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Relationship between forgiveness, trust, resilience and stress

The amount of research in the area of forgiveness has recently increased due to the accepted notion that forgiveness has implications for mental health (Beaven, 1951; Emerson, 1964). Forgiveness is a complex construct (Enright and Fitzgibbons, 2000) that involves cognitive (Flanigan, 1992), affective (Malcolm and Greenberg, 2000), behavioural (Gordon et al., 2000), motivational (McCullough et al., 1997), decisional (DiBlasio, 1998), and interpersonal (e.g., Baumeister et al., 1998) aspects. This complex nature of forgiveness has lead to difficulties in researchers agreeing on a single precise definition of forgiveness. Instead focus is placed on what it is and what it is not, such that it is described as “letting go” of one’s anger or resentment (Baurnes, 1996) resulting in more positive feelings towards the transgressor (McCullough, 2000). However this is not simply a result of pardoning, condoning or forgetting (Enright and Coyle, 1998). Despite the agreement on single aspect of forgiveness the overall complexity of the construct continues to be a barrier to finding a consensual definition of forgiveness (Worthington, 1998). Further research into the field of forgiveness in individual differences is needed; better understanding of this concept and its relationships with other factors will highlight its effects on mental health and help to improve treatment. This discussion shall highlight areas which may be related to forgiveness, including age, gender, trust, stress, resilience, and positive and negative affect, and discuss the existing research in each of these areas. This will be followed by the rationale and aims of for this piece of exploratory research. Research indicates a difference in a forgiving disposition depending on age and gender. It has been reported that older people tend to be more forgiving (Toussaint et al., 2001; Girrard and Mullet, 1997), and less vengeful (Cota-McKinley, Woody,
Causes of the Financial Crisis. Research paper on the causes of financial crisis and why they are contagious: Use a financial crisis case study to highlight the answer. Introduction Financial crisis occurs when there is instability in the finance systems which pose danger to the economic, political, social and international affairs leading to decisive changes. It will reveal perspectives on the functioning situation of monetary economies. Financial crisis does not affect only the country itself; it is like a contagious disease that spreads to neighbouring environments and across to its partners especially in this modern time where the world is interconnected. It is financial mismanagement which leads quickly to economic destruction, diminishes individual and national wealth, lost growth, etc. It is an interruption to financial markets which is connected with falling asset prices that will result in the inability to pay debts among debtors and intermediaries that spread out through the financial system. By this happening it will cause disorder to the flow of markets capacity to pump capital within the economy. On the basis of international crisis, this commotion will overflow into national borders, causing disorder to the market’s ability to allot capital internationally. When this happens, no one takes blame or at least will admit that they foresee it coming. It causes a lot of violent changes around the country and across the globe with devastating consequences. On the aspect of Private and individuality; this will result to unemployment; people will not be able to find work, loss of properties, families will lose their homes to foreclosure process and many will be in arrears on their mortgage payments. Household wealth worth a lot of billions of Euros will disappear, life savings, retirement accounts all will go down the drain. Business and commerce; large and small businesses will feel the sting of the economic recession. Manufacturing will decline, global trade will diminish, and some will file for bankruptcy and be forced out of business (Angelides and Thomas, 2011) People will become angry about what is happening. Some people who have worked hard all their lives, obeyed the law and played by the rule will probably find themselves out of work and about to lose their family homes will not know what the future has in store for them. The segment who is mostly affected by any financial crisis is the private people and the communities. Businesses will move out of communities, banks will stop lending money; there will be shortage of cash flow, consumers reduce their spending and practically everything is at a standstill. The after effects/impacts of the crisis stays on and will be felt for decades to come, and rebuilding the economy takes a lot of hard work and dedicated efforts. In this research paper I will discourse the causes of financial crisis; what are the reasons why from time to time there is an economic recession, and enumerate why certain financial crisis are contagious. I will use the 2008 financial crisis as case study to illustrate my answer, and finally conclusion. Causes of financial crisis The causes of financial crisis could be a little complicated and not a very straight forward explanation could be given. It is a crisis on one hand that could be blamed on government action, and on the other hand, it could be blamed on government inaction (is not doing enough) but the bottom line is that it is a problem cause by human beings. It is not caused by nature or computer error. Financial crisis have occurred dozens of times since the seventeenth century (The Economist, Jan., 2009). Understanding financial crisis is crucial in avoiding them, but that leaves the question; why financial institutions and their agencies/bank regulators never see the possibility of crisis coming? The crisis that occurred in 2008 which was the most recent and will not most probably be the last was the most severe and the most global since the Great Depression of the 1930s. I must not fail to point out where this crisis started from or its origin. Financial crisis is always associated with the financial systems of global powers, and the one that happened in 2008 was no exception. Since the collapse of Soviet Union, United States has been the dominant superpower and while momentarily being the most influential and extremely powerful nation was full of assurance that economic liberalization and the rapid growth of communications technology would give the world economic expansion. The move towards integrated global economy has been instrumental in the amassing of wealth by a few individuals which has created inequality. In the process of the government trying to bring down the gap between the haves and have not’s in the US; some of the policies gave rise to the financial crisis. We human beings have always been obsessed with money, and have the excessive desire to acquire more of it. And generally people tend to spend more than they have; banks are willing to give loans and these loans some will be paid back and some will not be paid back, by so doing this is creating huge debts that have the potentiality to cause a dramatic effect to the financial set up of the country. This is part of the reasons why from time to time Central banks pumps money into the financial system so as to have enough money in circulation. Before the start of the crisis financial institutions (mortgage brokers and bankers) were high spirited and excited about the financial bubbles that they became very optimistic and began to take huge financial risks. The professionals put in charge to manage public finance tend to ignore warnings and fail to ask questions, and not able to manage evolving risks. Failures in the financial regulation and the lack for proper supervision: When it comes to finance, there must be laws and rules put in place to govern the procedures. These principles must be adhered to irrespective of personality or circumstances. Financial experts put in charge of all financial institutions must discharge their duties effectively and professionally by acknowledging that they are there foremost to protect public money and to regulate the financial system if possible overhaul them from time to time. Financial institutions should not regulate themselves. When financial institutions regulate themselves, security protection that ensures safety and avoid sudden and widespread disaster of public money could be removed or not followed strictly. With this approach trillions of dollars will be vulnerable. By governments allowing financial firms the choice to select their own preferred regulators to work with always results in the supervising being weak. In the financial system, regulators have lots of powers in different areas to protect it (the financial system) but out of their own reasons they do not do so, that is oversight. The collapse of the housing bubble: The financial crisis of 2008 which started in the US as the result of a downturn in real estate values caused primarily by rising defaults in subprime mortgages. The government encouraged financial institutions to make mortgage loans available to low income earners and the underprivileged in their various communities under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) in an effort to bridge racial equality and increasing homeownership by lending one hundred percent loans for mortgages with no down payments. In the past there had been charges of racial discrimination with regards to not approving housing loans to minorities and the low income earners. To facilitate the granting of this mortgage loans a lot of times did not require all necessary documentations from the borrower and their income details. In this case a lot of this underprivileged income earners were paid on cash basis, so there was no official evidence of verifying there actual income. But a lot of subprime lending did not take place under CRA sponsorship. Instead the majority occurred with Countrywide and New Century rather than commercial banks such as Wells Fargo, Citibank, and JPMorgan Chase (Friedman, 2011) There were lots of little programs developed by the US government at both the federal, state and local levels intended to encourage more people to buy homes, thereby channelling more artificial demand into the housing sector like The Pro-ownership Tax Code. Developers were frequently receiving hand outs, free land, new roads and tax privileges to build new homes. First-time homebuyers in some areas received thousands of dollars tax credit. There were special treatments in agreement to buy a home as an investment, for example if a couple bought a house for half a million dollars and sold it for one million they will not pay capital gains tax, but if that couple invest in business that same money in stock or any other business that is not real estate and later sell that business for profit they will pay capital gains taxes of fifteen percent. Woods Jr. (2009) in his publication said “it is not to suggest that any of these tax breaks are undesirable or should be repealed; a tax break is an oasis of freedom to be broadened, not a loophole to be closed. Instead they should be extended to as many other kinds of purchases as possible, in order not to provide artificial stimulus to any sector of the economy.” America’s Federal Reserve started the boom by increasing the supply of money through the banking system with the purpose to reduce interest rates. This system stimulated growth in the production of longer term projects such as construction, raw materials and capital goods. So this low interest rate made construction and real estate flourish vigorously in the early 2000. Real estate is not a common category of products that all consumers demand because of affordability in terms of credibility and finance. In order wards not enough consumers out there could afford to purchase expensive homes. So the Federal Reserve (Fed) came up the idea to increase money supply through banks, and banks with loose lending principles made home purchases went beyond the usual, and the notion of living the American dream was not far-fetched. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (Federal National Mortgage Association and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) including the Federal Housing Administration were all backed and sponsored by the Fed to be lending money to people who wanted to purchase houses. Criteria for lending were lowered and loans were approved at a record breaking level. All the new money that the Fed created was being routed into the housing market through their representative agencies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. This stimulus was the biggest that gave unnatural rise to the housing prices. Housing prices went up quickly instead of taking a gradual rising process supposedly with the rate of inflation or the rise in average incomes; the bubble eventually busted and the housing prices went down and this caused the housing market to collapse and recession followed; borrowers were prone to increasingly rising interest rates and falling home values, and could not be in a position to refinance their mortgages leading to higher monthly payments and constant failures to meet financial obligations resulting in foreclosures. Because of the causes arising from these defaults substantial amounts of low investment grade-rated mortgage-backed securities to default and the highest rated securities to be downgraded. The US government refusal to rescue the Lehman Brothers and eventually filed for bankruptcy was also another fall in abundance of hope. Financial institutions holding mortgage –backed securities started writing down their relative worth which made them to become more financially vulnerable, as a result causing concern over counterparty risk and as such organisations started withdrawing from doing business with them (Kolb, 2010) Financial institutions inclination on risk taking could cause financial crisis. There was a view that instincts for self-preservation inside major financial firms would shield them from fatal risk-taking without the need for a steady regulatory hand, which the firms argued, would stifle innovation (Angelides, Thomas, 2011) when financial institutions act recklessly by taking too much risk something is bound to happen, especially when institutions are involved in trading, and in trading, money can be made as well as lost, example, large investment banks and bank holding companies tend to centralise their activities more on risk trading activities that bring in heavy profits. They expose themselves to danger in acquiring and making loans to borrowers with poor credit rating. Some of these institutions grew competitively as a result of poorly executed acquisition and integration strategies that made effective management more challenging Financial institutions and some credit rating agencies are adopting mathematical models to be used as reliable predictors to predict risks, by so doing replacing judgement in a lot of occurrences. Before the financial crisis of 2008, the Republic of Ireland enjoyed a long period of economic boom, both in credit growth, bubbles in real estate, excellent and educated workforce, and an attractive location for inward investment especially from the US firms. These attracted people from all over the world to come and live in the country. Because of the rise in population there was urgent need for more houses to be built which brought growth to the construction industry and Ireland recorded the highest number of employment in the history of the state. All these led to the boost in the banking sector. The banks were willing to lend, in fact banks were literally forcing people to take loans even if they didn’t need them. Credit cards were being issued to customers as long as there was weekly income coming into their account despite the fact these customers did not request for credit card. Home owners mortgaged their homes. A lot of people were encouraged to buy houses; incentives were given to fist time buyers so as to motivate them. At the bust, the economy collapsed, companies started folding, people were made redundant, unemployment rose, banks started feeling the heat and government came to their rescue and bailed them out. A lot of money was pumped into real estate and prices of homes went up. As a result of banks’ lending money anyhow to people personal debts were rising faster than income and foreclosures everywhere. Banks stopped lending, and prices in the market dropped. The 2008 financial crisis was contagious spillover resulting from the United States subprime market. The cross-border processing was moving with great speed because of the close connections inside the financial set up and the powerfully organised supply chains in global product markets. Financial crisis of 2008 was contagious because we are now in a global market. There is evidence of significant increases in cross-market correlations in the more recent times. Global market, social media plays an effective roll, stock markets, single currency such as the Euro and the Eurozone, all trading at international level. What happens to one affects all. Conclusion Judging from a lot of the information surrounding the 2008 financial crisis and its causes, it was more like it happened mainly because of government oversight to supervise and monitor the financial experts and their institutions to constantly make sure they are in alignment with the regulatory systems is not appropriate; that seem to miss the whole point, but rather too many loans were issued on risky basis to unqualified customers that were not credit worthy, and the government fully aware of this encouraged and kept on pumping money into circulation for their political gain. The old ways of scrutinising applications for loans were abandoned by the lending institutions for a riskier method so that everyone get to live the American dream. Bibliography Angelides, P, Thomas, B (2011) The financial crisis inquiry report: Final report of the National Commission on the causes of the financial and economic crisis in the United States, Government Printing Office. Barton, D., Newell. R., Wilson, G. (2002) Dangerous markets: Managing in financial crisis John WileyCauses of the Financial Crisis
CNCC Infotech in A Global Economy & HTTP Web Authentication Server Report.

1). Job: Software developer
subject:infotech in a global economy
Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study.
Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.
Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.
Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.
Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment.
2) 600 words
The network restrictions surrounding the web authentication service is one layer of defense. As was noted, this component is too valuable to trust to a single defense. Furthermore, authentication requests are tendered by the least-trusted component in the architecture. That component, HTTP termination, resides on the least-trusted network. What additional steps can be taken?
This assignments should be in APA format and have to include at least two references.

CNCC Infotech in A Global Economy & HTTP Web Authentication Server Report

Effects of cocaine.

The Effects of Cocaine on the FamilyFind a scholarly journal article (NOT just information posted on a website!) that relates to the effects of cocaine use on the family/family system. Your article should be no more than 5 years old. Glance at your peer’s posts so that you do not duplicate articles. There is a wealth of information to draw from, so you do not need to repeat. Remember the LibGuide in the Resources folder for assistance!SUGGESTION: post your article title and author in the Subject of a post early in the week as a placeholder so that you will not duplicate articles (duplicate articles/posts will not receive credit); edit the post when you have read the article. Note: your “placeholder” does not meet the Thursday deadline requirement. Post a 8-10 sentence summary of what you learn from the article (i.e., main points), include the citation and a link to the article so that we all may read it. Attach the article to your post so that others may review and discuss in their peer posts. Note: do not simply look at the abstract and post some words that you see included there. Read the entire article and provide a solid summary/synthesis of the information in your post. Do not quote material from the article. I expect a well-developed, scholarly post for both your initial posting and your responses to peers.
Effects of cocaine

Amberton University Business Environmental Analysis Questions

Amberton University Business Environmental Analysis Questions.

Also see the Professor’s comments
Please write the questions out and then answer them one at a time. When you cite or paraphrase the text, please include the authors’ last names, the date of publication, and the page number in parentheses.)
1)    Describe a business environment, and then analyze it using the perceptual characteristics of environment (p.94-97.)
2)    Describe the architectural design and furniture within the environment.  Then analyze them using the material in the text (p. 94-121.)
3)  Based on the text material on perceptual characteristics, semi-fixed feature space, and fixed feature space, recommend ways to change this environment which would improve communication.(In addition to the material in the last question add pages 121-122)
4)  How does your office affect the communication that takes place there?  Could you improve it?  (Use the material in this entire chapter to answer this question.)
Title: Nonverbal Communication Author: Knapp, Hall, and Horan Publisher: Wadsworth Year Published: 2014 Edition: 8th ISBN: 10: 1133311598 or 13:9781133311591 Price: Available at
Amberton University Business Environmental Analysis Questions

RED 6493 AIU Focus Write Multistory Construction Article Summary

assignment writing services RED 6493 AIU Focus Write Multistory Construction Article Summary.

Objective: Understand how to teach English Language Learners (ELL’s) with TPRSView:Storytelling – The Best Language Learning Method Ever! (Links to an external site.)Read: Gaab, Language Magazine (Links to an external site.)Use this template to summarize and respond to the video and the reading in one Focus WriteFocus Write (a powerful summarization tool)Source:Summary:Main Points:Implication/ Applications:Favorite Quotes:Here is an example summarizing a book chapter:Source:Stanley, N. V. (2004). Teaching vocabulary and comprehension with poetry p. 77-89 in Creating readers with poetry. Gainesville, FL : Maupin HouseSummary:This chapter talks about how teachers can teach vocabulary and comprehension with poetry. Dr. Stanley goes into detail about how poetry teaches comprehension when he lists strategies for developing comprehension. Dr. Stanley mentions that in order to have a well-rounded student they need to be exposed to many different types of books. This chapter includes some lesson frameworks and some examples for mini lessons. Dr. Stanley also mentions the 5 W’s of comprehension which are: who, what, when, where, and why. He advocates using multicultural poetry.Main Points:Aesthetic stance meaning their attention is focused on associations, feelings, attitudes, and ideas.Intellectual stance is when their attention is on factual information.Strategies for developing comprehension:Comprehension monitoringCooperative learningStory structureSummarizationMultiple strategiesBefore reading the poem, build background, set a purpose, create interest, and make predictions.During the reading, the teacher can have the students repeat the poem silently and orally. Use Google translate to read poem in (i.e Spanish, French, Chinese) then English.After the reading do follow up instruction based on your running student observations.Focus writes help the teacher promote critical thinking, foster a sense of community, and develop he class into participatory democracy. More capable peers can translate ELL’s dictations to English and write for them.Implication/ Applications:I will have my students write in composition books, which will be their learning log. I want my students to be able to look back at their log and remember the poem. This journal might even include how the poem made the student feel. I also want my students to be able to try and write poems, so I will introduce found poems. Children can cut out magazine pictures or Google images to explain poems and foster comprehension for ELL’s.I will also want my students to work on vocabulary. Dr. Stanley had stated that the students with more vocabularies would read more and the students with smaller vocabularies read less. When I identify the students that have a smaller vocabulary, I will try to build their vocabularies up by having them read more books that expose the students to new vocabulary. Hopefully this technique works and my student’s vocabularies increase. I will have picture dictionaries for ELL’s. Favorite Quotes:Page 77- “I strongly believe that one of the most important things you can do to increase your student’s vocabulary is to provide them with lots of poetry that they can read for pleasure.”Page 77- “Poetry is an instrumental tool with which teachers can increase the amount of time students spend on reading and writing activities, thereby increasing vocabulary.
RED 6493 AIU Focus Write Multistory Construction Article Summary

STR 581 – Questions 1

STR 581 – Questions 1.

STR/581 – QUESTIONSAnswer the 6 questions below, each question must be a minimum of 200 words. Must be in APA format, please identify the questions on paper. Cannot accept more than 5% plagiarism, it will be submitted to TurnItIn.Must be answered in your own words, NO cut and pasted phrases or paragraphs — you can include the URL address so we can click and go to the site, but do not copy and paste (even with references and citations). This way we can avoid plagiarism as well as copyright issues.BOOK: Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson (2015). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization.: Concepts and Cases: 11th edition.Chapter 1:1. Describe the competitive landscape and explain how globalization and technological changes shape it.2. Explain the strategic management processChapter 10: 3. Describe how corporate governance fosters ethical decisions by a firm’s top-level managers.4. Discuss the nature and use of corporate governance in international settings, especially in Germany, Japan, and China.Chapter 12:5. Explain what must be done for a firm to sustain an effective culture.6. Describe the importance of strategic leaders in managing the firm’s resources.
STR 581 – Questions 1

Aims And Objectives For An Organisation

Researcher will fulfill the aim and objectives of the topic by elaborating the topic in depth as the aim and objective of the topic research is to know about the ways in which the employee’s motivation could be enhanced by implementing plenty of strategies. This research investigates the factors which effect motivation level of employees related to their behaviours particularly in work environment of corporate culture. The researcher aim is to research and explore the significance of certain motivational factors either intrinsic or extrinsic in satisfying and motivating employees in an organization. At the end the researcher draw some strategies for management department that how these strategies can improve the satisfaction and motivation of workforce. Following are the objectives of this research: To explore the factors which can motivate and satisfy the employees of a private and public organization? To explore the critically understanding about the employees motivation in the light of different theories. To explain the factors which affect some employees more motivated than others to do their job roles efficiently. To discuss the things which make some employees more or less satisfied in their work than others. Literature review Each body has his or her likes and dislike, interests, passions, craves and desires. The main role of the successful manager is to learn how to identify motivates each employee, and how to influence those motives to simultaneously fulfill the goal of the organization, as well as the goals of each employee. Motivation theories There are many theories at motivation given by the different authors that are elaborated below to catch the research topic in depth. The idea that all people have inner driving forces that motivates the people promptly to do certain activities. This is very old idea, in use long before the appearance of what we now call theories of motivation. There was the Hawthorne Studies (1939) which gave new thinking to the new school of management thinking, the human relations movement. The most ideas about it, are that the people have social needs that are as vital as the economic imperative. There are two groups of the theories known as process theory and content theory that are further extended. Content theory assumes that people strives to satisfy of deep rooted needs. While they differ in terms of their assumptions about the relative importance of different needs, it is the craves to satisfy them that is said to energize behavior. Maslow needs theory Maslow work (1954) is based on the assumption that human needs are inexhaustible. As one set of the needs is satisfied the anther set of need come to open in its place which means that needs are arranged in a hierarchy as shown below in the form of pyramid of five levels. Here physiological needs are most basic of all and arise from internal physical imbalance such as hunger, thirst, warmth and shelter. Security needs are promoted by the strong and hard social nature, freedom from pain or destruction, emotional security and well being. Affiliation needs are promoted by the strong security nature. As most of the people enjoy feeling of love, like relation and support from others. Maslow theory has a number of highly important assumptions, two of which have significant implication for the motivation. He argues that different level of needs are universally addressed sequentially that mean the needs are one level will not normally play a vital part in motivation. Strong issues The idea that the hierarchy is universally applicable no account of cross culture difference. It is patronizing and elitist in term of the values it expresses. Maslow ideas have a mystic, metaphysical quality that is largely the result of armchair theorizing and often contradicted by the research evidence. Alderfer ERG theory In 1972, he also introduced the idea of hierarchical ordering but this has only three levels. Existence Relatedness Growth In his theory, different levels are viewed more as a continuum than as discrete categories. He does not measure a sequential progression up the hierarchy, but permits for more than one level to be open or active at same time. Although he suggested that satisfaction of needs at one level will lead to the someone seeking satisfaction at the level above. Issue Alderfer theory has got little empirical testing beyond that done by its author. He argues that the theory could be a more powerful but empirical elaboration of the effects of needs than Maslow ideas (Alderfer 1972). Herzberg two factor theory Motivators’ link to the factors which are intrinsic in nature like appreciation for a job task done is highly motivating. While hygiene factors referred to extrinsic forces e.g. relationship with colleagues which don’t actually relate to the employee’s actual job. According to Mullins (1993) intrinsic or motivators factors are attach to work content and lack of intrinsic or motivators factors doesn’t demonstrate extremely de-motivating or dissatisfying. For that reason, these elements are expressed as motivators or satisfier. The hygiene factors linked to the work conditions. These factors do not direct to the enlarged satisfaction or work participation though, if these factors are not found or absent then the effects will be de-motivation and dissatisfaction for example low wage rates. Because these factors are essential to the extent of no de-motivation or dissatisfaction these are called the hygiene or dissatisfiers factors (Leopold, 2002). According to Rainey (1999) the hygiene or dissatisfiers are the factors which are not directly concerned in motivation of employees but it’s interesting that these factors are important to give a sound base to beat the employee dissatisfaction and de-motivation. However, it’s not essential that if we improve the hygiene or dissatisfiers factors that result in motivation. Herzberg represented a theory in the light of employee’s performances and attitudes which is called Herzberg’s two factor theory. Herzberg recognized two categories of factors which influenced the work and motivation. First category of sets called hygiene factors and the other set of factors called motivators factors. Hygiene factors contain employment security, pay, organizational policy, status and interpersonal working relationships. Absence of hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction and de-motivation at work place. Motivator factors include success, development, nature of work it-self, respect, recognition and responsibility. Absence of motivator factors caused motivation and satisfaction (Leopold, 2002). Figure 1 is the pictorial form of these factors as followings. Issues There are some issues allocated by some researcher about Herzberg’s theory that the finding gathered from a small number of samples can be generalized to the whole industry. For instance, the outcomes from the research on a small engineering unit could be applied to other professions or not. Other scholars are not happy with the Herzberg’s methodology and procedure followed for conducting the research because that research methodology involved individual to consider the critical incidences from their past which make them either delighted or sad. Some other researcher are also not in his favor that Herzberg’s theory was not give any clear justification that why some intrinsic and extrinsic factors motivate or satisfy the individual and why influence their work (Rousseau,1997). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Employee motivation at work can be split up into two kinds on the behalf of classic literature and practical research as one is extrinsic motivation and second is intrinsic motivation (Donovan, 2001). Extrinsic motivation is a form of motivation where employees fulfill its needs and desires through indirect means particularly through the financial compensation, In point of Thomas (2000) view. On the other side, intrinsic motivation come into action when employee’s behavior is inclined towards the fulfillment of natural psychological desires and needs rather than to attain material incentives (Marks, 2001). In all form of organizations small, medium or even large both extrinsic and intrinsic types of motivation can motivate and satisfy employees to perform their job at work place. However, extrinsic and intrinsic motivations both have very diverse effects on the individual mind-sets, feelings to job performance, passion to complete work and level excellence for performance (Amabile, 1998). Hoar