Prospectus

Housing Bubble’s Causes and Impacts on Credit Crisis Report

Introduction It is vital for a writer to comprehend and appreciate the use of rhetorical strategies when compiling any rhetoric piece of work. Hence, the ideas and perspectives of the author can only be expressed when rhetoric strategies are applied in a given piece of work. As such, an author might employ various rhetorical tools depending on the purpose of writing the given piece of information. For instance, some authors may employ logos when they need to represent some statistics, solid evidence or facts. In some instances, ethos may be employed in a piece of writing to demonstrate various levels of credibility. The paper that I will analyze in this case was written way back in 2008. The paper is entitled A Summary of the Primary Causes of the Housing Bubble and the Resulting Credit Crisis: A Non-Technical Paper and written by Jeff. Holt. The author has worked as the Director for Undergraduate Programs, Department of Statistics at the University of Virginia. This paper aimed at demonstrating how the housing bubble led to credit crisis of 2007. The author was very formal throughout the article. He employed the third person point of view and presented facts and ideas in their empirical forms. In this paper, I will be exploring the rhetoric appeals and strategies that were used by the author when writing the journal article. Audience The intended audiences for this article are the financial business scholars and especially students who are undertaking business related courses at higher levels of learning. This can be judged from the content and arguments presented in the article. However, this paper was written with the instructor in mind. Even though my fellow classmates would benefit from the rhetorical analysis portrayed in the paper, the author was very keen in meeting the needs of the audience. The author intended to address the paper to all those interested in business concept. From the title of the journal, it is evident that it is a “non-technical paper”. Therefore, quite a wide array of readers can understand the content of the paper. Purpose The main purpose for writing this piece of assignment was to demonstrate to my instructor that I was indeed in a position to read, understand and rhetorically analyze a formal article using persuasive arguments. In addition, the assignment was also meant to test my critical thinking and analytical skills through a piece of writing. The author analyses the key reasons why the housing bubble occurred. From his analysis, I was able to write a clear yet detailed rhetorical analysis based on the journal article. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Context This is a class that we are usually tested on the ability to read, understand and analyze literary content. We were supposed to write a rhetoric analysis paper as part of class assignment given by our professor. We were also required to choose an appropriate article to analyze with the assistance of our instructors. In my case, I chose an online journal article entitled A Summary of the Primary Causes of the Housing Bubble and the Resulting Credit Crisis: A Non-Technical Paper and written by Jeff. Holt. The instructor also gave out the direction for constructing a rhetorical analysis paper using the triangle technique. The thesis of the paper was to investigate and demonstrate how the housing bubble led to the credit crisis of 2007 by exploring the rhetoric appeals and strategies that were used by the author when writing the journal article. Style The journal article was written using a formal style throughout the pages. The arguments and facts presented are also formal in nature. For instance, the author cites other accredited authors throughput the text. The author also used APA style for his references. Based on the content and purpose of the paper, I was supposed to write it using a formal style. In fact, I used formal citations in MLA style. This was necessary because the task was meant to test my ability to communicate, analyze and articulate ideas obtained from a formal document. Organization The paper was organized into three main parts with sub-sections as well. These were the introduction, six body paragraphs and a conclusion. Besides, a works cited list was included at the end of the paper. In the introductory part, sub-sections and sub-headings were used in order to make it easy for the reader to follow. The body had two major sections with each section sub-divided into three sections each containing a subheading. Rhetorical appeals Logos This can be defined as the use of logical appeals when presenting reasons, ideas, reasons, and facts and so on. Logos play the role of persuading the targeted audience to agree with the perspectives of the author. One of the Logos used by Holt is statistics. For instance, what caused the housing bubble? Housing prices were rather stable during the entire decade of the 1990s. For a period of about 8 years (1990-1997), homes prices recorded a marginal rise of 0.8%. The audience can logically understand the reason why the Federal Reserve funds rate had been lowered to about 1.25% before the start of 2003 and up to one percent by June 2003. In addition, it is also evident that the housing bubble caused a major instability in the mortgage market since the interest rates were grossly affected. Pathos Pathos tends to address emotional appeals presented in any piece of writing. Holt observes that “even though the U.S. savings rate was low during the housing bubble, an influx of saving entering the U.S. economy from countries such as Japan and China helped to keep mortgage interest rates low” (121). This implies that the credit crisis was occasioned by the immense housing bubble. We will write a custom Report on Housing Bubble’s Causes and Impacts on Credit Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The audience is in a position to acknowledge why the low mortgage rates of interest affected the short-term interest rates. During the entire period associated with housing bubble, the loans were advanced to borrowers in the most favorable manner since the terms and conditions were not very strict. Moreover, the author asserts that “mortgage interest rates were falling despite the low savings rate in the U.S. because of an influx of saving entering the U.S. from other countries” (Holt 121). In this case, he has used irrational exuberance to appeal to the emotional need of the audience when expounding the main pathos in the article. For example, irrational exuberance played a major part in housing bubble and consequent credit crisis since it entailed a lot of speculation in the mortgage industry. The author has managed to appeal to the audience by asserting that all the players who took part in the mortgage borrowing and lending assumed or speculated that home prices were bound to rise in the near future. In any case, home prices had never went down since the Great Depression era and therefore, all the major parties believed that such prices would never go down. Even the government regulators never made any attempt to control the rising prices for homes. The author has made it clear by asserting that investment bankers were also very keen in issuing mortgaged backed securities that were highly leveraged. Therefore, it may not be easy to recognize or even control irrational exuberance that accompanies price bubbles bearing in mind that housing was a pretty investment before the crisis began. Ethos The persona of the author usually reveals the ethos appeals portrayed in a piece of writing. This information is also contained in the course reader. It is the targeted audience that is supposed to depict the persona of the author. In other words, ethos can only appeal if the writer demonstrates adequate know-how of the information presented in an article, book or any other form of literature. Although the author has not put down his academic credentials, it is evident that he has vast knowledge in this subject area. For example, he demonstrates that the “standards for mortgage loans were relaxed as a result of the following factors: new governmental policies aimed at fostering an increase in home-ownership rates among lower-income households…” (Holt 124). When the terms and conditions of borrowing from the mortgage market were made more lenient, it became extremely easy for predict the condition of the market. Holt (120) also reiterates that “much of the financing that fed the housing bubble came from the unregulated “shadow banking system”. The targeted audience can clearly relate the housing bubble and the role of banks in the whole mess. The unregulated system was highly leveraged. However, a deleveraging cycle was later subsequently created by the banking system which was unregulated. Eventually, this scenario triggered and worsened the credit crisis. Hence, there was panic within the banking system. Hence, lenders were greatly hampered in terms of screening borrowers. Not sure if you can write a paper on Housing Bubble’s Causes and Impacts on Credit Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most of the lending was advanced to individuals without verifying their credit worthy levels. Nonetheless, research studies are yet to be undertaken to determine the actual cause and effect of the housing bubble in relation to credit crisis These are fine details that cannot be given by an individual who is not a specialist in that area. Since he has worked at the department of statistics, he must be knowledgeable enough. Rhetorical analysis Comparison and contrast The author has managed to develop similarities and difference between the housing bubble and credit crisis. According to Holt, “even though the U.S. savings rate was low during the housing bubble, an influx of saving…helped to keep mortgage interest rates low” (121). In terms of reduced interest rates that were being advanced for buying houses, the author notes that huge savings from foreign investors managed to keep the interest rates as low as possible. The audience is in a position to understand that savings obtained from worldwide sources provided minimal risk environment for investors. Borrowers ended up with huge borrowed amounts from various financiers in the mortgage market. By 2006, the influx of foreign savings in the US market had peaked to about six percent of the Gross Domestic product (GDP) compared to 1.5 percent way back in mid 1990s. Another comparison and contrast is evident where the Holt affirms that “investors in these countries sought investments providing low risk and good returns” (122). The author also observes that “home prices were still 57 percent higher than they had been in the 1 quarter of 1997” (Holt 121). Exemplification The author has used several examples to illustrate various assertions and points in the article. He observes that “For example, the monthly principal and interest payment on a $200,000 30-year fixed rate mortgage with an interest rate of 6 percent would be about $1,200” (Holt 123). Moreover, the author notes “for example, suppose XYZ Company invests $10 million in mortgage-backed securities (Holt 123). There are several illustrations with examples in the article. In case of any eventualities, these enterprises would be bailed out by the federal government. Cause and effect When the cause and effect tool is used well, it can significantly assist a writer to organize ideas in a holistic manner. For instance, there are several causes and effects for reduced interest rates on short term loans. Due to the 2001 recession, the Federal Reserve was compelled to lower the federal funds rate. This action aimed at strengthening the US economy which was already ailing (the cause part). Although this rate was marginally increased in 2004, it remained stable for about three consecutive years (the effect part) The reduced short-term rates of interest are believed to have contributed towards the hosing bubble in two main perspectives. Hence, several home buyers did not prefer fixed rate mortgages since they were not favorable. Conclusion From this rhetoric analysis paper, I have acquired a lot of knowledge on how various tools work for writers when presenting ideas on paper. Before the housing bubble could fully develop, the rates for mortgage loans were rather stable. In addition, the main purpose of writing this article was to demonstrate my ability to read, understand and write a rhetorical paper based on the analysis of a given text. From the journal article on housing bubble, the author offered a detailed description of why the housing bubble in the United States contributed to the 2007 credit crisis. Finally, the author suggested that the housing bubble was caused by various factors such as fair interest rates and irrational exuberance. Works Cited Holt, Jeff. A Summary of the Primary Causes of the Housing Bubble and the Resulting Credit Crisis: A Non-Technical Paper. The Journal of Business Inquiry 8(2009): 120-129. Print.