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Relationship Between Realism And Romance Oroonoko English Literature Essay

While Samuel Johnson’s short, 18th-century definition of a novel, ‘a small tale, generally of love’ [1] seems to fit Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko perfectly, it is clear on closer examination of the text that when looking at romance and realism, the definitions are more complicated, and the question remains as to which of these two genres Oroonoko truly belongs. J. A. Cuddon defined realism as a narrative ‘realistic within the limits of what it sets out to achieve’ [2] . Ian Watt, in his book The Rise of the Novel, went further, examining which components exactly made up realism. Regarding points such as ‘close attention to the passage of time’, the use of ‘common rather than conventional names’ and ‘characters drawn from a wide range of social classes’ [3] , it could be said that Oroonoko does not abide by these rules, but rather those concerning the ‘constant Loves and invincible Courages of Hero’s, Heroins, Kings and Queens’ [4] , which William Congreve argues are all components of a romance. Indeed, the royal status of the protagonist as well as the focus on his love for the beautiful Imoinda set Oroonoko up to be much more romantic than realistic; however, as Brean Hammond acknowledges, there are realistic elements too, specifically the references to real-life names and places – ‘the narrator often steps outside the frame of the fiction to refer to actual events and personalities in the London of the 1680s’ [5] . It seems more likely, therefore, that Behn has intentionally written a narrative for her reader to enjoy, as Cuddon claims, ‘whatever else a romance may be … it is principally a form of entertainment’ [6] while incorporating realistic elements to set her novella apart from the condemned romances and transport her reader realistically where the story means to take them. Cuddon also states that realism is ‘not concerned with idealization’ [7] and bearing this in mind we could immediately call Oroonoko and Imoinda romantic characters. Oroonoko, ‘pretty tall, but of a shape the most exact that can be fancied’ had a face ‘of a perfect ebony, or a polished jet… his nose was rising and Roman’ [8] . It is clear that this is a dramatically striking character, described so flawlessly that the reader cannot help but doubt its truth. Imoinda, too, his perfect counterpart, is an idealised version of a woman, ‘the beautiful black Venus, to our young Mars; as charming in her person as he’ [9] both in external beauty and internal virtue. These hyperbolic descriptions along with Oroonoko’s royal status as a prince emphasise the two protagonists as romantic characters; this is possibly Behn’s attempt to use romantic notions to promote important ideals to an audience who would enjoy reading the romanticism in the story. Oroonoko stands for chivalry, honour and fidelity, in comparison to the materialism of the colonists who are presented in more realistic terms, in a setting that seems to relate more to the notion of realism, ‘the everyday, the normal, the pragmatic’ [10] . Indeed, Behn claims that the last part of Oroonoko’s adventure ‘lies in a colony in America, called Surinam, in the West Indies’ [11] , a real location which puts the setting of the story in a more believable place, and therefore questions the consistency of this seemingly romantic novella. However, although this is the place that Behn refers to first, it is not where the story begins – Coramantien, though real, an ‘old world’ kingdom, seems more like a faraway, fantastical setting found in romance, with the old king, the prince and the harem of beautiful women. Cuddon claims romance ‘is usually concerned with characters (and thus with events) who live in a courtly world somewhat remote from the everyday. This suggests elements of fantasy… It also suggests elements of love’ [12] and this setting certainly seems in fitting with this description, while the unconditional bond of Oroonoko and Imoinda does not merely suggest love, but is the centre around which the novella revolves. Even when the setting shifts from Coramantien to Surinam, Behn adds an element of realism using the real names of places and people such as John Treffry – ‘the gentleman that bought him was a young Cornish gentleman, whose name was Trefry’ [13] – but the romantic notions are not completely obscured as there is the highly improbable coincidental meeting of Oroonoko and Imoinda to consider. The characters ‘wonder what strange fate had brought them again together’ [14] , and strange is clearly the word to describe the meeting; Brean Hammond argues reasonably that ‘Oroonoko, sold into slavery, arrives at precisely the same plantation as Imoinda has been taken to, which is the kind of coincidence that occurs in romance rather than in “real life”‘ [15] . It is true that while there is overwhelming evidence of romanticism in Oroonoko, Behn certainly tries to create a sense of realism in places, such as the reference to real people and places as mentioned above, as well as referring to her own supposed eye-witness accounts of happenings. Hammond goes on to say ‘there are ‘realistic’ elements in tension with these romance conventions. The narrator often steps outside the frame of the fiction to refer to actual events and personalities in the London of the 1680s; and inside the fiction there are topographical descriptions, accounts of native customs and habits that seem authentic’ [16] and it seems that Behn’s first person narrative relating the story of Oroonoko effectively gives some sense of authenticity to the story. Even her opening line, ‘I do not pretend… to entertain my reader with the adventures of a feigned hero’ [17] , claims that she is relating a true story, and she goes on to establish herself as sympathetic to the romantically perfect Oroonoko, so keeping the reader on her side, as well as relating some parts in first person, as to show that she, the trusted narrator, had contact with this too-good-to-be-true prince, and give it more credibility – ‘I was obliged… to discourse with Caesar’ [18] . By intentionally combining romantic notions with a sense of realism, Behn successfully portrays important values through her beautiful characters while adding credibility to her narrative with her references to real places, people and probably objects that she herself had seen or owned. At the time that this novella was written, it would have been more accepted to write a realistic story than a romantic one which had become associated with implausibility and over-the-top pleasurable literature. Of course, the gruesome end to the perfect couple reinstates the idea that it is not fully romantic, and Behn strives to reach a wider audience by combining all these factors of romance and realism into an accessible, enjoyable novella with believable and indeed some completely real elements.

Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods, which we’ll call “guns” and “butter.”

Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods, which we’ll call “guns” and “butter.”.

I’m working on a macro economics question and need support to help me learn.

The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.Late submission will NOT be accepted.Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.Assignment 1 Question-Chapters: 1, 2, 3 & 4: – [5 Marks]Q1: Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods, which we’ll call “guns” and “butter.” [2 Marks]A)Draw a production possibilities frontier for guns and butter. Using the concept of opportunity cost, explain why it most likely has a bowed-out shape.B)Show a point that is impossible for the economy to achieve. Show a point that is feasible but inefficient.C)Imagine that the society has two political parties, called the Hawks (who want a strong military) and the Doves (who want a smaller military). Show a point on your production possibilities frontier that the Hawks might choose and a point the Doves might choose.D)Imagine that an aggressive neighboring country reduces the size of its military. As a result, both the Hawks and the Doves reduce their desired production of guns by the same amount. Which party would get the bigger “peace dividend,” measured by the increase in butter production? Explain.Q2: Suppose that there are 10 million workers in Canada and that each of these workers can produce Either 2 cars or 30 bushels of wheat in a year. [2 Marks]A)What is the opportunity cost of producing a car in Canada? What is the opportunity cost of producing a bushel of wheat in Canada? Explain the relationship between the opportunity costs of the two goods.B)Draw Canada’s production possibilities frontier. If Canada chooses to consume 10 million cars, how much wheat can it consume without trade? Label this point on the production possibilities frontier.C)Now suppose that the United States offers to buy 10 million cars from Canada in exchange for 20 bushels of wheat per car. If Canada continues to consume 10 million cars, how much wheat does this deal allow Canada to consume? Label this point on your diagram. Should Canada accept the deal?Q3: Suppose the demand function for corn is Qd = 10 − 2p, and supply function is Qs = 3p − 5. The government is concerned that the market equilibrium price of corn is too low and would like to implement a price support policy to protect the farmers. By implementing the price support policy, the government sets a support price and purchases the extra supply at the support price. In this case, the government sets the support price ps = 4. [1 Mark](a)Calculate the original market equilibrium price and quantity in absence of the price support policy.(b)At the support price ps = 4, find the quantity supplied by the farmers, the quantity demanded by the market, and the quantity purchased by the government.Answer:
Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods, which we’ll call “guns” and “butter.”


research paper help Frankenstein. Introduction The Industrial Revolution was the cause of a great time of change, also referred to in literary circles as the Victorian period. The comfortable old social and cultural norms were being challenged in ways that had never before been experienced as new technology in the form of machines, and modern social structures in the form of growing cities emerged as driving forces in many people’s everyday lives. “By the beginning of the Victorian period, the Industrial Revolution, as this shift was called, had created profound economic and social changes, including a mass migration of workers to industrial towns, where they lived in new urban slums” (“The Victorian Age,” 2007). The rising middle class began breaking down the old class structure that had formed the backbone of European society for so much of its history just as advances in technology and machinery touched off new debate regarding the existence of the soul and the nature of God. More about Frankenstein How Many Frankenstein Plays Exist? 5 17 What Tale Did Frankenstein’s Monster Tell Victor? 5 20 What Does the “Frankenstein Complex” Mean? 5 26 How Is the Theme of Horror in Frankenstein Revealed? 5 20 Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution touched off new debate as well regarding the integrity of the Bible itself. With the availability of new jobs in the cities, traditional women’s roles were also being challenged as more and more young women sought better futures for themselves within the factory setting. The public was becoming more and more involved in the debates being waged, particularly as newspapers and other periodicals became more prevalent with the introduction of the printing press, introducing and maintaining widespread discourse in the political and social issues of the day. “The Victorian novel, with its emphasis on the realistic portrayal of social life, represented many Victorian issues in the stories of its characters” (“The Victorian Age,” 2007). The Issues of the Enlightenment in Mary Shelley’s Novel Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein explores many of these issues of the enlightenment, eventually seeming to conclude that it was not the positive motion it was assumed to be. Victor Frankenstein suffers from a severe lack of foresight or heedfulness in his endeavors. Goodson (1996) suggests that perhaps this was the result of Victor’s inner desolation and search for fulfillment and enlightenment. While he was creating his creature, he could only envision something beautiful and pleasant even though his instructors had warned him of the unnatural teachings of those ‘pseudo-scientists’ he had admired in his earlier years. “The ancient teachers of this science,’ said he [Frankenstein’s first professor], ‘promised impossibilities, and performed nothing. The modern masters promise very little; they know that metals cannot be transmuted and that the elixir of life is a chimera” (Shelley, 1993: 40). He purposefully and intentionally turned his back on the natural world as a means of concentrating on discovering the secret of bringing life to inanimate material, a process in which he was “forced to spend days and night in vaults and charnel-houses. Further Research Is Frankenstein a True Story? 5 15 In What Way Did the Monster Take Revenge of Frankenstein? 5 48 What Was Victor Frankenstein’s Curse? 5 26 How Did Young Frankenstein Spend His Childhood Years? 5 25 My attention was fixed upon every object the most insupportable to the delicacy of the human feelings” (Shelley, 1993: 45) while “my eyes were insensible to the charms of nature” (Shelley, 1993: 49). Thus, Shelley is seen to structure her novel around some of the more concerning features of her time period. That was primarily the emergence of the factory and the machines replacing human workers in what was becoming a frightening question regarding the worth of a human. Knowledge as a Frankenstein’s Theme Despite the few warnings he’d received and the obvious challenge to the natural order of things, Frankenstein continued his search for in-depth knowledge. He continued to work on the creature he had started, continued to envision it as a beautiful thing that would give all homage to him and remained unable to foresee the true nature of what he was doing until it was too late. The living monster stood facing him in all its horrendous grotesqueness. Shelley’s protagonist makes a bid for knowledge beyond that of the ‘modern man’ when he attempts to create life on his terms, seeking enlightenment as it was then defined. “Victor Frankenstein, the ‘modern Prometheus’ seeks to attain the knowledge of the Gods, to enter the sphere of the creator rather than the created” (Bushi, 2002). This is in keeping with the signs of the times in which men continued to work on new designs for machines that were intended to replace the hands and minds of human workers within the factories. Like these men who created machines that performed more uniform work at faster rates for less expenditure, Frankenstein envisioned himself creating a better human than the one created by God, presuming he could somehow circumvent the powers of nature established by God to impose the better, stronger and more economic powers of man. “The deification of science, as described in Shelley’s work, depends upon the defiance of God. Victor is at first charmed by natural science because of the grand dreams of its masters in seeking power and immortality” (Bushi, 2002). In his pursuit of knowledge, Frankenstein is able to ultimately push aside any of the compunctions against his actions that normal men may face, braving the worms and other decaying matter of the charnel houses to develop his messy workshop in which he pieces together his oversized creation using terms that are as applicable to the feminine role of procreation as well as the mechanic’s role of machination. This, too, is consistent with the times. “The comment that seems evident in Frankenstein is that God has abandoned Man; the progression of history sees Man abandon God in the Victorian era” (Bushi, 2002). This was the process of enlightenment and, because of its inherent separation from God, is shown to have failure as its hallmark and trading card. In the end, of course, the creation of the monster leads to chaos and the ruin of Frankenstein’s entire family, beginning with the most innocent. Frankenstein’s search for the knowledge of the gods has led only to the destruction of his soul. The Creature as the Product of the Enlightenment The creature, the product of the enlightenment, is unable to exist in the world where he has been released. He is neither male nor female living in a world in a world unprepared to accept him as he is. Yousef (2002) suggests a significant part of the problems faced by the monster stemmed from his unenlightened status based upon his appearance and upon his enlightened status based upon his understanding of continued rejection. He is the only one of his kind and quickly comes to the realization that without a balancing influence, there is no means by which he will be able to find peace. “You must create a female for me, with whom I can live in the interchange of those sympathies necessary for my being” (Shelley, 2004: 195). He has learned the necessity of the balancing influence of family, which is brought by the natural order of the family, consisting of a man and a woman, by watching the De Lacy family after having been abandoned by his creator at the university and having struggled through the wilderness in ignorance. More on the Topic How Does Elizabeth Die in Frankenstein? 5 81 Who Killed William in Frankenstein? 5 453 What Does Frankenstein Do after His Creation Comes to Life? 5 758 In Frankenstein, Who Cares for Victor When He Is Stricken with a Fever? 5 78 Within the greater society, the creature has even less chance of being heard than the female, as is proven when he attempts to converse with the blind De Lacy father yet is silenced by the screams of the De Lacy children upon their early arrival home. The creature of Frankenstein is a symbol in his mere existence. As the technologically produced, free-thinking, and self-aware being that he is, he represents the concept of man’s science taking over the reproductive powers of women, supplanting the natural role and removing the feminine from the equation altogether. As a symbol of enlightenment, he illustrates that man knows not what he does. This produces horrific results both physically and psychologically, that quickly escalate much further out of control than could have been originally imagined. Conclusion Throughout the novel, technology is shown to be man’s attempt to harness the female and the natural in ever tighter constraints even while society seemed to be embracing the uncontrolled experiment of enlightenment that was sweeping the developed nations at this time. Through characters such as Justine, Shelley tried to indicate how women were effectively silenced for no other reason than they were women while technology, in the symbol of the monster, was able to wander free and create mischief at will. Frankenstein’s exploration into the arcane knowledge and pursuit of enlightenment is seen to destroy his soul, his family, and his science even though he succeeds in bringing about life not directly created by God. The creature becomes not only man’s attempts to supplant and destroy nature, but also the object lesson of the evils of such attempts as the balance of nature is upset. In the end, Victor argues in favor of the natural order of things, urging his fellow man not to make the same disastrous mistakes he’s made in his attempts to attain the ultimate enlightenment. References Bushi, Ruth. “The Author is Become a Creator-God: The Deification of Creativity in Relation to Frankenstein.” Mary Shelley and Frankenstein. (2002). April 6, 2008 Goodson, A.C. “Frankenstein in the Age of Prozac.” Literature and Medicine. Vol. 15, N. 1, (Spring 1996): 16-32. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1993. “(The) Victorian Age.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2007. Yousef, Nancy. “The Monster in a Dark Room: Frankenstein, Feminism and Philosophy.” Modern Language Quarterly. Vol. 63, N. 2, (June 2002): 197-226. Frankenstein

COMM GCC Role of Punctuation in Maintaining or Destroying Relationships Responses

COMM GCC Role of Punctuation in Maintaining or Destroying Relationships Responses.

I’m working on a communications discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Plz answer below questions, and also plz reply to four different students posts. This is just weekly discussion, so the reply to the students doesn’t have to be long. 2-3 sentences are fine!Consider the following questions: How does perception affect the way we react to potentially uncomfortable situations?What role does punctuation play in maintaining or destroying relationships?Student#11. Perception may affect the way we react to uncomfortable situations because it is possible that it is our perception that is making the situation uncomfortable. Let’s say for example if we are perceiving that someone is trying to flirt with us or come onto us, we may feel uncomfortable when really they may just be trying to be nice. It’s important to keep an open mind and try not to let our perceptions get the best of us. 2. Punctuation is can both maintain and destroy a relationship. It’s all about how you communicate the things that bother you. Are you going to talk about it with your partner, or blame your partner? Are you going to solve the problem, or fight while keeping the problem unresolved? Student#2 The way each of us reacts to an uncomfortable situation can depend on how each of us perceives it. I always say to be open to everyone, because we all grew up or were affected in different ways that include no hatred. Voicing on something that you don’t understand or accidental may shift the perception others would have of yourself.Punctuation can play a role in maintaining a relationship or destroying a relationship. It can be maintained by seeing the shift in results in a way of good understanding or reasoning. Although, it may lead to blame or defense of the person standing in the argument. I feel most arguments It is understandable that no one wants to be wrong in an argument, but this is just damage.Student#31. Perception affects the way we react in uncomftorable situations because it makes situations harder to understand. For example if you think your significant other is focused on friends rather than you then the way you act around their friends will be based on the perception.2. Punctuation can play both roles based on the people. When people argue they blame it on the person they are fighting with and just makes it way harder to communicate because everyone is in a bad mood. Student#41.- Our perception can make things more difficult and turn it into uncomfortable situations, for example if we get into an argument with a friend maybe we both have different perceptions of the problem, maybe I believe that what I am thinking is correct but the my friend is thinking that she is right and I am wrong, this can be a big problem and make the argument bigger.2.-Punctuation is how we see an on-going argument and how we perceive who stared the argument. I believe that punctuation can maintain or break a relationship if your partner and you have good communication and know how to solve your problems accepting who started first and who is wrong, but for this you need to think neutrally without seek personal gain, but also punctuation can destroy a relationship if during the argument we blame our partner for starting the argument and do not accept if we are wrong.
COMM GCC Role of Punctuation in Maintaining or Destroying Relationships Responses

CRJ 180 Strayer University Combating Juvenile Delinquency Discussion

CRJ 180 Strayer University Combating Juvenile Delinquency Discussion.

I’m working on a criminal justice report and need support to help me understand better.

Combating Juvenile DelinquencyOverviewIn this assignment, you will recommend improvements to a juvenile delinquency prevention program.Use the Internet or the Strayer University databases to research your community’s current efforts to deter or prevent juvenile delinquency through incarceration programs or other sanctions.InstructionsWrite a 2–3 page paper in which you:Identify at least two juvenile delinquency reduction efforts or programs currently in operation in your community.Determine the main sociological theories that underlie these interventions that shape your community’s public policy for delinquency prevention.Propose one to two ideas that you believe would improve your community’s juvenile delinquency prevention efforts.Justify the response with examples that illustrate your ideas being used successfully in other communities.Use at least three quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Recommend improvements to a juvenile delinquency prevention program.
CRJ 180 Strayer University Combating Juvenile Delinquency Discussion

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